14 results found
Howe C, Corbera E, Vira B, et al., 2018, Distinct positions underpin ecosystem services for poverty alleviation, Oryx, ISSN: 0030-6053
As the concept of ecosystem services is applied more widely in conservation, its users will encounter the issue of poverty alleviation. Policy initiatives involving ecosystem services are often marked by their use of win-win narratives that conceal the trade-offs they must entail. Modelling this paper on an earlier essay about conservation and poverty, we explore the different views that underlie apparent agreement. We identify five positions that reflect different mixes of concern for ecosystem condition, poverty and economic growth, and we suggest that acknowledging these helps to uncover the subjacent goals of policy interventions and the trade-offs they involve in practice. Recognizing their existence and foundations can ultimately support the emergence of more legitimate and robust policies.
Pascual U, Howe C, 2018, Seeing the wood for the trees: exploring the evolution of frameworks of ecosystem services for human wellbeing, Ecosystem services and poverty alleviation: trade-offs and governance, Editors: Schreckenberg, Mace, Poudyal, Pages: 3-21, ISBN: 9780429016295
Ecosystem service frameworks connect with different societal goals and priorities regarding ecosystem management and development planning, and thus reflect the different epistemic communities from which they arise. Since the publication of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), ecosystem service framing has undergone a significant evolution and this evolution has, in turn, continued to reshape the epistemic communities and their take on policy instruments, including for example payments for ecosystem services. This chapter explores the development of ecosystem services framings over the last decade, focusing on how the ecosystem service frameworks, such as the UN-led Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB), the UK-led Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) programme and the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), have significantly influenced how we conceptualise and use the ecosystem service approach. Through an exploration of the evolution of ecosystem service and well-being framings, the chapter highlights that there has been a substantial shift towards seeing ecosystem services through a richer lens, departing from a mostly supply (biophysical) perspective to a more balanced social-ecological perspective, including the issues of equity and justice in ecosystem governance, and a pluralistic conceptualisation of values.
Crees JJ, Collins AC, Stephenson PJ, et al., 2016, A comparative approach to assess drivers of success in mammalian conservation recovery programs, Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology, Vol: 30, Pages: 694-705
Milner-Gulland EJ, Sainsbury K, Burgess N, et al., 2015, Exploring stakeholder perceptions of conservation outcomes from alternative income generating activities in Tanzanian villages adjacent to Eastern Arc mountain forests., Biological Conservation, Vol: 191, Pages: 20-28, ISSN: 0006-3207
Suich H, Howe C, Mace G, 2015, Ecosystem services and poverty alleviation: A review of the empirical links, Ecosystem Services, Vol: 12, Pages: 137-147, ISSN: 2212-0416
We present the results of a review of the empirical evidence and of the state of knowledge regarding the mechanisms linking ecosystem services and poverty alleviation. The review was undertaken to determine the state of current knowledge about the scale and nature of these linkages, and focus the future research agenda. Research has, to date, focussed largely on provisioning services, and on just two poverty dimensions concerning income and assets, and food security and nutrition. While many papers describe links between ecosystem services and dimensions of poverty, few provide sufficient context to enable a thorough understanding of the poverty alleviation impacts (positive or negative), if any. These papers contribute to the accumulating evidence that ecosystem services support well-being, and perhaps prevent people becoming poorer, but provide little evidence of their contribution to poverty alleviation, let alone poverty elimination. A considerable gap remains in understanding the links between ecosystem services and poverty, how change occurs, and how pathways out of poverty may be achieved based on the sustainable utilisation of ecosystem services.
Howe C, Suich H, Vira B, et al., 2014, Creating win-wins from trade-offs? Ecosystem services for human well-being: A meta-analysis of ecosystem service trade-offs and synergies in the real world, Global Environmental Change, Vol: 28, Pages: 263-275
Andradi-Brown DA, Howe C, Mace GM, et al., 2013, Do mangrove forest restoration or rehabilitation activities return biodiversity to pre-impact levels?, Environmental Evidence, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2047-2382
BackgroundMangrove forest restoration and rehabilitation programs are increasingly undertaken to re-establish ecosystem services in the context of community-based biodiversity conservation. Restoration is returning a habitat to the most natural condition, whereas rehabilitation often focuses on optimising ecosystem services alongside biodiversity. With many different restoration and rehabilitation objectives and techniques existing, it is difficult to assess the general effectiveness of restoration and rehabilitation on biodiversity and ecosystem services. This systematic review protocol presents a methodology that will be used to assess the impacts of mangrove forest restoration and rehabilitation on biodiversity and provisioning ecosystem services in a global context.MethodsThis review will assess studies that have undertaken biodiversity surveys of restored and rehabilitated mangrove forests by comparing them against suitable mature reference mangrove forests within the same region, or surveys prior to degradation of the forest. This review will investigate how the age and initial tree diversity of a restoration or rehabilitation activities determine the effectiveness of these initiatives. Taxa of commercial value to local communities will be assessed to identify whether rehabilitation for optimal ecosystem service provision is likely to conflict with the full restoration of mangrove forests.
Damerell P, Howe C, Milner-Gulland EJ, 2013, Child-orientated environmental education influences adult knowledge and household behaviour, Environmental Research Letters, Vol: 8
Howe C, Suich H, van Gardingen P, et al., 2013, Elucidating the pathways between climate change, ecosystem services and poverty alleviation, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Vol: 5, Pages: 102-107
Howe C, Milner-Gulland EJ, 2013, Response to Cunningham, S. and King, L. (2013), Animal Conservation, Vol: 16, Pages: 139-140
Howe C, Milner-Gulland EJ, 2012, Evaluating indices of conservation success: A comparative analysis of outcome- and output-based indices, Animal Conservation, Vol: 15, Pages: 217-226
Howe C, Milner-Gulland EJ, 2012, The view from the office is not all bad: Conservation evaluation as a ’sexy’ research goal, Animal Conservation, Vol: 15, Pages: 231-232
Howe C, Obgenova O, Milner-Gulland EJ, 2012, Evaluating the effectiveness of a public awareness campaign as a conservation intervention: The saiga antelope Saiga tatarica in Kalmykia, Russia, ORYX, Vol: 46, Pages: 269-277
Howe C, Medzhidov R, Milner-Gulland EJ, 2011, Evaluating the relative effectiveness of alternative conservation interventions in influencing stated behavioural intentions: The saiga antelope in Kalmykia (Russia), Environmental Conservation, Vol: 38, Pages: 37-44
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