Imperial College London

DrChristopher BernhardTimmermann Slater

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Brain Sciences

Research Associate



+44 (0)20 7594 7994c.timmermann-slater15 CV




Burlington DanesHammersmith Campus






BibTex format

author = {Rajpal, H and Martinez, Mediano PA and Rosas, De Andraca FE and Timmermann, Slater CB and Brugger, S and Muthukumaraswamy, S and Seth, A and Bor, D and Carhart-Harris, R and Jensen, H},
doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2022.119624},
journal = {NeuroImage},
title = {Psychedelics and schizophrenia: Distinct alterations to Bayesian inference},
url = {},
volume = {263},
year = {2022}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Schizophrenia and states induced by certain psychotomimetic drugs may share some physiological and phenomenological properties, but they differ in fundamental ways: one is a crippling chronic mental disease, while the others are temporary, pharmacologically-induced states presently being explored as treatments for mental illnesses. Building towards a deeper understanding of these different alterations of normal consciousness, here we compare the changes in neural dynamics induced by LSD and ketamine (in healthy volunteers) against those associated with schizophrenia, as observed in resting-state M/EEG recordings. While both conditions exhibit increased neural signal diversity, our findings reveal that this is accompanied by an increased transfer entropy from the front to the back of the brain in schizophrenia, versus an overall reduction under the two drugs. Furthermore, we show that these effects can be reproduced via different alterations of standard Bayesian inference applied on a computational model based on the predictive processing framework. In particular, the effects observed under the drugs are modelled as a reduction of the precision of the priors, while the effects of schizophrenia correspond to an increased precision of sensory information. These findings shed new light on the similarities and differences between schizophrenia and two psychotomimetic drug states, and have potential implications for the study of consciousness and future mental health treatments.
AU - Rajpal,H
AU - Martinez,Mediano PA
AU - Rosas,De Andraca FE
AU - Timmermann,Slater CB
AU - Brugger,S
AU - Muthukumaraswamy,S
AU - Seth,A
AU - Bor,D
AU - Carhart-Harris,R
AU - Jensen,H
DO - 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2022.119624
PY - 2022///
SN - 1053-8119
TI - Psychedelics and schizophrenia: Distinct alterations to Bayesian inference
T2 - NeuroImage
UR -
UR -
VL - 263
ER -