Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Visiting Researcher



christoforos.panteli11 CV




Electrical EngineeringSouth Kensington Campus





Publication Type

8 results found

Panteli C, Georgiou P, Fobelets K, 2021, Reduced Drift of CMOS ISFET pH Sensors Using Graphene Sheets, IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, Vol: 21, Pages: 14609-14618, ISSN: 1530-437X

Journal article

Moser N, Panteli C, Fobelets K, Georgiou Pet al., 2019, Mechanisms for enhancement of sensing performance in CMOS ISFET arrays using reactive ion etching, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Vol: 292, Pages: 297-307, ISSN: 0925-4005

In this work, we investigate the impact of successively removing the passivation layers of ISFET sensors implemented in a standard CMOS process to improve sensing performance. Reactive ion etching is used as a post-processing technique of the CMOS chips for uniform and accurate etching. The removal of the passivation layers addresses common issues with commercial implementation of ISFET sensors, including pH sensitivity, capacitive attenuation, trapped charge, drift and noise. The process for removing the three standard layers (polyimide, Si3N4 and SiO2) is tailored to minimise the surface roughness of the sensing layer throughout an array of more than 4000 ISFET sensors. By careful calibration of the plasma recipe we perform material-wise etch steps at the top and middle of the nitride layer and top of the oxide layer. The characterisation of the ISFET array proves that the location of the trapped charge in the passivation layers is mainly at the interface of the layers. Etching to the top of the oxide layer is shown to induce an improvement of 80% in the offset range throughout the array and an increase in SNR of almost 40 dB compared to the non-processed configuration. The performance enhancement demonstrates the benefit of a controlled industry-standard etch process on CMOS ISFET array system-on-chips.

Journal article

Fobelets K, Panteli C, Sydoruk O, Li Cet al., 2018, Ammonia sensing using arrays of silicon nanowires and graphene, Journal of Semiconductors, Vol: 39, ISSN: 1674-4926

Ammonia (NH3) is a toxic gas released in different industrial, agricultural and natural processes. It is also a biomarker for some diseases. These require NH3 sensors for health and safety reasons. To boost the sensitivity of solid-state sensors, the effective sensing area should be increased. Two methods are explored and compared using an evaporating pool of 0.5 mL NH4OH (28% NH3). In the first method an array of Si nanowires (Si NWA) is obtained via metal-assisted-electrochemical etching to increase the effective surface area. In the second method CVD graphene is suspended on top of the Si nanowires to act as a sensing layer. Both the effective surface area as well as the density of surface traps influences the amplitude of the response. The effective surface area of Si NWAs is 100 × larger than that of suspended graphene for the same top surface area, leading to a larger response in amplitude by a factor of ~7 notwithstanding a higher trap density in suspended graphene. The use of Si NWAs increases the response rate for both Si NWAs as well as the suspended graphene due to more effective NH3 diffusion processes.

Journal article

Panteli C, Georgiou P, Fobelets K, 2018, Performance improvement of commercial ISFET sensors using reactive ion etching, Microelectronic Engineering, Vol: 192, Pages: 61-65, ISSN: 0167-9317

Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) is used to improve the performance of commercial Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistors (ISFETs) by thinning the top passivation layers inherent of the CMOS fabrication process. Using a combination of O2 and SF6 in 50% ratio, both polyimide and Si3N4 layers are etched in one etching step. Etching for different times we find the right remaining layer thickness for best ISFET performance to be ∼1 μm of SiO2. The results show an increase in pH sensitivity of 125%, a 5700% increase in passivation capacitance and a 96% reduction in capacitive attenuation. The RIE etch recipe can be used on multi-project wafers (MPW) to boost CMOS sensor performance.

Journal article

Moser N, Panteli C, Ma D, Toumazou C, Fobelets K, Georgiou Pet al., 2017, Improving the pH Sensitivity of ISFET Arrays withReactive Ion Etching, BioCAS 2017, Publisher: IEEE

In this paper, we report a method to improvesensitivity for CMOS ISFET arrays using Reactive Ion Etching(RIE) as a post-processing technique. The process etches awaythe passivation layers of the commercial CMOS process, using anoxygen (O2) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) plasma. The resultingattenuation and pH sensitivity are characterised for five diesetched for 0 to 15 minutes, and we demonstrate that capacitiveattenuation is reduced by 196% and pH sensitivity increasedby 260% compared to the non-etched equivalent. The spread oftrapped charge is also reduced which relaxes requirements on theanalogue front-end. The technique significantly improves the performanceof the fully-integrated sensing system for applicationssuch as DNA detection.

Conference paper

Panteli C, Georgiou P, Fobelets K, 2017, Optimising the performance of commercial ISFET sensors using Reactive Ion Etching, MNE 2017

Conference paper

Panteli C, Fobelets K, Sydoruk O, 2017, Graphene Suspended on Silicon Nanowire Arrays for Enhanced Gas Sensing, 231st ECS Meeting, ISSN: 2151-2043

Conference paper

Panteli C, Liu D, Sydoruk O, Fobelets Ket al., 2016, Through graphene etching of porous Si by electroless metal assisted chemical etching, MNE

Conference paper

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