Imperial College London

Chris Rao

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Surgery & Cancer

Honorary Clinical Research Fellow
 
 
 
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Contact

 

christopher.rao Website

 
 
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Location

 

Chelsea and Westminster HospitalChelsea and Westminster Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

105 results found

Hunt N, Rao C, Logan R, Chandrabalan V, Oakey J, Ainsworth C, Smith N, Banerjee S, Myers Met al., 2022, A cohort study of duplicate faecal immunochemical testing in patients at risk of colorectal cancer from North-West England, BMJ OPEN, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2044-6055

Journal article

Kaul S, Rao C, Mane R, Tan KL, Khan AHA, Hussain MS, Shafi MA, Buettner F, Banerjee S, Boulton R, Bhargava A, Huang J, Hanson M, Raouf S, Ball S, Rajendran Net al., 2021, Is the Management of Rectal Cancer Using a Watch and Wait Approach Feasible, Safe and Effective in a Publicly Funded General Hospital?, CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, Vol: 34, Pages: E25-E34, ISSN: 0936-6555

Journal article

Deputy M, Rao C, Worley G, Balinskaite V, Bottle A, Aylin P, Burns EM, Faiz Oet al., 2021, Effect of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on mortality related to high-risk emergency and major elective surgery, BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Vol: 108, Pages: 754-759, ISSN: 0007-1323

Journal article

Gash K, Vaughan-Shaw PG, Brown J, Adams K, Valiance AE, Torkington J, Morris K, Cornish JA, Chambers A, Stearns A, Walsh A, Rankin A, Khan A, Morton A, Engledow A, Newman A, Shaw A, Wilkins A, Curtis A, Jones A, Makhort A, Groves A, Bilkhu A, Alabi A, Miller A, Kosti A, Lyons A, Sayers A, Homer A, Soares AS, Williams A, Oglesby A, Abdelmabod A, Silva ANS, Pannu A, Khan A, Stubbs B, Vadhwana B, Cruz C, El-Sayed C, Currow C, Bowman C, Liao C, Rao C, Halkias C, Glancy D, Anderson D, Bowden D, Zosimas D, Waugh D, Speake D, Scrimgeour D, Monaghan E, Crossley E, Alkizwini E, Barron E, Blower E, Kastanias E, Mosley F, Ugwu F, Faulkner G, Gossedge G, Ramsay G, Lloyd G, Williams G, Preziosi G, McAdam G, Taylor G, Boyd-Carson H, Copley H, Naheswaran H, Black H, Ferguson H, Koh H, Jones H, Lord I, Reece I, Foster J, Pitt J, Shabbir J, Sarveswaran J, Sagar J, Foot J, Allison J, Hilton J, Deery J, Fallon J, Lund J, Easterbrook J, Fletcher J, Bailey J, Huang J, John J, Roy J, Leong K, Sahnan K, Hodson K, Cross K, Hobson K, Siggens K, Keogh K, Hureibi K, Hashmi K, Muirhead L, Kennedy L, Sheahlin L, Reza L, Pippard L, Dickerson L, Stevenson L, Chand M, Chan M, Yiasemidou M, Wiggans M, Boal M, Feretis M, Saunders M, Shinkwin M, Thornton M, Williamson M, Elshaer M, Rabie M, Fakhrul-Aldeen M, Harilingam M, Francis N, Curtis N, Smart N, Fearnhead N, Symons N, Reay-Jones N, Marks N, Eardley N, Nanjappa N, Pawa N, Husnoo N, Warren O, James O, Mackey P, Sutton P, Herrod P, Orchard P, Tozer P, Persson P, Lokanathan P, Falconer R, Thomas R, Harshen R, Kushwaha R, Maahi R, Bhardwaj R, Radwan R, Oliphant R, Bourdon-Pierre R, Fallaize R, Iddles R, Kelleher R, Rai S, Mehmood S, Arman S, Granger S, Lawday S, Bhandari S, Duff S, Rehman SFU, Rehman S, Mitra S, Lockwood S, Doran S, Pilkington S, Shepherd S, Dilke S, Lindley S, Chandler S, Moug S, Ross T, Hussain T, Roe T, Hettiarachchi T, Mcbride T, Walsh U, Kulikova V, Hariharan V, Datta V, Kenworthy W, Ibrahim Y, Thackray Y, Karar S, Baker Ket al., 2021, Factors impacting time to ileostomy closure after anterior resection: the UK closure of ileostomy timing cohort study (CLOSE-IT), Colorectal Disease, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 1462-8910

AimDelay to closure of ileostomy following anterior resection for rectal cancer may impair postoperative bowel function and quality of life. We analysed time to ileostomy closure across the UK and investigated factors delaying closure.MethodsFor the retrospective cohort we assessed time to closure and incidence of non‐closure for patients who underwent anterior resection with defunctioning ileostomy during 2015. Multivariate linear/Cox regression analyses were performed. For the prospective cohort we captured patients undergoing ileostomy closure during a 3‐month period in 2018 to validate retrospective findings.ResultsThe retrospective cohort involved 788 patients of whom 669 (84.9%) had bowel continuity restored, median time to closure 259 days. Recognized factors associated with delay and risk of non‐closure included anastomotic leak (hazard ratio [HR] 3.65, 2.61–5.08), chemotherapy (HR 2.62, 2.17–3.15) and cancer progression (HR 2.05, 1.62–2.58). Crucially, specific aspects of the surgical pathway were associated with time to closure; for example, waiting list entry prior to outpatient clinic review/imaging was associated with an estimated 133‐day shorter interval to closure (P < 0.001). In the prospective cohort 288 patients underwent closure, at a median of 271 days. Chemotherapy use and cancer progression were associated with delay to closure while listing for surgery prior to clinic and imaging was associated with an estimated shorter interval to closure of 168 days (P = 0.008).ConclusionsDelays to closure of ileostomy are common in the UK. Listing patients for surgery only after follow‐up outpatient appointment, imaging or chemotherapy delays closure. Findings will inform consensus guidelines towards an optimum treatment pathway to reduce delay and improve post‐closure quality of life.

Journal article

Sun Myint A, Dhadda A, Rao C, Sripadam R, Gerard JPet al., 2020, Will GRECCAR 2 be a game changer for the management of rectal cancer?, COLORECTAL DISEASE, Vol: 22, Pages: 2330-2330, ISSN: 1462-8910

Journal article

O'Donohoe N, Chandak P, Likos-Corbett M, Yee J, Hurndall K, Rao C, Engledow AHet al., 2019, Follow up colonoscopy may be omissible in uncomplicated left-ided acute diverticulitis diagnosed with CT- a retrospective cohort study, Scientific Reports, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-4, ISSN: 2045-2322

International guidelines recommend colonoscopy following hospitalisation for acute diverticulitis. There is a paucity of evidence supporting the efficacy of colonoscopy in this context, particularly for patients with CT-diagnosed uncomplicated left-sided diverticulitis. This study aims to investigate the frequency that colorectal cancer (CRC) and advanced adenomas (AA) are identified during follow-up colonoscopy after hospitalisation with CT-proven left-sided diverticulitis for the first time in a UK population. In this single-centre retrospective-cohort study all patients presenting with CT-diagnosed uncomplicated left-sided diverticulitis between 2014 and 2017 were identified. The incidence of histologically confirmed CRC and AA identified at follow-up colonoscopy 4–6 weeks following discharge was assessed. 204 patients with CT proven uncomplicated left-sided diverticulitis underwent follow-up colonoscopy. 72% were female and the median age was 63 years. There were no major complications. 22% of patients were found to have incidental hyperplastic polyps or adenomas with low-grade dysplasia. No CRC or AA were found. Routine colonoscopy following acute diverticulitis in this cohort did not identify a single CRC or AA and could arguably have been omitted. This would significantly reduce cost and pressure on endoscopy departments, in addition to the pain and discomfort that is commonly associated with colonoscopy.

Journal article

Myint AS, Dhadda A, Rao C, Sripadam R, Whitmarsh K, Gerard JPet al., 2019, Re: Evaluating the incidence of pathological complete response in current international rectal cancer practice: the barriers to widespread safe deferral of surgery, COLORECTAL DISEASE, Vol: 21, Pages: 119-120, ISSN: 1462-8910

Journal article

Rao C, Stewartz A, Martin AP, Collins B, Pritchard DM, Athanasiou T, Myint ASet al., 2018, Contact X-ray Brachytherapy as an Adjunct to a Watch and Wait Approach is an Affordable Alternative to Standard Surgical Management of Rectal Cancer for Patients with a Partial Clinical Response to Chemoradiotherapy, CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, Vol: 30, Pages: 625-633, ISSN: 0936-6555

Journal article

Abou-Saleh H, Zouein FA, El-Yazbi A, Sanoudou D, Raynaud C, Rao C, Pintus G, Dehaini H, Eid AHet al., 2018, The march of pluripotent stem cells in cardiovascular regenerative medicine, Stem Cell Research and Therapy, Vol: 9, ISSN: 1757-6512

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be the leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Heart failure remains a major contributor to this mortality. Despite major therapeutic advances over the past decades, a better understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms of CVD as well as improved therapeutic strategies for the management or treatment of heart failure are increasingly needed. Loss of myocardium is a major driver of heart failure. An attractive approach that appears to provide promising results in reducing cardiac degeneration is stem cell therapy (SCT). In this review, we describe different types of stem cells, including embryonic and adult stem cells, and we provide a detailed discussion of the properties of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We also present and critically discuss the key methods used for converting somatic cells to pluripotent cells and iPSCs to cardiomyocytes (CMs), along with their advantages and limitations. Integrating and non-integrating reprogramming methods as well as characterization of iPSCs and iPSC-derived CMs are discussed. Furthermore, we critically present various methods of differentiating iPSCs to CMs. The value of iPSC-CMs in regenerative medicine as well as myocardial disease modeling and cardiac regeneration are emphasized.

Journal article

Sun Myint A, Smith FM, Gollins S, Rao C, Pritchard DMet al., 2018, In Reply to Habr-Gama et al., Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, Vol: 101, Pages: 743-744

Journal article

Rao C, Smith FM, Martin AP, Dhadda AS, Stewart A, Gollins S, Collins B, Athanasiou T, Myint ASet al., 2018, Contact x-ray brachytherapy for rectal cancer following chemoradiotherapy is cost-effective, 37th Meeting of the European-Society-for-Radiotherapy-and-Oncology (ESTRO), Publisher: ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Pages: E577-E578, ISSN: 0167-8140

Conference paper

Rao C, Smith FM, Martin AP, Dhadda AS, Stewart A, Gollins S, Collins B, Athanasiou T, Myint ASet al., 2018, A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Contact X-ray Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Patients with Rectal Cancer Following a Partial Response to Chemoradiotherapy, CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, Vol: 30, Pages: 166-177, ISSN: 0936-6555

Journal article

Glasbey J, Sinclair P, Mohan H, Harries R, ASiT 40-4-40 Course Organiserset al., 2017, 40-4-40: educational and economic outcomes of a free, international surgical training event, Postgraduate Medical Journal, Vol: 93, Pages: 730-735, ISSN: 0032-5473

Purpose of study To demonstrate a model for delivery of an international surgical training event, and demonstrate its educational and economic outcomes.Study design The Association of Surgeons in Training (ASiT) ran a course series on 16 January 2016 across the UK and Ireland. A mandatory, self-reported, online questionnaire collected delegate feedback, using 5-point Likert Scales, and a NetPromoter feedback tool. Precourse and postcourse matched questionnaires were collected for ‘Foundation Skills in Surgery’ (FSS) courses. Paired economic analysis was performed. Statistical analysis was carried out using RStudio (V.3.1.1 Boston, Massachusetts, USA).Results Forty courses were held across the UK and Ireland (65.0% technical, 35.0% non-technical), with 184 faculty members. Of 570 delegates, 529 fully completed the feedback survey (92.8% response rate); 56.5% were male. The median age was 26 years (range: 18–67 years). The mean overall course NetPromoter Score was 8.7 out of 10. On logistic regression high NetPromoter Score was associated with completing a Foundation Skills in Surgery course (R=0.44, OR: 1.49, p=0.025) and having clear learning outcomes (R=0.72, OR: 2.04, p=0.029) but not associated with specialty, course style or teaching style. For Foundation Skills in Surgery courses, delegates reported increased commitment to a career in surgery (p<0.001), confidence with basic surgical skills (p<0.001) and confidence with assisting in theatre (p<0.001). A comparable cost saving of £231,462.37 was calculated across the 40 courses.Conclusion The ASiT ‘40-4-40’ event demonstrated the diversity and depth of surgical training, with 40 synchronous technical and non-technical courses, demonstrable educational benefit and a significant cost saving to surgical trainees.

Journal article

Sun Myint A, Smith FM, Gollins S, Wong H, Rao C, Whitmarsh K, Sripadam R, Rooney P, Hershman M, Pritchard DMet al., 2017, Dose escalation using contact X-ray brachytherapy (CXB) after external beam radiotherapy as a non-surgical treatment option for rectal cancer: outcomes from a single-centre experience, International Journal of Radiation Oncology - Biology - Physics, ISSN: 0360-3016

Journal article

Sun Myint A, Smith FM, Gollins SW, Wong H, Rao C, Whitmarsh K, Sripadam R, Rooney P, Hershman MJ, Fekete Z, Perkins K, Pritchard DMet al., 2017, Dose escalation using contact x-ray brachytherapy (Papillon) for rectal cancer. Does it improve the chance of organ preservation?, The British Journal of Radiology, Pages: 20170175-20170175, ISSN: 0007-1285

Journal article

Rowland TA, Rao C, 2017, The NHS and Private Healthcare, Introduction to Surgery for Students, Editors: Fisher, Ahmed, Dasgupta, Publisher: Springer, Pages: 389-395, ISBN: 978-3-319-43209-0

The National Health Service was founded in 1948 to provide free healthcare to all citizens, with the anticipation that this would improve the general health of the population, and thus ultimately reduce the cost of ill health on the economy. Unfortunately, healthcare costs have risen continually since the inception of the NHS due to an ageing population, increasing public expectations of the health service and advances in medical technology resulting in increasingly costly interventions. Despite continually rising costs and changes to the structure and management of the NHS, it remains a successful and effective system of healthcare.

Book chapter

Rao C, Myint AS, Athanasiou T, Faiz O, Martin AP, Collins B, Smith FMet al., 2017, Avoiding Radical Surgery in Elderly Patients With Rectal Cancer Is Cost-Effective, Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, Vol: 60, Pages: 30-42, ISSN: 0012-3706

BACKGROUND: Radical surgery is associated with significant perioperative mortality in elderly and comorbid populations. Emerging data suggest for patients with a clinical complete response after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy that a watch-and-wait approach may provide equivalent survival and oncological outcomes.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of watch and wait and radical surgery for patients with rectal cancer after a clinical complete response following chemoradiotherapy.DESIGN: Decision analytical modeling and a Markov simulation were used to model long-term costs, quality-adjusted life-years, and cost-effectiveness after watch and wait and radical surgery. Sensitivity analysis was used to investigate the effect of uncertainty in model parameters.SETTINGS: A third-party payer perspective was adopted.PATIENTS: Patients included in the study were a 60-year–old male cohort with no comorbidities, 80-year–old male cohorts with no comorbidities, and 80-year–old male cohorts with significant comorbidities.INTERVENTIONS: Radical surgery and watch-and-wait approaches were studied.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incremental cost, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness ratio over the entire lifetime of the hypothetical patient cohorts were measured.RESULTS: Watch and wait was more effective (60-year–old male cohort with no comorbidities = 0.63 quality-adjusted life-years (95% CI, 2.48–3.65 quality-adjusted life-years); 80-year–old male cohort with no comorbidities = 0.56 quality-adjusted life-years (95% CI, 0.52–1.59 quality-adjusted life-years); 80-year–old male cohort with significant comorbidities = 0.72 quality-adjusted life-years (95% CI, 0.34–1.76 quality-adjusted life-years)) and less costly (60-year–old male cohort with no comorbidities = $11,332.35 (95% CI, $668.50–$23,970.20); 80-year–old male cohort with no comorbidities = $8783.93 (95% CI, $2504.26–$21

Journal article

Wong KA, Hodgson L, Garas G, Malietzis G, Markar S, Rao C, von Segesser LK, Athanasiou Tet al., 2016, How can cardiothoracic and vascular medical devices stay in the market?, Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, ISSN: 1569-9293

Surgeons, as the consumers, must engage in commercial activity regarding medical devices since it directly has impacts on surgical practice and patient outcomes. Unique features defy traditional economic convention in this specific market partly because consumers do not usually pay directly. Greater involvement with commercial activity means better post-market surveillance of medical devices which leads to improved patient safety. The medical device industry has exhibited astonishing levels of growth and profitability reaching $398 billion on a global scale with new product development focusing on unmet clinical need. The industry has rapidly emerged within the context of an ageing population and a global surge in healthcare spending. But the market remains fragmented. The split of consumer, purchaser and payer leads to clinical need driving demand for new product development. This demand contributes to potentially large profit margins mainly contained by regulatory burden and liability issues. Demographic trends, prevalence of diseases and a huge capacity to absorb technology have sustained near unparalleled growth. To stay in the market, incremental development over the short term is essentially aided by responsiveness to demand. Disruptive product development is now more likely to come from multinational companies, in an increasingly expensive, regulated industry. Understanding healthcare organization can help explain the highly complex process of diffusion of innovations in healthcare that include medical devices. The time has come for surgeons to become actively involved with all aspects of the medical device life cycle including commercial activity and post-market surveillance. This is vital for improving patient care and ensuring patient safety.

Journal article

Currie AC, Askari A, Rao C, Saunders BP, Athanasiou T, Faiz OD, Kennedy RHet al., 2016, The potential impact of local excision for T1 colonic cancer in elderly and comorbid populations: a decision analysis., Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, ISSN: 1097-6779

BACKGROUND: Population-based bowel cancer screening has resulted in increasing numbers of patients with T1 colonic cancer. The need for colectomy in this group is questioned due to the low risk of lymphatic spread and increased treatment morbidity, particularly for elderly, comorbid patients. This study examined the quality-of-life benefits and risks of endoscopic resection compared with results after colectomy, for low-risk and high-risk T1 colonic cancer. METHODS: Decision analysis using a Markov simulation model was performed; patients were managed with either endoscopic resection (advanced therapeutic endoscopy) or colectomy. Lesions were considered high risk according to accepted national guidelines. Probabilities and utilities (perception of quality of life) were derived from published data. Hypothetical cohorts of 65- and 80-year-old, fit and unfit patients with low-risk or high-risk T1 colonic cancer were studied. The primary outcome was quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) in life-years (QALYs). RESULTS: In low-risk T1 colonic neoplasia, endoscopic resection increases QALE by 0.09 QALYS for fit 65-year-olds and by 0.67 for unfit 80-year-olds. For high-risk T1 cancers, the QALE benefit for surgical resection is 0.24 QALYs for fit 65-year-olds and the endoscopic QALE benefit is 0.47 for unfit 80-year-olds. The model findings only favored surgery with high local recurrence rates and when quality of life under surveillance was perceived poorly. CONCLUSIONS: Under broad assumptions, endoscopic resection is a reasonable treatment option for both low-risk and high-risk T1 colonic cancer, particularly in elderly, comorbid patients. Exploration of methods to facilitate endoscopic resection of T1 colonic neoplasia appears warranted.

Journal article

Soylu E, Harling L, Ashrafian H, Rao C, Casula R, Athanasiou Tet al., 2016, A systematic review of the safety and efficacy of distal coronary artery anastomotic devices, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CARDIO-THORACIC SURGERY, Vol: 49, Pages: 732-745, ISSN: 1010-7940

Journal article

Currie A, Askari A, Rao C, Faiz O, Athanasiou T, Kennedy Ret al., 2015, Decision analysis using Markov simulation modelling supports local excision in T1 colon cancer, 101st Annual Clinical Congress of the American-College-of-Surgeons (ACS), Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: E58-E59, ISSN: 1072-7515

Conference paper

Murugesu S, Rao C, Chacko L, Madden P, Ziprin Pet al., 2015, Straight to Test: Speeding up Colorectal Cancer Management. A Complete Audit Cycle, International Surgical Congress of the Association-of-Surgeons-of-Great-Britain-and-Ireland, Publisher: WILEY-BLACKWELL, Pages: 46-47, ISSN: 0007-1323

Conference paper

Leff DR, Bottle A, Mayer E, Patten D, Rao C, Athanasiou T, Hadjiminas D, Darzi A, Gui Get al., 2015, Trends in immediate postmastectomy breast reconstruction in the United Kingdom, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Global Open, Vol: 3, ISSN: 2169-7574

Background: The study aimed to evaluate local and national trends in immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) using the national English administrative records, Hospital Episode Statistics. Our prediction was an increase in implant-only and free flap procedures and a decline in latissimus flap reconstructions.Methods: Data from an oncoplastic center were interrogated to derive numbers of implant-only, autologous latissimus dorsi (LD), LD-assisted, and autologous pedicled or free flap IBR procedures performed between 2004 and 2013. Similarly, Hospital Episode Statistics data were used to quantify national trends in these procedures from 1996 to 2012 using a curve fitting analysis.Results: National data suggest an increase in LD procedures between 1996 (n = 250) and 2002 (n = 958), a gradual rise until 2008 (n = 1398) followed by a decline until 2012 (n = 1090). As a percentage of total IBR, trends in LD flap reconstruction better fit a quadratic (R2 = 0.97) than a linear function (R2 = 0.63), confirming a proportional recent decline in LD flap procedures. Conversely, autologous (non-LD) flap reconstructions have increased (1996 = 0.44%; 2012 = 2.76%), whereas implant-only reconstructions have declined (1996 = 95.42%; 2012 = 84.92%). Locally, 70 implant-assisted LD procedures were performed in 2003 -2004, but only 2 were performed in 2012 to 2013.Conclusions: Implants are the most common IBR technique; autologous free flap procedures have increased, and pedicled LD flap procedures are in decline.

Journal article

Currie A, Askari A, Rao C, Athanasiou T, Faiz O, Kennedy Ret al., 2015, DECISION ANALYSIS USING SIMULATION MODELLING SUPPORTS LOCAL EXCISION IN T1 COLON CANCER, 2nd Digestive-Disorders-Federation Conference, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A331-A331, ISSN: 0017-5749

Conference paper

Smith FM, Rao C, Perez RO, Bujko K, Athanasiou T, Habr-Gama A, Faiz Oet al., 2015, Avoiding Radical Surgery Improves Early Survival in Elderly Patients With Rectal Cancer, Demonstrating Complete Clinical Response After Neoadjuvant Therapy: Results of a Decision-Analytic Model, DISEASES OF THE COLON & RECTUM, Vol: 58, Pages: 159-171, ISSN: 0012-3706

Journal article

Ibrahim M, Fanshawe A, Patel V, Goswami K, Chilvers G, Ting M, Pilavakis Y, Rao C, Athanasiou Tet al., 2014, What factors influence British medical students' career intentions?, MEDICAL TEACHER, Vol: 36, Pages: 1064-1072, ISSN: 0142-159X

Journal article

Winston RML, Parker S, 2014, Anatomy Researcher and Advisor: SuperHuman Encyclopedia, ISBN: 9781409356981

Robert Winston explains all the amazing things the human body can do. From the human brain to muscles and bones, he explains to kids the extraordinary processes behind the ordinary human body

Book

Chaudhry UAR, Harling L, Rao C, Ashrafian H, Ibrahim M, Kokotsakis J, Casula R, Athanasiou Tet al., 2014, Off-Pump Versus On-Pump Coronary Revascularization: Meta-Analysis of Mid- and Long-Term Outcomes, ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY, Vol: 98, Pages: 563-573, ISSN: 0003-4975

Journal article

Chaudhry UAR, Rao C, Harling L, Athanasiou Tet al., 2014, Does off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery have a beneficial effect on long-term mortality and morbidity compared with on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery?, INTERACTIVE CARDIOVASCULAR AND THORACIC SURGERY, Vol: 19, Pages: 149-159, ISSN: 1569-9293

Journal article

Trantidou T, Rao C, Barrett H, Camelliti P, Pinto K, Yacoub MH, Athanasiou T, Toumazou C, Terracciano CM, Prodromakis Tet al., 2014, Selective hydrophilic modification of Parylene C films: a new approach to cell micro-patterning for synthetic biology applications, Biofabrication, Vol: 6, ISSN: 1758-5090

We demonstrate a simple, accurate and versatile method to manipulate Parylene C, a material widely known for its high biocompatibility, and transform it to a substrate that can effectively control the cellular microenvironment and consequently affect the morphology and function of the cells in vitro. The Parylene C scaffolds are fabricated by selectively increasing the material's surface water affinity through lithography and oxygen plasma treatment, providing free bonds for attachment of hydrophilic biomolecules. The micro-engineered constructs were tested as culture scaffolds for rat ventricular fibroblasts and neonatal myocytes (NRVM), toward modeling the unique anisotropic architecture of native cardiac tissue. The scaffolds induced the patterning of extracellular matrix compounds and therefore of the cells, which demonstrated substantial alignment compared to typical unstructured cultures. Ca2+ cycling properties of the NRVM measured at rates of stimulation 0.5–2 Hz were significantly modified with a shorter time to peak and time to 90% decay, and a larger fluorescence amplitude (p < 0.001). The proposed technique is compatible with standard cell culturing protocols and exhibits long-term pattern durability. Moreover, it allows the integration of monitoring modalities into the micro-engineered substrates for a comprehensive interrogation of physiological parameters.

Journal article

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