Imperial College London

DrCarlosPozo Fernandez

Faculty of Natural SciencesCentre for Environmental Policy

Visiting Researcher
 
 
 
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c.pozo-fernandez Website CV

 
 
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C509Roderic Hill BuildingSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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58 results found

Negri V, Galan-Martin A, Pozo C, Fajardy M, Reiner DM, Mac Dowell N, Guillen-Gosalbez Get al., 2021, Life cycle optimization of BECCS supply chains in the European Union, APPLIED ENERGY, Vol: 298, ISSN: 0306-2619

Journal article

Cristobal J, Ehrenstein M, Dominguez-Ramos A, Galan-Martin A, Pozo C, Margallo M, Aldaco R, Jimenez L, Irabien A, Guillen-Gosalbez Get al., 2021, Unraveling the links between public spending and Sustainable Development Goals: Insights from data envelopment analysis, SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 786, ISSN: 0048-9697

Journal article

Ioannou I, D'Angelo SC, Galan-Martin A, Pozo C, Perez-Ramirez J, Guillen-Gosalbez Get al., 2021, Process modelling and life cycle assessment coupled with experimental work to shape the future sustainable production of chemicals and fuels, REACTION CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING, Vol: 6, Pages: 1179-+, ISSN: 2058-9883

Journal article

Galan-Martin A, Tulus V, Diaz I, Pozo C, Perez-Ramirez J, Guillen-Gosalbez Get al., 2021, Sustainability footprints of a renewable carbon transition for the petrochemical sector within planetary boundaries, ONE EARTH, Vol: 4, Pages: 565-583, ISSN: 2590-3330

Journal article

Lucas E, Galan-Martin A, Pozo C, Guo M, Guillen-Gosalbez Get al., 2021, Global environmental and nutritional assessment of national food supply patterns: Insights from a data envelopment analysis approach, SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 755, ISSN: 0048-9697

Journal article

Torres-Rivas A, Pozo C, Palumbo M, Ewertowska A, Jiménez L, Boer Det al., 2021, Systematic combination of insulation biomaterials to enhance energy and environmental efficiency in buildings, Construction and Building Materials, Vol: 267, ISSN: 0950-0618

Thermal insulation based on biomaterials with low energy embodied is a promising alternative to reduce the energy demand of the actual building stock and help meeting the climatic 2050 EU goals. Despite their appealing properties, these materials are not widely available in the insulation market for a variety of reasons such as a more laborious implementation compared to commercial alternatives. To overcome this limitation and change this trend, this work introduces a systematic method to generate efficient combinations of biomaterials with reduced cost and environmental impacts that could be manufactured as commercial sandwich or solid panels and fiber mats.

Journal article

Somoza-Tornos A, Pozo C, Graells M, Espuña A, Puigjaner Let al., 2021, Process screening framework for the synthesis of process networks from a circular economy perspective, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol: 164, ISSN: 0921-3449

Processes for recycling or reusing material resources have naturally appeared along with the history of technology development when need, resource scarcity, opportunities, and enabling technologies have combined conveniently with insight, intuition, and fortune. The current pressure for saving resources by efficiently integrating production and consumption processes requires the development of systematic approaches exploring opportunities and determining the best alternatives. While recent research has addressed the problem of directly connecting sources and sinks, we turn our attention to doing so with improved efficiency and at a lower cost. This work addresses the event of a systematic framework for the synthesis and optimization of the industrial process networks required by an economic system aimed at adding value to waste and minimizing the continuous need for non-renewable resources from a circular economy perspective. The systematic framework presented relies upon a novel model formulated as a superstructure that includes the transformation technologies needed for the revaluation of waste, which, in turn, raises resource-sharing opportunities otherwise ignored. The model is flexible enough to address primary uncertainty sources and manage different objectives (e.g., economic and environmental. A case study on hydrocarbons recovery from waste plastic illustrates the capabilities of the model, which proves to be a useful tool for the identification of the most promising routes for waste transformation and the less efficient processes where substantial improvement is required to increase their competitive edge. The methodology is valuable for the multiple actors involving the waste revaluation sector, from private companies to policymakers.

Journal article

Cabrera-Jiménez R, Mateo-Sanz JM, Gavaldà J, Jiménez L, Pozo Cet al., 2021, Comparing biofuels through the lens of sustainability: A data envelopment analysis approach, Applied Energy, ISSN: 0306-2619

Liquid biofuels can facilitate the transition towards a more sustainable transportation sector by curbing carbon emissions while maintaining most of the current vehicle fleet. Today, a myriad of alternatives are available to produce biofuels, where different decisions for the fuel type, blend, conversion process and carbon source will affect the final cost and environmental impact of the product. In this contribution, we analyze the performance of 72 different biofuels routes based on 12 indicators that cover the three sustainability dimensions: economic, environmental and social. The proposed multi-criteria approach combines Data Envelopment Analysis with Life Cycle Assessment to evaluate biofuels from a cradle-to-wheel perspective, that is, considering the production chain spanning from biomass production to the combustion of the biofuel in the engine. Results reveal that there are 35 biofuels routes performing better than the rest, with renewable diesel being a better option than ethanol-based blends or biodiesel, and waste biomass preferred over cellulosic biomass or bio-oils. The selection of the carbon source proofed to be the most important decision, highlighting the need to consider regional aspects related to soil and climate before promoting a certain biofuel. Overall, our results can help to derive effective policies for the adoption of biofuels attaining the best performance at minimum cost and environmental risks.

Journal article

Ehrenstein M, Calvo-Serrano R, Galan-Martin A, Pozo C, Zurano-Cervello P, Guillen-Gosalbez Get al., 2020, Operating within Planetary Boundaries without compromising well-being? A Data Envelopment Analysis approach, JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, Vol: 270, ISSN: 0959-6526

Journal article

Pozo C, Galan-Martin A, Cortes-Borda D, Sales-Pardo M, Azapagic A, Guimera R, Guillen-Gosalbez Get al., 2020, Reducing global environmental inequality: Determining regional quotas for environmental burdens through systems optimisation, JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, Vol: 270, ISSN: 0959-6526

Journal article

Pozo C, Galán-Martín Á, Reiner DM, Mac Dowell N, Guillén-Gosálbez Get al., 2020, Equity in allocating carbon dioxide removal quotas, Nature Climate Change, Vol: 10, Pages: 640-646, ISSN: 1758-678X

The first nationally determined contributions to the Paris Agreement include no mention of the carbon dioxide removal (CDR) necessary to reach the Paris targets, leaving open the question of how and by whom CDR will be delivered. Drawing on existing equity frameworks, we allocate CDR quotas globally according to Responsibility, Capability and Equality principles. These quotas are then assessed in the European Union context by accounting for domestic national capacity of a portfolio of CDR options, including bioenergy with carbon capture and storage, reforestation and direct air capture. We find that quotas vary greatly across principles, from 33 to 325 GtCO2 allocated to the European Union, and, due to biophysical limits, only a handful of countries could meet their quotas acting individually. These results support strengthening cross-border cooperation while highlighting the need to urgently deploy CDR options to mitigate the risk of failing to meet the climate targets equitably.

Journal article

Al-Qahtani A, Gonzalez-Garay A, Bernardi A, Galan-Martin A, Pozo C, Mac Dowell N, Chachuat B, Guillen-Gosalbez Get al., 2020, Electricity grid decarbonisation or green methanol fuel? A life-cycle modelling and analysis of today's transportation-power nexus, APPLIED ENERGY, Vol: 265, ISSN: 0306-2619

Journal article

Somoza-Tornos A, Gonzalez-Garay A, Pozo C, Graells M, Espuna A, Guillen-Gosalbez Get al., 2020, Realizing the Potential High Benefits of Circular Economy in the Chemical Industry: Ethylene Monomer Recovery via Polyethylene Pyrolysis, ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING, Vol: 8, Pages: 3561-3572, ISSN: 2168-0485

Journal article

Algunaibet IM, Pozo C, Galan-Martin A, Huijbregts MAJ, Mac Dowell N, Guillen-Gosalbez Get al., 2020, Reply to the 'Comment on "Powering sustainable development within planetary boundaries"' by Y. Yang, Energy Environ. Sci., 2020, 13, DOI: 10.1039/C9EE01176E, Energy and Environmental Science, Vol: 13, Pages: 313-316, ISSN: 1754-5692

In our recently published work, we incorporated planetary boundaries in the optimization of the United States (US) power sector in 2030. Yang claims there is a double-counting error in our results and encourages us to minimize direct emissions instead of life cycle emissions in our model. Here, we argue that Yang's main criticism based on the risk of double-counting emissions when multiple sectors are simultaneously optimized does not apply to our case study, in which only one sector – the power sector – is analyzed. To assess the implications of Yang's suggestion to minimize direct emissions, we repeated the calculations optimizing direct emissions instead of life cycle emissions. We found that this approach is unable to discriminate effectively between electricity production technologies and, consequently, leads to a suboptimal mix with impacts on climate change, ocean acidification and freshwater use 102, 33 and 1.5 times the limits, respectively, whereas our original solution meets all planetary boundaries concurrently. Our findings imply that Yang's suggestion of optimizing direct emissions in energy systems models might not the best way forward in single-sector studies like ours.

Journal article

Algunaibet IM, Pozo C, Galan-Martin A, Huijbregts MAJ, Mac Dowell N, Guillen-Gosalbez Get al., 2019, Correction: powering sustainable development within planetary boundaries (vol 12, pg 1890, 2019), Energy and Environmental Science, Vol: 12, Pages: 3612-3616, ISSN: 1754-5692

Correction for ‘Powering sustainable development within planetary boundaries’ by Ibrahim M. Algunaibet et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2019, 12, 1890–1900.

Journal article

Guillen-Gosalbez G, You F, Galan-Martin A, Pozo C, Grossmann IEet al., 2019, Process systems engineering thinking and tools applied to sustainability problems: current landscape and future opportunities, CURRENT OPINION IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, Vol: 26, Pages: 170-179, ISSN: 2211-3398

Journal article

Pozo C, Limleamthong P, Guo Y, Green T, Shah N, Acha S, Sawas A, Wu C, Siegert M, Guillén-Gosálbez Get al., 2019, Temporal sustainability efficiency analysis of urban areas via data envelopment analysis and the hypervolume indicator: Application to London boroughs, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol: 239, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 0959-6526

Transitioning towards a more sustainable society calls for systematic tools to assess the sustainability performance of urban systems. To perform this task effectively, this work introduces a novel method based on the combined use of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and the hypervolume indicator. In essence, DEA is applied to (i) distinguish between efficient and inefficient urban systems through the identification of best practices; and to (ii) establish improvement targets for the inefficient urban systems that, if attained, would make them efficient. Meanwhile, the hypervolume indicator is employed in conjunction with DEA to evaluate how urban systems evolve with time. The capabilities of this approach are illustrated through its application to the sustainability assessment of London boroughs between 2012–2014. Results reveal that most boroughs tend to perform well in terms of the indicators selected, with 20–25 of the 32 boroughs found efficient depending on the year. Regarding the temporal assessment, a global improvement in sustainability performance was found, with a strong relationship between the boroughs’ performances and their locations. The method proposed opens new pathways of social and environmental research for the application of advanced multi-criteria decision-support tools in the assessment and optimisation of urban systems.

Journal article

Zurano-Cervello P, Pozo C, Maria Mateo-Sanz J, Jimenez L, Guillen-Gosalbez Get al., 2019, Sustainability efficiency assessment of the electricity mix of the 28 EU member countries combining data envelopment analysis and optimized projections, ENERGY POLICY, Vol: 134, ISSN: 0301-4215

Journal article

González-Garay A, Pozo C, Galán-Martín Á, Brechtelsbauer C, Chachuat B, Chadha D, Hale C, Hellgardt K, Kogelbauer A, Matar OK, McDowell N, Shah N, Guillén-Gosálbez Get al., 2019, Assessing the performance of UK universities in the field of chemical engineering using data envelopment analysis, Education for Chemical Engineers, Vol: 29, Pages: 29-41, ISSN: 1749-7728

University rankings have become an important tool to compare academic institutions within and across countries. Yet, they rely on aggregated scores based on subjective weights which render them sensitive to experts’ preferences and not fully transparent to final users. To overcome this limitation, we apply Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to evaluate UK universities in the field of chemical engineering as a case study, using data retrieved from two national rankings. DEA is a non-parametric approach developed for the multi-criteria assessment of entities that avoids the use of subjective weightings and aggregated scores; this is accomplished by calculating an efficiency index, on the basis of which universities can be classified as either ‘efficient’ or ‘inefficient’. Our analysis shows that the Higher Education Institutions (HEI) occupying the highest positions in the chemical engineering rankings might not be the most efficient ones, and vice versa, which highlights the need to complement the use of rankings with other analytical tools. Overall, DEA provides further insight into the assessment of HEIs, allowing institutions to better understand their weaknesses and strengths, while pinpointing sources of inefficiencies where improvement efforts must be directed.

Journal article

Guillén-Gosálbez G, González-Garay A, Limleamthong P, Galán-Martín Á, Pozo Cet al., 2019, Systematic multiobjective life cycle optimization tools applied to the design of sustainable chemical processes, Sustainable Nanoscale Engineering: From Materials Design to Chemical Processing, Pages: 435-449, ISBN: 9780128146811

Book chapter

Calvo-Serrano R, Guo M, Pozo C, Galan-Martin A, Guillen-Gosalbez Get al., 2019, Biomass Conversion into Fuels, Chemicals, or Electricity? A Network-Based Life Cycle Optimization Approach Applied to the European Union, ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING, Vol: 7, Pages: 10570-10582, ISSN: 2168-0485

Journal article

Algunaibet I, Pozo Fernandez C, Galan Martin A, Huijbregts M, Mac Dowell N, Guillen Gosalbez Get al., 2019, Powering sustainable development within planetary boundaries, Energy and Environmental Science, Vol: 12, Pages: 1890-1900, ISSN: 1754-5692

The concept of planetary boundaries identifies a safe space for humanity. Current energy systems are primarily designed with a focus on total cost minimization and bounds on greenhouse gas emissions. Omitting planetary boundaries in energy systems design can lead to energy mixes unable to power our sustainable development. To overcome this conceptual limitation, we here incorporate planetary boundaries into energy systems models, explicitly linking energy generation with the Earth’s ecological limits. Taking the United States as a testbed, we found that the least cost energy mix that would meet the Paris Agreement 2 degrees Celsius target, still transgresses five out of eight planetary boundaries. It is possible to meet seven out of eight planetary boundaries concurrently by incurring a doubling of the cost compared to the least cost energy mix solution (1.3% of the United States gross domestic product in 2017). Due to the stringent downscaled planetary boundary on biogeochemical nitrogen flow, there is no energy mix in the United States capable of satisfying all planetary boundaries concurrently. Our work highlights the importance of considering planetary boundaries in energy systems design and paves the way for further research on how to effectively accomplish such integration in energy related studies.

Journal article

Algunaibet I, Pozo Fernandez C, Galan Martin A, Guillen Gosalbez Get al., 2019, Quantifying the cost of leaving the Paris Agreement via the integration of life cycle assessment, energy systems modeling and monetization, Applied Energy, Vol: 242, Pages: 588-601, ISSN: 0306-2619

Current energy systems models focus on cost minimization with a bound on some greenhouse gas emissions. This limited environmental scope can lead to mixes that are not consistent with our sustainable development. To circumvent this limitation, we here make use of the concept of monetization and life cycle assessment to quantify the indirect costs of electricity generation in the design of energy systems. Applying our approach to the United States, we found that the indirect costs of electricity generation could be reduced by as much as 63% by meeting the Paris Agreement. Consequently, the total opportunity cost (i.e., direct and indirect costs) of withdrawing from the Paris Agreement and continuing with the current mix would be as high as 1103 ± 206 billion USD2013 in 2030 (i.e., 6% of the United States gross domestic product in 2017). By optimizing the direct and indirect cost of electricity generation concurrently, we found an optimal ecological solution that attains total economic savings compared to the Paris Agreement mix of as much as 373 ± 164 billion USD2013 in 2030. Our work highlights the need to extend the environmental policies that govern energy systems beyond the direct greenhouse emissions to consider other critical environmental criteria.

Journal article

Pavão LV, Pozo C, Jiménez L, Costa CBB, Ravagnani MASSet al., 2018, Financial Risk Management in Heat Exchanger Networks Considering Multiple Utility Sources with Uncertain Costs, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, Vol: 57, Pages: 9831-9848, ISSN: 0888-5885

© 2018 American Chemical Society. In a plant, different utilities may be produced from different sources whose costs vary singularly. Therefore, evaluating the financial risk associated with heat exchanger networks (HEN) with multiple utilities is essential. This work aims to address the HEN synthesis under uncertainty by presenting several optimization models for managing financial risk. To this end, three different risk metrics are employed: variability index, downside risk, and risk area ratio. The resulting models are based on an enhanced version of the stage-wise superstructure, which incorporates the potential to place utilities at all HEN stages. The study considers fixed utility sources as well as the possibility to vary those yearly. Furthermore, we propose a novel "pseudointersection" calculation scheme for the risk area ratio metric, which proves efficient in assessing how risks can be reduced at minimal opportunity loss. The proposed models are able to efficiently identify solutions appealing to different investor profiles.

Journal article

Galán-Martín A, Pozo C, Azapagic A, Grossmann IE, Mac Dowell N, Guillén-Gosálbez Get al., 2018, Time for global action: an optimised cooperative approach towards effective climate change mitigation, Energy and Environmental Science, Vol: 11, Pages: 572-581, ISSN: 1754-5692

The difficulties in climate change negotiations together with the recent withdrawal of the U.S. from the Paris Agreement call for new cooperative mechanisms to enable a resilient international response. In this study we propose an approach to aid such negotiations based on quantifying the benefits of interregional cooperation and distributing them among the participants in a fair manner. Our approach is underpinned by advanced optimisation techniques that automate the screening of millions of alternatives for differing levels of cooperation, ultimately identifying the most cost-effective solutions for meeting emission targets. We apply this approach to the Clean Power Plan, a related act in the U.S. aiming at curbing carbon emissions from electricity generation, but also being withdrawn. We find that, with only half of the states cooperating, the cost of electricity generation could be reduced by US$41 billion per year, while simultaneously cutting carbon emissions by 68% below 2012 levels. These win–win scenarios are attained by sharing the emission targets and trading electricity among the states, which allows exploiting regional advantages. Fair sharing of dividends may be used as a key driver to spur cooperation since the global action to mitigate climate change becomes beneficial for all participants. Even if global cooperation remains elusive, it is worth trying since the mere cooperation of a few states leads to significant benefits for both the U.S. economy and the climate. These findings call on the U.S. to reconsider its withdrawal but also boost individual states to take initiative even in the absence of federal action.

Journal article

Fernández D, Carlos Pozo R, Folgado L, Jiménez G, Guillén Get al., 2018, Productivity and energy efficiency assessment of existing industrial gases facilities via data envelopment analysis and the Malmquist index, Applied Energy, Vol: 212, Pages: 1563-1577, ISSN: 0306-2619

© 2017 Elsevier Ltd The current trend towards improving energy efficiency in industry calls for advanced decision-support tools for quantifying the level of efficiency of industrial facilities. This work applies Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to assess the performance of a set of 34 Air Separation Units (ASUs) producing industrial gases via air distillation. We identify the best ASUs according to energy efficiency and productivity criteria and define improvement targets for the units found inefficient. Furthermore, we analyze the temporal evolution of the efficiency scores using the Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI), which is calculated from real data of a gas company operating ASUs around the world. Our results provide insight on how to improve the efficiency of existing plants by identifying sources of inefficiency and reference facilities that could be used for benchmarking.

Journal article

Zurano-Cervello P, Pozo C, Maria Mateo-Sanz J, Jimenez L, Guillen-Gosalbez Get al., 2018, Eco-efficiency assessment of EU manufacturing sectors combining input-output tables and data envelopment analysis following production and consumption-based accounting approaches, JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, Vol: 174, Pages: 1161-1189, ISSN: 0959-6526

Journal article

Torres-Rivas A, Pozo C, Ewertowska A, Boer D, Jimenez-Esteller Let al., 2018, Systematic generation of insulation materials via DEA and Building modelling, Editors: Friedl, Klemes, Radl, Varbanov, Wallek, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 457-462

Book chapter

Zurano-Cervello P, Pozo C, Maria Mateo-Sanz J, Jimenez L, Guillen-Gosalbez Get al., 2018, Electricity mix assessment of the EU member countries using DEA and EffMixF, Editors: Friedl, Klemes, Radl, Varbanov, Wallek, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 445-450

Book chapter

Pavãoa LV, Caliane CP, Costaa BB, Ravagnania MASS, Jiménezc Let al., 2017, Financial risks management of heat exchanger networks under uncertain utility costs via multi-objective optimization, Energy, Vol: 139, Pages: 98-117, ISSN: 0360-5442

© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Although various Heat Exchanger Network (HEN) synthesis methods have been proposed in the literature, fundamental study for addressing uncertainties arisen from market fluctuations using stochastic variables and parameters is scarce. Such feature certainly adds difficulties to a problem already not straightforward to solve. In that manner, this work adapts a meta-heuristic approach to be able to efficiently perform such task. Uncertainties are assumed from variations in costs of commodities related to production of utilities. Several forecast scenarios are generated via Monte Carlo Simulation in order to obtain discretized distributions for the uncertain variables. Five financial risk metrics are applied for risks management. Each metric is formulated as secondary function to expected total annual costs (ETAC) in a multi-objective optimization (MOO) model with two objective functions. A benchmark case study is adapted in order to demonstrate the method reliability. The approach is able to achieve results that fit for different types of investors (e.g., risk-averse, risk-taker), handling uncertainty by efficiently performing trade-offs in heat exchange areas and utilities requirement.

Journal article

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