185 results found
Tomasovych A, Kennedy JD, Betzner TJ, et al., 2016, Unifying latitudinal gradients in range size and richness across marine and terrestrial systems, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol: 283, ISSN: 0962-8452
Many marine and terrestrial clades show similar latitudinal gradients in species richness, but opposite gradients in range size—on land, ranges are the smallest in the tropics, whereas in the sea, ranges are the largest in the tropics. Therefore, richness gradients in marine and terrestrial systems do not arise from a shared latitudinal arrangement of species range sizes. Comparing terrestrial birds and marine bivalves, we find that gradients in range size are concordant at the level of genera. Here, both groups show a nested pattern in which narrow-ranging genera are confined to the tropics and broad-ranging genera extend across much of the gradient. We find that (i) genus range size and its variation with latitude is closely associated with per-genus species richness and (ii) broad-ranging genera contain more species both within and outside of the tropics when compared with tropical- or temperate-only genera. Within-genus species diversification thus promotes genus expansion to novel latitudes. Despite underlying differences in the species range-size gradients, species-rich genera are more likely to produce a descendant that extends its range relative to the ancestor's range. These results unify species richness gradients with those of genera, implying that birds and bivalves share similar latitudinal dynamics in net species diversification.
Keith SA, Maynard JA, Edwards AJ, et al., 2016, Coral mass spawning predicted by rapid seasonal rise in ocean temperature, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol: 283, ISSN: 0962-8452
Maruyama PK, Vizentin-Bugoni J, Sonne J, et al., 2016, The integration of alien plants in mutualistic plant-hummingbird networks across the Americas: the importance of species traits and insularity, Diversity and Distributions, Vol: 22, Pages: 672-681, ISSN: 1472-4642
AimTo investigate the role of alien plants in mutualistic plant–hummingbird networks, assessing the importance of species traits, floral abundance and insularity on alien plant integration.LocationMainland and insular Americas.MethodsWe used species-level network indices to assess the role of alien plants in 21 quantitative plant–hummingbird networks where alien plants occur. We then evaluated whether plant traits, including previous adaptations to bird pollination, and insularity predict these network roles. Additionally, for a subset of networks for which floral abundance data were available, we tested whether this relates to network roles. Finally, we tested the association between hummingbird traits and the probability of interaction with alien plants across the networks.ResultsWithin the 21 networks, we identified 32 alien plant species and 352 native plant species. On average, alien plant species attracted more hummingbird species (i.e. aliens had a higher degree) and had a higher proportion of interactions across their hummingbird visitors than native plants (i.e. aliens had a higher species strength). At the same time, an average alien plant was visited more exclusively by certain hummingbird species (i.e. had a higher level of complementary specialization). Large alien plants and those occurring on islands had more evenly distributed interactions, thereby acting as connectors. Other evaluated plant traits and floral abundance were unimportant predictors of network roles. Short-billed hummingbirds had higher probability of including alien plants in their interactions than long-billed species.Main conclusionsOnce incorporated into plant-hummingbird networks, alien plants appear strongly integrated and, thus, may have a large influence on network dynamics. Plant traits and floral abundance were generally poor predictors of how well alien species are integrated. Short-billed hummingbirds, often characterized as functionally generalized pollinators
Jonsson KA, Tottrup AP, Borregaard MK, et al., 2016, Tracking Animal Dispersal: From Individual Movement to Community Assembly and Global Range Dynamics, TRENDS IN ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, Vol: 31, Pages: 204-214, ISSN: 0169-5347
Nogues-Bravo D, Simberloff D, Rahbek C, et al., 2016, Rewilding is the new Pandora's box in conservation, CURRENT BIOLOGY, Vol: 26, Pages: R87-R91, ISSN: 0960-9822
Hald B, Skov MN, Nielsen EM, et al., 2016, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms, Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, Vol: 58, ISSN: 1751-0147
Background: Reducing the occurrence of campylobacteriosis is a food safety issue of high priority, as in recent yearsit has been the most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU. Livestock farms are of particular interest, since cattle,swine and poultry are common reservoirs of Campylobacter spp. The farm environment provides attractive foragingand breeding habitats for some bird species reported to carry thermophilic Campylobacter spp. We investigated theCampylobacter spp. carriage rates in 52 wild bird species present on 12 Danish farms, sampled during a winter anda summer season, in order to study the factors influencing the prevalence in wild birds according to their ecologicalguild. In total, 1607 individual wild bird cloacal swab samples and 386 livestock manure samples were cultured forCampylobacter spp. according to the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis method NMKL 119.Results: The highest Campylobacter spp. prevalence was seen in 110 out of 178 thrushes (61.8 %), of which themajority were Common Blackbird (Turdus merula), and in 131 out of 616 sparrows (21.3 %), a guild made up of HouseSparrow (Passer domesticus) and Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus). In general, birds feeding on a diet of animalor mixed animal and vegetable origin, foraging on the ground and vegetation in close proximity to livestock stableswere more likely to carry Campylobacter spp. in both summer (P < 0.001) and winter (P < 0.001) than birds foragingfurther away from the farm or in the air. Age, fat score, gender, and migration range were not found to be associatedwith Campylobacter spp. carriage. A correlation was found between the prevalence (%) of C. jejuni in wild birds andthe proportions (%) of C. jejuni in both manure on cattle farms (R2 = 0.92) and poultry farms (R2 = 0.54), and betweenthe prevalence (%) of C. coli in wild birds and the proportions (%) of C. coli in manure on pig farms (R2 = 0.62).Conclusions: The ecological guild of wild birds influences the prevalence
Dalsgaard B, Baquero AC, Rahbek C, et al., 2016, Speciose opportunistic nectar-feeding avifauna in Cuba and its association to hummingbird island biogeography, Journal of Ornithology, Vol: 157, Pages: 627-634, ISSN: 0021-8375
Island organisms often have wider feeding niches than mainland organisms, and migratory birds breeding on continents often widen their niches when overwintering on islands. Cuba’s low hummingbird richness has puzzled ornithologists for decades. Here, we show that the Cuban hummingbird fauna is less rich than expected based on Cuba’s elevation, when compared to the rest of the West Indian islands. Thereafter, we report nectar-feeding behaviour by 26 non-Trochilidae bird species in Cuba, encompassing pigeons/doves, woodpeckers and passerines, and endemic, resident and migratory species. We discuss if Cuba’s speciose non-Trochilidae nectar-feeding avifauna may be associated with its depauperate hummingbird fauna.
Sonne J, Gonzalez AMM, Maruyama PK, et al., 2016, High proportion of smaller ranged hummingbird species coincides with ecological specialization across the Americas, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol: 283, ISSN: 0962-8452
Ecological communities that experience stable climate conditions have been speculated to preserve more specialized interspecific associations and have higher proportions of smaller ranged species (SRS). Thus, areas with disproportionally large numbers of SRS are expected to coincide geographically with a high degree of community-level ecological specialization, but this suggestion remains poorly supported with empirical evidence. Here, we analysed data for hummingbird resource specialization, range size, contemporary climate, and Late Quaternary climate stability for 46 hummingbird–plant mutualistic networks distributed across the Americas, representing 130 hummingbird species (ca 40% of all hummingbird species). We demonstrate a positive relationship between the proportion of SRS of hummingbirds and community-level specialization, i.e. the division of the floral niche among coexisting hummingbird species. This relationship remained strong even when accounting for climate, furthermore, the effect of SRS on specialization was far stronger than the effect of specialization on SRS, suggesting that climate largely influences specialization through species' range-size dynamics. Irrespective of the exact mechanism involved, our results indicate that communities consisting of higher proportions of SRS may be vulnerable to disturbance not only because of their small geographical ranges, but also because of their high degree of specialization.
Jorgensen PS, Boehning-Gaese K, Thorup K, et al., 2016, Continent-scale global change attribution in European birds - combining annual and decadal time scales, GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Vol: 22, Pages: 530-543, ISSN: 1354-1013
Petersen AH, Strange N, Anthon S, et al., 2016, Conserving what, where and how? Cost-efficient measures to conserve biodiversity in Denmark, JOURNAL FOR NATURE CONSERVATION, Vol: 29, Pages: 33-44, ISSN: 1617-1381
Xu X, Wang Z, Rahbek C, et al., 2016, Geographical variation in the importance of water and energy for oak diversity, Journal of Biogeography, Vol: 43, Pages: 279-288, ISSN: 1365-2699
The water–energy dynamics hypothesis posits that species diversity is correlated with water availability and temperatures; diversity is lowest when water availability is reduced at low temperatures because few species can persist under such conditions. However, the relationship between water and energy availability and diversity likely varies geographically along environmental gradients. Here, we examined the drivers of such variability, using a global-scale data set on oaks.
Lessard J-P, Weinstein BG, Borregaard MK, et al., 2016, Process-Based Species Pools Reveal the Hidden Signature of Biotic Interactions Amid the Influence of Temperature, American Naturalist, Vol: 187, Pages: 75-88, ISSN: 1537-5323
A persistent challenge in ecology is to tease apart the in-fluence of multiple processes acting simultaneously and interactingin complex ways to shape the structure of species assemblages. Weimplement a heuristic approach that relies on explicitly defining speciespools and permits assessment of the relative influence of the mainprocesses thought to shape assemblage structure: environmental filtering,dispersal limitations, and biotic interactions. We illustrate ourapproach using data on the assemblage composition and geographicdistribution of hummingbirds, a comprehensive phylogeny and morphologicaltraits. The implementation of several process-based speciespool definitions in null models suggests that temperature—but not precipitationor dispersal limitation—acts as the main regional filter of assemblagestructure. Incorporating this environmental filter directly intothe definition of assemblage-specific species pools revealed an otherwisehidden pattern of phylogenetic evenness, indicating that biotic interactionsmight further influence hummingbird assemblage structure.Such hidden patterns of assemblage structure call for a reexaminationof a multitude of phylogenetic- and trait-based studies that did not explicitlyconsider potentially important processes in their definition ofthe species pool. Our heuristic approach provides a transparent wayto explore patterns and refine interpretations of the underlying causesof assemblage structure.
Thomsen PF, Jørgensen PS, Bruun HH, et al., 2016, Resource specialists lead local insect community turnover associated with temperature - analysis of an 18-year full-seasonal record of moths and beetles., Journal of Animal Ecology, Vol: 85, Pages: 251-261, ISSN: 1365-2656
Insect responses to recent climate change are well documented, but the role of resource specialization in determining species vulnerability remains poorly understood. Uncovering local ecological effects of temperature change with high-quality, standardized data provides an important first opportunity for predictions about responses of resource specialists, and long-term time series are essential in revealing these responses. Here, we investigate temperature-related changes in local insect communities, using a sampling site with more than a quarter-million records from two decades (1992-2009) of full-season, quantitative light trapping of 1543 species of moths and beetles. We investigated annual as well as long-term changes in fauna composition, abundance and phenology in a climate-related context using species temperature affinities and local temperature data. Finally, we explored these local changes in the context of dietary specialization. Across both moths and beetles, temperature affinity of specialists increased through net gain of hot-dwelling species and net loss of cold-dwelling species. The climate-related composition of generalists remained constant over time. We observed an increase in species richness of both groups. Furthermore, we observed divergent phenological responses between cold- and hot-dwelling species, advancing and delaying their relative abundance, respectively. Phenological advances were particularly pronounced in cold-adapted specialists. Our results suggest an important role of resource specialization in explaining the compositional and phenological responses of insect communities to local temperature increases. We propose that resource specialists in particular are affected by local temperature increase, leading to the distinct temperature-mediated turnover seen for this group. We suggest that the observed increase in species number could have been facilitated by dissimilar utilization of an expanded growing season by cold- and hot-adapt
Jonsson KA, Fabre P-H, Kennedy JD, et al., 2016, A supermatrix phylogeny of corvoid passerine birds (Ayes: Corvides), Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Vol: 94, Pages: 87-94, ISSN: 1095-9513
The Corvides (previously referred to as the core Corvoidea) are a morphologically diverse clade of passerine birds comprising nearly 800 species. The group originated some 30 million years ago in the proto-Papuan archipelago, to the north of Australia, from where lineages have dispersed and colonized all of the world’s major continental and insular landmasses (except Antarctica). During the last decade multiple species-level phylogenies have been generated for individual corvoid families and more recently the inter-familial relationships have been resolved, based on phylogenetic analyses using multiple nuclear loci. In the current study we analyse eight nuclear and four mitochondrial loci to generate a dated phylogeny for the majority of corvoid species. This phylogeny includes 667 out of 780 species (85.5%), 141 out of 143 genera (98.6%) and all 31 currently recognized families, thus providing a baseline for comprehensive macroecological, macroevolutionary and biogeographical analyses. Using this phylogeny we assess the temporal consistency of the current taxonomic classification of families and genera. By adopting an approach that enforces temporal consistency by causing the fewest possible taxonomic changes to currently recognized families and genera, we find the current familial classification to be largely temporally consistent, whereas that of genera is not.
Gonzalez AMM, Dalsgaard B, Nogues-Bravo D, et al., 2015, The macroecology of phylogenetically structured hummingbird-plant networks, GLOBAL ECOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY, Vol: 24, Pages: 1212-1224, ISSN: 1466-822X
D'Amen M, Rahbek C, Zimmermann NE, et al., 2015, Spatial predictions at the community level: from current approaches to future frameworks, BIOLOGICAL REVIEWS, Vol: 92, Pages: 169-187, ISSN: 1464-7931
Willis SG, Foden W, Baker DJ, et al., 2015, Integrating climate change vulnerability assessments from species distribution models and trait-based approaches, BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION, Vol: 190, Pages: 167-178, ISSN: 0006-3207
Cracraft J, Houde P, Ho SYW, et al., 2015, Response to Comment on "Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds", SCIENCE, Vol: 349, ISSN: 0036-8075
Sonne J, Kyvsgaard P, Maruyama PK, et al., 2015, Spatial effects of artificial feeders on hummingbird abundance, floral visitation and pollen deposition, Journal of Ornithology, Vol: 157, Pages: 573-581, ISSN: 0021-8375
Providing hummingbirds with artificial feeders containing sugar solution is common practice throughout the Americas. Although feeders can affect hummingbird foraging behavior and abundance, it is poorly understood how far this effect may extend. Moreover, it remains debated whether nectar-feeders have a negative impact on hummingbird-pollinated plants by reducing flower visitation rates and pollen transfer close to the feeders. Here, we investigated the effects of distance to nectar-feeders on a local hummingbird assemblage and the pollination of Psychotria nuda (Rubiaceae), a hummingbird-pollinated plant endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. At increasing distance (0–1000 m) from a feeding-station, where hummingbirds have been fed continuously for the past 13 years, we quantified hummingbird abundance, and rates of flower visitation and pollen deposition on P. nuda. We found that hummingbird abundance was unrelated to distance from the feeders beyond ca. 75 m, but increased steeply closer to the feeders; the only exception was the small hummingbird Phaethornis ruber, which remained absent from the feeders. Plants of P. nuda within ca.125 m from the feeders received increasingly more visits, coinciding with the higher hummingbird abundance, whereas visitation rate beyond 125 m showed no distance-related trend. Despite this, pollen deposition was not associated with distance from the feeders. Our findings illustrate that artificial nectar-feeders may locally increase hummingbird abundance, and possibly affect species composition and pollination redundancy, without necessarily having a disruptive effect on pollination services and plants’ reproductive fitness. This may apply not only to hummingbirds, but also to other animal pollinators.
Marki PZ, Fabre P-H, Jonsson KA, et al., 2015, Breeding system evolution influenced the geographic expansion and diversification of the core Corvoidea (Aves: Passeriformes), EVOLUTION, Vol: 69, Pages: 1874-1924, ISSN: 0014-3820
Rangel TF, Colwell RK, Graves GR, et al., 2015, Phylogenetic uncertainty revisited: Implications for ecological analyses, EVOLUTION, Vol: 69, Pages: 1301-1312, ISSN: 0014-3820
Blonder B, Nogues-Bravo D, Borregaard MK, et al., 2015, Linking environmental filtering and disequilibrium to biogeography with a community climate framework, Ecology, Vol: 96, Pages: 972-985, ISSN: 1939-9170
We present a framework to measure the strength of environmental filtering and disequilibrium of the species composition of a local community across time, relative to past, current, and future climates. We demonstrate the framework by measuring the impact of climate change on New World forests, integrating data for climate niches of more than 14 000 species, community composition of 471 New World forest plots, and observed climate across the most recent glacial–interglacial interval. We show that a majority of communities have species compositions that are strongly filtered and are more in equilibrium with current climate than random samples from the regional pool. Variation in the level of current community disequilibrium can be predicted from Last Glacial Maximum climate and will increase with near-future climate change.
Zhang G, Li C, Li Q, et al., 2014, Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation, SCIENCE, Vol: 346, Pages: 1311-1320, ISSN: 0036-8075
Jarvis ED, Mirarab S, Aberer AJ, et al., 2014, Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds, SCIENCE, Vol: 346, Pages: 1320-1331, ISSN: 0036-8075
Dalsgaard B, Carstensen DW, Fjeldsa J, et al., 2014, Determinants of bird species richness, endemism, and island network roles in Wallacea and the West Indies: is geography sufficient or does current and historical climate matter?, ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, Vol: 4, Pages: 4019-4031, ISSN: 2045-7758
Platts PJ, Garcia RA, Hof C, et al., 2014, Conservation implications of omitting narrow-ranging taxa from species distribution models, now and in the future, DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTIONS, Vol: 20, Pages: 1307-1320, ISSN: 1366-9516
Amano T, Sandel B, Eager H, et al., 2014, Global distribution and drivers of language extinction risk, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 281, ISSN: 0962-8452
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