Imperial College London

DrCatherineMulligan

Business School

Casual - Visiting lect, guest spkr, ext. examiner
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 2916c.mulligan

 
 
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Location

 

Business School BuildingSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

74 results found

Mulligan C, Silva T, Jorge J, 2023, A research agenda for NFTs, IEEE Computer, Vol: 56, Pages: 80-90, ISSN: 0018-9162

Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) could potentially have a broader transformational effect than mere blockchain because they challenge the traditional notions of ownership and is, therefore, a more fundamental challenge to our established economic and social structures. This paper provides a systematic review of the NFT literature outlining the research opportunities for NFTs.

Journal article

Mulligan C, Morsfield S, Chikosman E, 2023, Blockchain for sustainability: a systematic literature review for policy impact, Telecommunications Policy, ISSN: 0308-5961

Blockchain technology has been proposed to achieve sustainable development through various solutions, such as carbon credit trading, energy systems and supply chain management. While existing literature has not covered this topic in a structured fashion, this paper provides insights to policymakers on how blockchain can deliver sustainable development. This study conducted a systematic literature review on the role of blockchain technologies in assisting policymakers in achieving ESG and environmental sustainability goals. The paper performs a detailed PRISMA SLR analysis of 10,188 technical and policy papers sourced from Scopus and IEEE databases to ensure high-quality inputs and breadth of coverage across relevant sources. In addition, the study reviews the relevant regulatory environment related to ESG, including SDGs, IPCC, COP 27, ESMA, ISSB, SEC, GRI, TCFD, ESRS, IFRS S1 and S2 and CRSD. Most papers do not outline a structured approach to applying blockchain in the emerging regulatory environment. Our paper outlines recommendations to policymakers wishing to ensure that the blockchain research community and solutions proposed are usefully directed to enable the world to achieve its net zero goals.

Journal article

Mulligan C, Cheikosman E, 2023, Guidelines for improving blockchain’s environmental, social and economic impact, Guidelines for improving blockchain’s environmental, social and economic impact

The world’s energy system is in dire crisis, and developing the capacity to deliver net zero over the next decade may be the most important transition that humanity has ever needed to make. Blockchain technology could potentially improve the energy sector by enabling more efficient and secure transactions, as well as promoting other industries’ decentralisation and encouraging the use of renewable energy sources. However, to avoid unintended negative consequences, it is important to address issues such as high energy consumption and the potential concentration of control in the use of blockchain for energy. Additionally, careful consideration should be given to the governance and regulation of blockchain in the energy sector to ensure its responsible use.Blockchain has the potential to revolutionise the energy sector by enabling the creation of decentralised, efficient and secure systems for managing energy production, distribution and consumption. Through smart contracts, blockchain can facilitate peer-to-peer trading of energy, making it easier for individuals and businesses to generate and sell renewable energy to their neighbours. This can lead to the more efficient use of renewable energy sources and reduce reliance on centralised energy providers.The overall objectives of this report are: to outline guiding principles and provide an overview of the current state of play related to the environmental impact of certain blockchain technologies; to outline a potential approach for a unified impact assessment that balances economic, environmental and social perspectives so that blockchain companies and solutions are ready for the upcoming regulation, rather than lagging behind it; and to illustrate examples of where and how blockchain has been effectively applied to both demand and supply issues of investment in energy and blockchain, moving towards net-zero solutions.

Report

catherine M, Mulligan C, 2023, Hitting the triple bottom line: widening the HCI approach to sustainability, CHI '22: CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Publisher: Association for Computing MachineryNew YorkNYUnited States, Pages: 1-19

Sustainable Development (SD) in its dimensions – environment, economy, and society – is a growing area of concern within the HCI community. This paper advances a systematic literature review on sustainability across the Sustainable Human-Computer Interaction (SHCI) body of work. The papers were classified according to the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) framework to understand how the pillars of SD play into the HCI discourse on sustainability. The economic angle was identified as a gap in SHCI literature. To meet the TBL of SD, however, a balance needs to be sought across all ‘lines’. In this paper, we propose that HCI can advance the discussion and the understanding of the economic concepts around sustainability through taking a sociology perspective on the economic angle of the TBL. We sustain this claim by discussing economic concepts and the role that digital can play in redefining the established foundations of our economic system.

Conference paper

Mulligan C, Elaluf-Calderwood S, 2022, AI ethics: a framework for measuring embodied carbon in AI systems, AI and Ethics, Vol: 2, Pages: 363-375, ISSN: 2730-5961

This paper outlines the ethical implications of AI from a climate perspective. So far, much of the discussion around AI ethics have focused on bias, unexplainable outcomes, privacy and other social impacts of such systems. The role and contribution of AI towards climate change and the ethical implications of its contribution to an unjust distribution of impact on the planet, humans and flora and fauna have not yet been covered in detail within the technical community. Within this paper, we aim to raise some of the issues of AI associated with climate justice and we propose a framework that will allow the AI and ICT industries to measure their true impact on the planet, propose an organisational structure to take this work forward and propose future research areas for this important topic.

Journal article

Kazim E, Fenoglio E, Hilliard A, Koshiyama A, Mulligan C, Trengove M, Gilbert A, Gwagwa A, Almeida D, Godsiff P, Porayska-Pomsta Ket al., 2022, On the sui generis value capture of new digital technologies: the case of AI, Patterns, Vol: 3, ISSN: 2666-3899

Digital technologies are emerging at a fast rate, with applications ranging from farming to recruitment. Much of the research on these technologies has concerned optimization and applications, with less focus on the regulation and governance of these systems and how they might bring about foundational and theoretical shifts. Indeed, much of the literature is concerned with forwarding technical approaches, and the potential opportunities and harms, without offering theoretical or philosophical perspectives; few have asked what a digital thing is, what the ontological nature and state of phenomena produced and expressed by digital things are, and if there are distinctions between the conceptions of digital and non-digital technologies. We forward this discussion by investigating the question of what value is being expressed by an algorithm, which we conceptualize in terms of a digital asset, which we define as a valued digital thing that is derived from a particular digital technology.

Journal article

Fortes S, Haque I, Misra P, Rose Let al., 2022, INTERNET OF THINGS, IEEE COMMUNICATIONS MAGAZINE, Vol: 60, Pages: 48-48, ISSN: 0163-6804

Journal article

Mulligan C, Kelly F, 2021, Digital Entrepreneurship: Ensuring True Compliance with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Entrepreneurs are often called upon to help deliver the innovation required to ensure the world meets the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGS were approved in 2015 but progress towards them remains too slow. While the SDGs provide admirable aims and goals, they remain high level and provide little real insight about how they can and should be achieved. The KPIs that have been defined by the UN are measured at national and regional levels, making it difficult for entrepreneurs to genuinely engage in their deliver other than as a marketing tool. With digital technologies, this is compounded by both the cross-boundary nature of the issues the SDGs try to address and the role of ICT as a General-Purpose Technology (GPT) that cuts across all of the SDGs. ICT can therefore both hinder and help progress towards the SDGs. As a result, entrepreneurs can find it difficult to truly design solutions for SDGs or measure efforts to achieve them. Other methods such as the triple bottom line take a lot of effort and specialised knowledge to properly implement. This paper outlines a framework to assist Entrepreneurs working with digital technologies to understand their sustainability implications across the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) and to fine tune their solutions for sustainable development in a simplified manner, usable by entrepreneurs and tested across several countries.

Conference paper

Mulligan C, Godsiff P, Brunelle A, 2020, Boundary spanning in a digital world: the case of blockchain, Frontiers in Blockchain, Vol: 3, ISSN: 2624-7852

Blockchain is a relatively new technology that is often described as “creating trust” or “removing intermediaries.” In this paper, we posit that blockchain is a new form of digitally enabled boundary spanning that allows co-ownership models for the companies in question. Where companies have traditionally employed humans to act as interfaces to the external world, new digital technologies enable a digitized approach to many corporate operations that require interaction toward the external market and environment within which firms must operate. Blockchain is a special subset of digital technologies in this regard, enabling companies to co-operate to control parts of the market and to internalize transaction costs that until now have been a market function: using blockchain companies effectively create a new transaction boundary that means boundary spanning activities can be deeply embedded in core business functions, rather than kept as peripheral actions. This digitally enabled boundary spanning is a key attribute of the emerging digital economy. Understanding its implications is of critical importance for economics, business, and social science literature.

Journal article

Spanaki K, Gürgüç Z, Mulligan C, Lupu ECet al., 2019, Organizational cloud security and control: a proactive approach, Information Technology and People, Vol: 32, Pages: 516-537, ISSN: 0959-3845

PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to unfold the perceptions around additional security in cloud environments by highlighting the importance of controlling mechanisms as an approach to the ethical use of the systems. The study focuses on the effects of the controlling mechanisms in maintaining an overall secure position for the cloud and the mediating role of the ethical behavior in this relationship.Design/methodology/approachA case study was conducted, examining the adoption of managed cloud security services as a means of control, as well as a large-scale survey with the views of IT decision makers about the effects of such adoption to the overall cloud security.FindingsThe findings indicate that there is indeed a positive relationship between the adoption of controlling mechanisms and the maintenance of overall cloud security, which increases when the users follow an ethical behavior in the use of the cloud. A framework based on the findings is built suggesting a research agenda for the future and a conceptualization of the field.Research limitations/implicationsOne of the major limitations of the study is the fact that the data collection was based on the perceptions of IT decision makers from a cross-section of industries; however the proposed framework should also be examined in industry-specific context. Although the firm size was indicated as a high influencing factor, it was not considered for this study, as the data collection targeted a range of organizations from various sizes.Originality/valueThis study extends the research of IS security behavior based on the notion that individuals (clients and providers of cloud infrastructure) are protecting something separate from themselves, in a cloud-based environment, sharing responsibility and trust with their peers. The organization in this context is focusing on managed security solutions as a proactive measurement to preserve cloud security in cloud environments.

Journal article

Mulligan C, 2019, Blockchain and sustainable growth, UN chronicle, Vol: 55, Pages: 47-49, ISSN: 0251-7329

We are at a unique moment in history: our society is in transition from an industrial economy to one defined by a new set of technologies, ranging from digitalization to nanotechnology. Among the latest waves of digitalization is blockchain—a technology that many say promises to redefine trust, transparency and inclusion across the world. Blockchain, however, is a relatively immature technology and can create as many problems as it solves. What it has offered so far is a series of key insights into emerging technologies and how we can approach them in a rapidly changing world.

Journal article

Rommer S, Hedman P, Olsson M, Frid L, Sultana S, Mulligan Cet al., 2019, 5G core networks: Powering digitalization, ISBN: 9780081030097

5G Core Networks: Powering Digitalization provides an overview of the 5G Core network architecture, as well as giving descriptions of cloud technologies and the key concepts in the 3GPP rel-15/16 specifications. Written by the authors who are heavily involved in development of the 5G standards and who wrote the successful book on EPC and 4G Packet Networks, this book provides an authoritative reference on the technologies and standards of the 3GPP 5G Core network. Content includes: • An overview of the 5G Core Architecture • The Stand-Alone and Non-Stand-Alone Architectures • Detailed presentation of 5G Core key concepts • An overview of 5G Radio and Cloud technologies Learn • The differences between the 5G Core network and previous core network generations • How the interworking with previous network standards is defined • Why certain functionality has been included and what is beyond the scope of 5G Core • How the specifications relate to state-of-the-art web-scale concepts and virtualization technologies • Details of the protocol and service descriptions • Examples of network deployment options.

Book

Tsiatsis V, Karnouskos S, Holler J, Boyle D, Mulligan Cet al., 2019, ARCHITECTURE REFERENCE MODEL, INTERNET OF THINGS: TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS FOR A NEW AGE OF INTELLIGENCE, 2ND EDITION, Publisher: ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC, Pages: 181-234

Book chapter

Tsiatsis V, Karnouskos S, Holler J, Boyle D, Mulligan Cet al., 2019, LOGISTICS, INTERNET OF THINGS: TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS FOR A NEW AGE OF INTELLIGENCE, 2ND EDITION, Publisher: ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC, Pages: 307-316

Book chapter

Tsiatsis V, Karnouskos S, Holler J, Boyle D, Mulligan Cet al., 2019, WHY THE INTERNET OF THINGS?, INTERNET OF THINGS: TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS FOR A NEW AGE OF INTELLIGENCE, 2ND EDITION, Publisher: ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC, Pages: 3-7

Book chapter

Tsiatsis V, Karnouskos S, Holler J, Boyle D, Mulligan Cet al., 2019, ORIGINS AND IOT LANDSCAPE, INTERNET OF THINGS: TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS FOR A NEW AGE OF INTELLIGENCE, 2ND EDITION, Publisher: ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC, Pages: 9-30

Book chapter

Tsiatsis V, Karnouskos S, Holler J, Boyle D, Mulligan Cet al., 2019, SMART GRID, INTERNET OF THINGS: TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS FOR A NEW AGE OF INTELLIGENCE, 2ND EDITION, Publisher: ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC, Pages: 257-268

Book chapter

Tsiatsis V, Karnouskos S, Holler J, Boyle D, Mulligan Cet al., 2019, Internet of Things Technologies and Applications for a New Age of Intelligence Preface, INTERNET OF THINGS: TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS FOR A NEW AGE OF INTELLIGENCE, 2ND EDITION, Publisher: ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC, Pages: XXI-XXV

Book chapter

Tsiatsis V, Karnouskos S, Holler J, Boyle D, Mulligan Cet al., 2019, ETSI M2M, INTERNET OF THINGS: TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS FOR A NEW AGE OF INTELLIGENCE, 2ND EDITION, Publisher: ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC, Pages: 321-328

Book chapter

Tsiatsis V, Karnouskos S, Holler J, Boyle D, Mulligan Cet al., 2019, AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES AND SYSTEMS OF CYBER-PHYSICAL SYSTEMS, INTERNET OF THINGS: TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS FOR A NEW AGE OF INTELLIGENCE, 2ND EDITION, Publisher: ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC, Pages: 299-305

Book chapter

Tsiatsis V, Karnouskos S, Holler J, Boyle D, Mulligan Cet al., 2019, INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION, INTERNET OF THINGS: TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS FOR A NEW AGE OF INTELLIGENCE, 2ND EDITION, Publisher: ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC, Pages: 249-256

Book chapter

Tsiatsis V, Karnouskos S, Holler J, Boyle D, Mulligan Cet al., 2019, SECURITY, INTERNET OF THINGS: TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS FOR A NEW AGE OF INTELLIGENCE, 2ND EDITION, Publisher: ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC, Pages: 127-142

Book chapter

Tsiatsis V, Karnouskos S, Holler J, Boyle D, Mulligan Cet al., 2019, AN ARCHITECTURE PERSPECTIVE, INTERNET OF THINGS: TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS FOR A NEW AGE OF INTELLIGENCE, 2ND EDITION, Publisher: ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC, Pages: 49-63

Book chapter

Tsiatsis V, Karnouskos S, Holler J, Boyle D, Mulligan Cet al., 2019, COMMERCIAL BUILDING AUTOMATION, INTERNET OF THINGS: TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS FOR A NEW AGE OF INTELLIGENCE, 2ND EDITION, Publisher: ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC, Pages: 269-277

Book chapter

Tsiatsis V, Karnouskos S, Holler J, Boyle D, Mulligan Cet al., 2019, IOT - A BUSINESS PERSPECTIVE, INTERNET OF THINGS: TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS FOR A NEW AGE OF INTELLIGENCE, 2ND EDITION, Publisher: ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC, Pages: 31-47

Book chapter

Tsiatsis V, Karnouskos S, Holler J, Boyle D, Mulligan Cet al., 2019, PARTICIPATORY SENSING, INTERNET OF THINGS: TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS FOR A NEW AGE OF INTELLIGENCE, 2ND EDITION, Publisher: ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC, Pages: 289-297

Book chapter

Tsiatsis V, Karnouskos S, Holler J, Boyle D, Mulligan Cet al., 2019, ASSET MANAGEMENT, INTERNET OF THINGS: TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS FOR A NEW AGE OF INTELLIGENCE, 2ND EDITION, Publisher: ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC, Pages: 243-248

Book chapter

Tsiatsis V, Karnouskos S, Holler J, Boyle D, Mulligan Cet al., 2019, SMART CITIES, INTERNET OF THINGS: TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS FOR A NEW AGE OF INTELLIGENCE, 2ND EDITION, Publisher: ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC, Pages: 279-287

Book chapter

Tsiatsis V, Karnouskos S, Holler J, Boyle D, Mulligan Cet al., 2019, TECHNOLOGY FUNDAMENTALS, INTERNET OF THINGS: TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS FOR A NEW AGE OF INTELLIGENCE, 2ND EDITION, Publisher: ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC, Pages: 67-126

Book chapter

Tsiatsis V, Karnouskos S, Holler J, Boyle D, Mulligan Cet al., 2019, DESIGNING THE INTERNET OF THINGS FOR THE REAL WORLD, INTERNET OF THINGS: TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS FOR A NEW AGE OF INTELLIGENCE, 2ND EDITION, Publisher: ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC, Pages: 235-240

Book chapter

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