Imperial College London

Ms Chrysoula Sfynia

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Casual - Academic Research







304Skempton BuildingSouth Kensington Campus





Publication Type

3 results found

Sfynia C, Bond T, Kanda R, Templeton MRet al., 2020, The formation of disinfection by-products from the chlorination and chloramination of amides, Chemosphere, Vol: 248:125940, ISSN: 0045-6535

This study examined the potential of six aliphatic and aromatic amides, commonly found in natural waters or used as chemical aids in water treatment, to act as organic precursors for nine haloacetamides (HAcAms), five haloacetonitriles (HANs), regulated trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) upon chlorination and chloramination. The impact of key experimental conditions, representative of drinking water, including pH (7 & 8), retention time (4 & 24 h) and bromide levels (0 & 100 μg/L), on the generation of the target DBPs was investigated. The highest aggregate DBP yields upon chlor(am)ination were reported for the aromatic and hydrophobic hydroxybenzamide; 2.7% ± 0.1% M/M (chlorination) and 1.7% M/M (chloramination). Increased reactivity was observed in aliphatic and hydrophilic compounds, acrylamide (2.5 ± 0.2% M/M) and acetamide (1.3 ± 0.2% M/M), in chlorination and chloramination, respectively. The addition of bromide increased average DBP yields by 50–70%. Relative to chlorination, the application of chloramines reduced DBP formation by 66.5% (without Br−) and by 46.4% (with Br−). However, bromine incorporation in HAAs and HAcAms was enhanced following chloramination, of concern due to the higher toxicological potency of brominated compounds.

Journal article

Sfynia C, Bond T, Kanda R, Templeton MRet al., 2017, Predicting the formation of haloacetonitriles and haloacetamides by simulated distribution systems tests, Water Distribution Systems Analysis (WDSA) Conference, Cartagena, Colombia

Conference paper

Sfynia C, Bond T, Kanda R, Templeton MRet al., 2016, Nitrogenous disinfection by-product formation from the chlorination and chloramination of amides, Proceedings of the American Water Works Association (AWWA) Water Quality Technology Conference (WQTC), Indianapolis, Indiana, USA

Conference paper

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