Imperial College London

DrChristopherRowlands

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Bioengineering

Lecturer
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 1331c.rowlands Website CV

 
 
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Location

 

4.39Royal School of MinesSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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38 results found

Sesen M, Rowlands C, 2021, Thermally-actuated microfluidic membrane valve for point-of-care applications, Microsystems and Nanoengineering, Vol: 7, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 2055-7434

Microfluidics has enabled low volume biochemistry reactions to be carried out at the point-of-care. A key component in microfluidics is the microfluidic valve. Microfluidic valves are not only useful for directing flow at intersections but also allow mixtures/dilutions to be tuned real-time and even provide peristaltic pumping capabilities. In the transition from chip-in-a-lab to lab-on-a-chip, it is essential to ensure that microfluidic valves are designed to require less peripheral equipment and that they are transportable. In this paper, a thermally-actuated microfluidic valve is presented. The valve itself is fabricated with off-the-shelf components without the need for sophisticated cleanroom techniques. It is shown that multiple valves can be controlled and operated via a power supply and an Arduino microcontroller; an important step towards transportable microfluidic devices capable of carrying out analytical assays at the point-of-care. It is been calculated that a single actuator costs less than$1, this highlights the potential of the presented valve for scaling out. The valve operation is demonstrated by adjusting the ratio of a water/dye mixture in a continuous flow microfluidic chip with Y-junction channel geometry. The power required to operate one microfluidic valve has been characterised both theoretically and experimentally. Cyclical operation of the valve has been demonstrated for 65 hours with 585 actuations. The presented valve is capable of actuating rectangular microfluidic channels of 500μm×50μm with an expected temperature increase of up to 5°C. The fastest actuation times achieved were 2seconds for valve closing (heating) and 9 seconds for valve opening (cooling).

Journal article

Boualam A, Rowlands C, 2021, A method for assessing the spatiotemporal resolution of structured illumination microscopy (SIM), Biomedical Optics Express, Vol: 12, Pages: 790-801, ISSN: 2156-7085

A method is proposed for assessing the temporal resolution of structured illumination microscopy (SIM), by tracking the amplitude of different spatial frequency components over time, and comparing them to a temporally-oscillating ground-truth. This method is used to gain insight into the performance limits of SIM, along with alternative reconstruction techniques (termed ‘rolling SIM’) that claim to improve temporal resolution. Results show that the temporal resolution of SIM varies considerably between low and high spatial frequencies, and that, despite being used in several high profile papers and commercial microscope software, rolling SIM provides no increase in temporal resolution over conventional SIM.

Journal article

Bezer JH, Koruk H, Rowlands CJ, Choi JJet al., 2020, Elastic deformation of soft tissue-mimicking materials using a single microbubble and acoustic radiation force, Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, Vol: 46, Pages: 3327-3338, ISSN: 0301-5629

Mechanical effects of microbubbles on tissues are central to many emerging ultrasound applications. Here, we investigated the acoustic radiation force a microbubble exerts on tissue at clinically relevant therapeutic ultrasound parameters. Individual microbubbles administered into a wall-less hydrogel channel (diameter: 25-100 µm, Young's modulus: 2-8.7 kPa) were exposed to an acoustic pulse (centre frequency: 1 MHz, pulse length: 10 ms, peak-rarefactional pressures: 0.6-1.0 MPa). Using high-speed microscopy, each microbubble was tracked as it pushed against the hydrogel wall. We found that a single microbubble can transiently deform a soft tissue-mimicking material by several micrometres, producing tissue loading-unloading curves that were similar to those produced using other indentation-based methods. Indentation depths were linked to gel stiffness. Using a mathematical model fitted to the deformation curves, we estimated the radiation force on each bubble (typically tens of nanonewtons) and the viscosity of the gels. These results provide insight into the forces exerted on tissues during ultrasound therapy and indicate a potential source of bio-effects.

Journal article

Chazot CAC, Nagelberg S, Rowlands CJ, Scherer MRJ, Coropceanu I, Broderick K, Kim Y, Bawendi MG, So PTC, Kolle Met al., 2020, Luminescent surfaces with tailored angular emission for compact dark-field imaging devices, Nature Photonics, Vol: 14, Pages: 310-315, ISSN: 1749-4885

Dark-field microscopy is a standard imaging technique widely employed in biology that provides high image contrast for a broad range of unstained specimens1. Unlike bright-field microscopy, it accentuates high spatial frequencies and can therefore be used to emphasize and resolve small features. However, the use of dark-field microscopy for reliable analysis of blood cells, bacteria, algae and other marine organisms often requires specialized, bulky microscope systems, as well as expensive additional components, such as dark-field-compatible objectives or condensers2,3. Here, we propose to simplify and downsize dark-field microscopy equipment by generating the high-angle illumination cone required for dark-field microscopy directly within the sample substrate. We introduce a luminescent photonic substrate with a controlled angular emission profile and demonstrate its ability to generate high-contrast dark-field images of micrometre-sized living organisms using standard optical microscopy equipment. This new type of substrate forms the basis for miniaturized lab-on-chip dark-field imaging devices that are compatible with simple and compact light microscopes.

Journal article

Whiteley I, Song C, Knöpfel T, Rowlands CJet al., 2020, Optical readout of voltage indicators using an improved targeted direct patterning concept.

An improved method for the optical readout of voltage indicators is presented, whereby fluorescence from the whole surface of a neuron is integrated onto a single detector, dramatically increasing the recording bandwidth over conventional techniques.

Conference paper

Rowlands CJ, Bruns O, Franke D, Fukamura D, Jain RK, Bawendi MG, So PTCet al., 2019, Increasing the penetration depth of temporal focusing multiphoton microscopy for neurobiological applications., Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol: 52, ISSN: 0022-3727

The first ever demonstration of temporal focusing with Short Wave InfraRed (SWIR) excitation and emission is demonstrated, achieving a penetration depth of 500µm in brain tissue. This is substantially deeper than the highest previously-reported values for temporal focusing imaging in brain tissue, and demonstrates the value of these optimized wavelengths for neurobiological applications.

Journal article

Xue Y, Berry KP, Boivin JR, Rowlands CJ, Takiguchi Y, Nedivi E, So PTCet al., 2019, Scanless volumetric imaging by selective access multifocal multiphoton microscopy, Optica, Vol: 6, Pages: 76-83, ISSN: 2334-2536

Simultaneous, high-resolution imaging across a large number of synaptic and dendritic sites is critical for understanding how neurons receive and integrate signals. Yet, functional imaging that targets a large number of submicrometer-sized synaptic and dendritic locations poses significant technical challenges. We demonstrate a new parallelized approach to address such questions, increasing the signal-to-noise ratio by an order of magnitude compared to previous approaches. This selective access multifocal multiphoton microscopy uses a spatial light modulator to generate multifocal excitation in three dimensions (3D) and a Gaussian–Laguerre phase plate to simultaneously detect fluorescence from these spots throughout the volume. We test the performance of this system by simultaneously recording Ca 2 dynamics from cultured neurons at 98–118 locations distributed throughout a 3D volume. This is the first demonstration of 3D imaging in a “single shot” and permits synchronized monitoring of signal propagation across multiple different dendrites.

Journal article

Rowlands CJ, Ströhl F, Vallejo Ramirez P, Scherer K, Kaminski Cet al., 2018, Flat-field super-resolution localization microscopy with a low-cost refractive beam-shaping element, Scientific Reports, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2045-2322

Super-resolution single-molecule localization microscopy, often referred to as PALM/STORM, works by ensuring that fewer than one fluorophore in a diffraction-limited volume is emitting at any one time, allowing the observer to infer that the emitter is located at the center of the point-spread function. This requires careful control over the incident light intensity in order to control the rate at which fluorophores are switched on; if too many fluorophores are activated, their point-spread functions overlap, which impedes efficient localization. If too few are activated, the imaging time is impractically long. There is therefore considerable recent interest in constructing so-called ‘top-hat’ illumination profiles that provide a uniform illumination over the whole field of view. We present the use of a single commercially-available low-cost refractive beamshaping element that can be retrofitted to almost any existing microscope; the illumination profile created by this element demonstrates a marked improvement in the power efficiency of dSTORM microscopy, as well as a significant reduction in the propensity for reconstruction artifacts, compared to conventional Gaussian illumination.

Journal article

So PTC, Choi H, Yew E, Rowlands Cet al., 2018, Principles and applications of temporal-focusing wide-field two-photon microscopy, Multiphoton Microscopy and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging: Applications in Biology and Medicine, Pages: 103-140, ISBN: 9783110438987

Temporal focusing allows for rapid optically sectioned two-photon widefield microscopy. Depth sectioning is provided in a wide-field manner, without spatial focusing, by controlling the temporalwidth of femtosecond laser pulses near the focal plane. This spatial control of the temporal pulse width is achieved by diffracting the light off a grating resulting in spectral component separation and temporal broadening; these spectral components are only recombined at the focal plane to reproduce short, femtosecond pulses. Applications include (i) high speed functional imaging in the brain, (ii) fast FLIM and PLIM, (iii) cell-selective optogenetic excitation, and (iv) temporal focusing photodynamic therapy that may allow selective killing of cancer cells.

Book chapter

Rowlands CJ, Park D, Bruns OT, Piatkevich KD, Fukumura D, Jain RK, Bawendi MG, Boyden ES, So PTCet al., 2017, Wide-field three-photon excitation in biological samples, Light: Science and Applications, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2047-7538

Three-photon wide-field depth-resolved excitation is used to overcome some of the limitations in conventional point-scanning two- and three-photon microscopy. Excitation of chromophores as diverse as channelrhodopsins and quantum dots is shown, and a penetration depth of more than 700 μm into fixed scattering brain tissue is achieved, approximately twice as deep as that achieved using two-photon wide-field excitation. Compatibility with live animal experiments is confirmed by imaging the cerebral vasculature of an anesthetized mouse; a complete focal stack was obtained without any evidence of photodamage. As an additional validation of the utility of wide-field three-photon excitation, functional excitation is demonstrated by performing three-photon optogenetic stimulation of cultured mouse hippocampal neurons expressing a channelrhodopsin; action potentials could reliably be excited without causing photodamage.

Journal article

Bruns OT, Bischof TS, Harris DK, Franke D, Shi Y, Riedemann L, Bartelt A, Jaworski FB, Carr JA, Rowlands CJ, Wilson MWB, Chen O, Wei H, Hwang GW, Montana DM, Coropceanu I, Achorn OB, Kloepper J, Heeren J, So PTC, Fukumura D, Jensen KF, Jain RK, Bawendi MGet al., 2017, Next-generation in vivo optical imaging with short-wave infrared quantum dots, NATURE BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, Vol: 1, ISSN: 2157-846X

Journal article

Abshire JR, Rowlands CJ, Ganesan SM, So PTC, Niles JCet al., 2017, Quantification of labile heme in live malaria parasites using a genetically encoded biosensor, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Vol: 114, Pages: E2068-E2076, ISSN: 0027-8424

Journal article

Park JK, Rowlands CJ, So PTC, 2017, Enhanced Axial Resolution of Wide-Field Two-Photon Excitation Microscopy by Line Scanning Using a Digital Micromirror Device, MICROMACHINES, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2072-666X

Journal article

Xue Y, Berry KP, Rowlands CJ, Takiguchi Y, So PTC, Nedivi Eet al., 2017, Monitoring neuronal signal integration by selective access multifoci multiphoton microscopy

Our project seeks to develop technology capable of monitoring how a single neuron integrate its inputs from over 104 synapses. This target requires optical imaging technology with high resolution and high speed for both structural and functional imaging. Parallel multifoci imaging is a significant method to improve the imaging speed while preserving high image signal-tonoise- ratio (SNR). Here we demonstrate a scanless method, selective access multifoci multiphoton microscopy (saMMM), for volumetric structure imaging and function imaging. The system is able to excite multifoci modulated by spatial light modulator, and more importantly, detect fluorescence from these multiple spots simultaneously using a Gaussian-Laguerre (GL) phase plate for phase modulation. The phase plate modulates a Gaussian point spread function to double-helix point spread function, which both extends the depth of focus and encodes axial position by rotation angle. We showed the multifoci advantage of the system by simultaneous recording calcium dynamics of cultured neuron from 149 locations across the whole field of view, and we showed the volumetric imaging advantage by simultaneously exciting and detecting multiple locations in three-dimension of a neuron and reconstruct the exact axial positions from a single plane image. Calcium dynamics recorded with and without modulation with a GL phase phate recorded and compared in terms of SNR. This “3D image by one shot“ strategy largely improved the signal to noise ratio of fluorescence images, therefore it is possible to accelerate the imaging speed. The selective access illumination further elevates the imaging speed by only recording labeled area, also avoid unnecessary photodamage to the specimen. The scanless design breakthrough the limit of mechanical scanning speed, ensured dynamic records from all the foci are strictly synchronized, and no perturbation to cell physiology during imaging. This saMMM system potentially can be appl

Conference paper

So PTC, Yew E, Rowlands C, 2016, Applications of Multiphoton Microscopy in Dermatology, Imaging in Dermatology, Pages: 241-268, ISBN: 9780128028384

Multiphoton microscopy is an important imaging method for noninvasive visualization of dermal physiology and pathology. Multiphoton technology has certain advantages over other visualization techniques. Compared with ultrasound and optical coherence tomography, multiphoton microscopy offers submicron-level spatial resolution. Compared with optical wide-field imaging, multiphoton microscopy offers inherent three-dimensional resolved optical sectioning. Compared with confocal microscopy, multiphoton microscopy offers improved penetration depths in skin imaging of tissue endogenous and exogenous fluorophores. Advances in developing multiphoton microscopes with novel contrast mechanisms, such as second harmonic generation and stimulated Raman scattering, further allow visualization of skin morphology and function based on molecular-level signatures of biological molecules. Therefore multiphoton microscopy has found increasing usage in dermatology that will be reviewed in this chapter. This review covers the basic spectroscopic and imaging principles underlying multiphoton microscopy. Skin photophysics and photochemistry important for multiphoton imaging will be examined. We will review several classes of multiphoton microscope designs that are useful for dermal imaging. Finally, the application of multiphoton microscopy in imaging skin cancers and various other diseases will be covered. The uses of multiphoton imaging to study skin immuno-response, aging, and regeneration phenomena will be presented. Finally, the uses of multiphoton microscopy for analyzing the transdermal transport of drugs, cosmetics and other agents are summarized.

Book chapter

Uzel SGM, Platt RJ, Subramanian V, Pearl TM, Rowlands CJ, Chan V, Boyer LA, So PTC, Kamm RDet al., 2016, Microfluidic device for the formation of optically excitable, three-dimensional, compartmentalized motor units, SCIENCE ADVANCES, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2375-2548

Journal article

Rowlands CJ, Bruns OT, Bawendi MG, So PTCet al., 2015, Objective, comparative assessment of the penetration depth of temporal-focusing microscopy for imaging various organs, JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL OPTICS, Vol: 20, ISSN: 1083-3668

Journal article

Xue Y, Rowlands CJ, So PTC, 2015, Parallel and Flexible Imaging using Two-photon RESOLFT Microscopy with Spatial Light Modulator Control, Conference on Multiphoton Microscopy in the Biomedical Sciences XV, Publisher: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, ISSN: 0277-786X

Conference paper

Rowlands CJ, Wu J, Uzel SGM, Klein O, Evans CL, So PTCet al., 2014, 3D-resolved targeting of photodynamic therapy using temporal focusing, Laser Physics Letters, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1612-2011

A method for selectively inducing apoptosis in tumor nodules is presented, with close-to-cellular level resolution, using 3D-resolved widefield temporal focusing illumination. Treatment times on the order of seconds were achieved using Verteporfin as the photosensitizer, with doses of 30 μg ml−1 and below. Results were achieved on both 2D and 3D cell cultures, demonstrating that treatment was possible through approximately one hundred microns of dense tumor nodules.

Journal article

Kong K, Rowlands CJ, Varma S, Perkins W, Leach IH, Koloydenko AA, Pitiot A, Williams HC, Notingher Iet al., 2014, Increasing the speed of tumour diagnosis during surgery with selective scanning Raman microscopy, JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR STRUCTURE, Vol: 1073, Pages: 58-65, ISSN: 0022-2860

Journal article

Yew E, Rowlands C, So PTC, 2014, Application of multiphoton microscopy in dermatological studies: A mini-review, JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE OPTICAL HEALTH SCIENCES, Vol: 7, ISSN: 1793-5458

Journal article

Rowlands CJ, Bruns OT, Franke D, Bawendi MG, So PTCet al., 2014, Near-infrared temporal focusing microscopy with quantum dot fluorophores

The tissue penetration depth of temporal focusing is increased by utilizing longer excitation wavelengths combined with quantum dots possessing extremely high two-photon crosssections. Cerebral vasculature is imaged in a mouse brain in vivo.

Conference paper

Marcu L, French PMW, Elson DS, 2014, Preface, ISBN: 9781439861677

Wide-field time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) essentially entails illuminating a sample with an ultrashort pulse of excitation radiation and sampling the resulting time varying fluorescence “image” following excitation by acquiring a series of gated fluorescence intensity images recorded at different relative delays with respect to the excitation pulse. This is represented schematically in Figure 8.1. In the simplest case, a map of the mean fluorescence decay times across the field of view is obtained. If the sampling of the fluorescence decay profiles is appropriately detailed, then the entire fluorescence decay profile for each image pixel can be acquired, and the resulting data set can be fitted to complex temporal decay models. For example, a double exponential decay model is frequently used to analyze data from Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET) experiments. The acquisition of time-gated fluorescence intensity images requires a 2-D detector, normally a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, and some kind of fast “shutter” able to sample fluorescence decay profiles on subnanosecond timescales. Such a “shutter” function cannot be provided by mechanical means or yet by electronic circuitry and is typically provided by optical image intensifiers whose gain can be modulated by varying the applied voltage.

Book

So PTC, Yew EYS, Rowlands C, 2013, High-Throughput Nonlinear Optical Microscopy, BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 105, Pages: 2641-2654, ISSN: 0006-3495

Journal article

Kong K, Rowlands CJ, Varma S, Perkins W, Leach IH, Koloydenko AA, Williams HC, Notingher Iet al., 2013, Diagnosis of tumors during tissue-conserving surgery with integrated autofluorescence and Raman scattering microscopy, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Vol: 110, Pages: 15189-15194, ISSN: 0027-8424

Journal article

Rowlands CJ, Yew EYS, So PTC, 2013, Parallel super-resolution imaging, NATURE METHODS, Vol: 10, Pages: 709-710, ISSN: 1548-7091

Journal article

Rowlands CJ, So PTC, 2013, On the correction of errors in some multiple particle tracking experiments, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, Vol: 102, ISSN: 0003-6951

Journal article

Rowlands CJ, Varma S, Perkins W, Leach I, Williams H, Notingher Iet al., 2012, Rapid acquisition of Raman spectral maps through minimal sampling: applications in tissue imaging, JOURNAL OF BIOPHOTONICS, Vol: 5, Pages: 220-229, ISSN: 1864-063X

Journal article

Kong K, Rowlands CJ, Elsheikha H, Notingher Iet al., 2012, Label-free molecular analysis of live Neospora caninum tachyzoites in host cells by selective scanning Raman micro-spectroscopy, ANALYST, Vol: 137, Pages: 4119-4122, ISSN: 0003-2654

Journal article

Rowlands CJ, Notingher I, 2012, Selective sampling in hyperspectral raman micro-spectroscopy: Obtaining maximum data with minimal sampling time

We present a new method for selectively sampling hyperspectral Raman maps in order to maximize the information that can be obtained for a given sample time. Example maps and comparisons with alternative methods are provided. © OSA 2012.

Conference paper

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