Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineNational Heart & Lung Institute

Honorary Clinical Senior Lecturer



carl.reynolds Website




G.39Emmanuel Kaye BuildingRoyal Brompton Campus





Publication Type

6 results found

Reynolds CJ, Minelli C, 2023, Reply: Confounding in Mendelian randomisation studies, EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 62, ISSN: 0903-1936

Journal article

Reynolds CJ, Del Greco M F, Allen RJ, Flores C, Jenkins RG, Maher TM, Molyneaux PL, Noth I, Oldham JM, Wain LV, An J, Ong J-S, MacGregor S, Yates TA, Cullinan P, Minelli Cet al., 2023, The causal relationship between gastro-esophageal reflux disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A bidirectional two-sample Mendelian randomization study., Eur Respir J

BACKGROUND: Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in observational studies. It is not known if this association arises because GERD causes IPF, or IPF causes GERD, or because of confounding by factors, such as smoking, associated with both GERD and IPF. We used bidirectional Mendelian randomisation (MR), where genetic variants are used as instrumental variables to address issues of confounding and reverse causation, to examine how, if at all, GERD and IPF are causally related. METHODS AND RESULTS: A bidirectional two-sample MR was performed to estimate the causal effect of GERD on IPF risk, and of IPF on GERD risk, using genetic data from the largest GERD (78 707 cases and 288 734 controls) and IPF (4125 cases and 20 464 controls) genome-wide association meta-analyses currently available. GERD increased the risk of IPF, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.6 (95% Confidence Interval, CI: 1.04-2.49; p=0.032). There was no evidence of a causal effect of IPF on the risk of GERD, with an OR of 0.999 (95%CI: 0.997-1.000; p=0.245). CONCLUSION: We found that GERD increases the risk of IPF, but found no evidence that IPF increases the risk of GERD. GERD should be considered in future studies of IPF risk, and interest in it as a potential therapeutic target should be renewed. The mechanisms underlying the effect of GERD on IPF should also be investigated.

Journal article

Reynolds CJ, Sisodia R, Barber C, Moffatt M, Minelli C, De Matteis S, Cherrie JW, Newman Taylor A, Cullinan Pet al., 2023, What role for asbestos in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis? Findings from the IPF job exposures case-control study, OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE, Vol: 80, Pages: 97-103, ISSN: 1351-0711

Journal article

Reynolds C, Feary J, Cullinan P, 2020, Occupational contributions to interstitial lung disease, Clinics in Chest Medicine, Vol: 41, Pages: 697-707, ISSN: 0272-5231

Journal article

Reynolds CJ, Minelli C, Darnton A, Cullinan Pet al., 2019, Mesothelioma mortality in Great Britain: how much longer will dockyards dominate?, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol: 76, Pages: 908-912, ISSN: 1351-0711

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether there has been a geographic shift in the distribution of mesothelioma deaths in Great Britain given the decline of shipbuilding and progressive exposure regulation. METHODS: We calculated age-adjusted mesothelioma mortality rates and estimated rate ratios for areas with and without a dockyard. We compared spatial autocorrelation statistics (Moran's I) for age-adjusted rates at local authority district level for 2002-2008 and 2009-2015. We measured the mean distance of the deceased's postcode to the nearest dockyard at district level and calculated the association of average distance to dockyard and district mesothelioma mortality using simple linear regression for men, for 2002-2008 and 2009-2015. RESULTS: District age-adjusted male mortality rates fell during 2002-2015 for 80 of 348 districts (23%), rose for 267 (77%) and were unchanged for one district; having one or more dockyards in a district was associated with rates falling (OR=2.43, 95% CI 1.22 to 4.82, p=0.02). The mortality rate ratio for men in districts with a dockyard, compared with those without a dockyard was 1.41 (95% CI 1.35 to 1.48, p<0.05) for 2002-2008 and 1.18 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.23, p<0.05) for 2009-2015. Spatial autocorrelation (measured by Moran's I) decreased from 0.317 (95% CI 0.316 to 0.319, p=0.001) to 0.312 (95% CI 0.310 to 0.314, p=0.001) for men and the coefficient of the association between distance to dockyard and district level age-adjusted male mortality (per million population) from -0.16 (95% CI -0.21 to -0.10, p<0.01) to -0.13 (95% CI -0.18 to -0.07, p<0.01) for men, when comparing 2002-2008 with 2009-2015. CONCLUSION: For most districts age-adjusted mesothelioma mortality rates increased through 2002-2015 but the relative contribution from districts with a dockyard fell. Dockyards remain strongly spatially associated with mesothelioma mortality but the strength of this association appears to be falling and mesotheliom

Journal article

MacNeill SJ, Williams J, Hodges NG, Campbell MJ, Cullinan Pet al., 2008, CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE IN WELSH MINERS, Winter Meeting of the British-Thoracic-Society, Publisher: B M J PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A6-A6, ISSN: 0040-6376

Conference paper

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