193 results found
Yu Z, Bouganis C-S, 2023, Mixed-TD: efficient neural network accelerator with layer-specific tensor decomposition, 2023 33rd International Conference on Field-Programmable Logic and Applications (FPL), Publisher: IEEE, ISSN: 1946-1488
Neural Network designs are quite diverse, from VGG-style to ResNet-style, and from Convolutional Neural Networks to Transformers. Towards the design of efficient accelerators, many works have adopted a dataflow-based, inter-layer pipelined architecture, with a customized hardware towards each layer, achieving ultra high throughput and low latency. The deployment of neural networks to such dataflow architecture accelerators is usually hindered by the available on-chip memory as it is desirable to preload the weights of neural networks on-chip to maximise the system performance. To address this, networks are usually compressed before the deployment through methods such as pruning, quantization and tensor decomposition. In this paper, a framework for mapping CNNs onto FPGAs based on a novel tensor decomposition method called Mixed-TD is proposed. The proposed method applies layer-specific Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Canonical Polyadic Decomposition (CPD) in a mixed manner, achieving 1.73× to 10.29× throughput per DSP to state-of-the-art CNNs. Our work is open-sourced: https://github.com/Yu-Zhewen/Mixed-TD.
Toupas P, Bouganis C-S, Tzovaras D, 2023, fpgaHART: a toolflow for throughput-oriented acceleration of 3D CNNs for HAR onto FPGAs, 2023 33rd International Conference on Field-Programmable Logic and Applications (FPL), Publisher: IEEE, ISSN: 1946-1488
Surveillance systems, autonomous vehicles, human monitoring systems, and video retrieval are just few of the many applications in which 3D Convolutional Neural Networks are exploited. However, their extensive use is restricted by their high computational and memory requirements, especially when integrated into systems with limited resources. This study proposes a toolflow that optimises the mapping of 3D CNN models for Human Action Recognition onto FPGA devices, taking into account FPGA resources and off-chip memory characteristics. The proposed system employs Synchronous Dataflow (SDF) graphs to model the designs and introduces transformations to expand and explore the design space, resulting in high-throughput designs. A variety of 3D CNN models were evaluated using the proposed toolflow on multiple FPGA devices, demonstrating its potential to deliver competitive performance compared to earlier hand-tuned and model-specific designs.
Biggs B, Bouganis C-S, Constantinides G, 2023, ATHEENA: a toolflow for hardware early-exit network automation, International Symposium On Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 121-132, ISSN: 2576-2621
The continued need for improvements in accuracy, throughput, and efficiency of Deep Neural Networks has resulted in a multitude of methods that make the most of custom architectures on FPGAs. These include the creation of hand-crafted networks and the use of quantization and pruning to reduce extraneous network parameters. However, with the potential of static solutions already well exploited, we propose to shift the focus to using the varying difficulty of individual data samples to further improve efficiency and reduce average compute for classification. Input-dependent computation allows for the network to make runtime decisions to finish a task early if the result meets a confidence threshold. Early-Exit network architectures have become an increasingly popular way to implement such behaviour in software. We create A Toolflow for Hardware Early-Exit Network Automation (ATHEENA), an automated FPGA toolflow that leverages the probability of samples exiting early from such networks to scale the resources allocated to different sections of the network. The toolflow uses the data-flow model of fpgaConvNet, extended to support Early-Exit networks as well as Design Space Exploration to optimize the generated streaming architecture hardware with the goal of increasing throughput/reducing area while maintaining accuracy. Experimental results on three different networks demonstrate a throughput increase of 2.00× to 2.78× compared to an optimized baseline network implementation with no early exits. Additionally, the toolflow can achieve a throughput matching the same baseline with as low as 46% of the resources the baseline requires.
Venieris SI, Bouganis C-S, Lane ND, 2023, Multiple-Deep Neural Network Accelerators for Next-Generation Artificial Intelligence Systems, COMPUTER, Vol: 56, Pages: 70-79, ISSN: 0018-9162
Xia G, Bouganis C-S, 2023, Augmenting Softmax information for selective classification with out-of-distribution data, 16th Asian Conference on Computer Vision, Publisher: Springer Nature Switzerland, Pages: 664-680, ISSN: 0302-9743
Detecting out-of-distribution (OOD) data is a task that is receiving an increasing amount of research attention in the domain of deep learning for computer vision. However, the performance of detection methods is generally evaluated on the task in isolation, rather than also considering potential downstream tasks in tandem. In this work, we examine selective classification in the presence of OOD data (SCOD). That is to say, the motivation for detecting OOD samples is to reject them so their impact on the quality of predictions is reduced. We show under this task specification, that existing post-hoc methods perform quite differently compared to when evaluated only on OOD detection. This is because it is no longer an issue to conflate in-distribution (ID) data with OOD data if the ID data is going to be misclassified. However, the conflation within ID data of correct and incorrect predictions becomes undesirable. We also propose a novel method for SCOD, Softmax Information Retaining Combination (SIRC), that augments softmax-based confidence scores with feature-agnostic information such that their ability to identify OOD samples is improved without sacrificing separation between correct and incorrect ID predictions. Experiments on a wide variety of ImageNet-scale datasets and convolutional neural network architectures show that SIRC is able to consistently match or outperform the baseline for SCOD, whilst existing OOD detection methods fail to do so. Code is available at https://github.com/Guoxoug/SIRC.
Toupas P, Bouganis CS, Tzovaras D, 2023, FMM-X3D: FPGA-Based Modeling and Mapping of X3D for Human Action Recognition, Pages: 119-126, ISSN: 1063-6862
3D Convolutional Neural Networks are gaining increasing attention from researchers and practitioners and have found applications in many domains, such as surveillance systems, autonomous vehicles, human monitoring systems, and video retrieval. However, their widespread adoption is hindered by their high computational and memory requirements, especially when resource-constrained systems are targeted. This paper addresses the problem of mapping X3D, a state-of-the-art model in Human Action Recognition that achieves accuracy of 95.5% in the UCF101 benchmark, onto any FPGA device. The proposed toolflow generates an optimised stream-based hardware system, taking into account the available resources and off-chip memory characteristics of the FPGA device. The generated designs push further the current performance-accuracy pareto front, and enable for the first time the targeting of such complex model architectures for the Human Action Recognition task.
Montgomerie-Corcoran A, Yu Z, Cheng J, et al., 2023, PASS: Exploiting Post-Activation Sparsity in Streaming Architectures for CNN Acceleration, Proceedings - 2023 33rd International Conference on Field-Programmable Logic and Applications, FPL 2023, Pages: 288-293
With the ever-growing popularity of Artificial Intelligence, there is an increasing demand for more performant and efficient underlying hardware. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) are a workload of particular importance, which achieve high accuracy in computer vision applications. Inside CNNs, a significant number of the post-activation values are zero, resulting in many redundant computations. Recent works have explored this post-activation sparsity on instruction-based CNN accelerators but not on streaming CNN accelerators, despite the fact that streaming architectures are considered the leading design methodology in terms of performance. In this paper, we highlight the challenges associated with exploiting post-activation sparsity for performance gains in streaming CNN accelerators, and demonstrate our approach to address them. Using a set of modern CNN benchmarks, our streaming sparse accelerators achieve 1.41 x to 1.93 x efficiency (GOP/sDSP) compared to state-of-the-art instruction-based sparse accelerators.
Yu Z, Bouganis C-S, 2023, SVD-NAS: Coupling Low-Rank Approximation and Neural Architecture Search, 2023 IEEE/CVF WINTER CONFERENCE ON APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER VISION (WACV), Pages: 1503-1512, ISSN: 2472-6737
Montgomerie-Corcoran A, Yu Z, Cheng J, et al., 2023, PASS: Exploiting Post-Activation Sparsity in Streaming Architectures for CNN Acceleration., Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 288-293
Toupas P, Montgomerie-Corcoran A, Bouganis C-S, et al., 2023, HARFLOW3D: A Latency-Oriented 3D-CNN Accelerator Toolflow for HAR on FPGA Devices., Pages: 144-154
Toupas P, Bouganis C-S, Tzovaras D, 2023, FMM-X3D: FPGA-Based Modeling and Mapping of X3D for Human Action Recognition., Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 119-126
Cheng J, Zhang C, Yu Z, et al., 2023, Fast Prototyping Next-Generation Accelerators for New ML Models using MASE: ML Accelerator System Exploration., CoRR, Vol: abs/2307.15517
Toupas P, Montgomerie-Corcoran A, Bouganis C-S, et al., 2023, HARFLOW3D: A Latency-Oriented 3D-CNN Accelerator Toolflow for HAR on FPGA Devices, 31st IEEE Annual International Symposium on Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines (FCCM), Publisher: IEEE COMPUTER SOC, Pages: 144-154, ISSN: 2576-2613
Xia G, Bouganis C-S, 2023, Window-Based Early-Exit Cascades for Uncertainty Estimation: When Deep Ensembles are More Efficient than Single Models., Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 17322-17334
Boroumand S, Bouganis C-S, Constantinides GA, 2022, MIDAS: Mutual Information Driven Approximate Synthesis, IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI (ISVLSI), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 50-55, ISSN: 2159-3477
Applications ranging from the Internet of Things (IoT) to high-performance computing demand energy-efficient hardware for processing and storage. Reducing computation accuracy has shown the potential to achieve high energy efficiency in hardware implementations. In recent years, several automatic approximate logic synthesis techniques have been proposed to build an approximate circuit systematically, trading off accuracy for hardware cost. In this paper, we propose a novel approximate logic synthesis technique to simplify circuits using mutual information by considering the input distribution. Our experimental result shows that our proposed methodology demonstrates improvements in terms of area, delay, and error compared to the state-of-the-art.
Zampokas G, Skartados E, Alexiou D, et al., 2022, WTA/TLA: A UAV-captured dataset for semantic segmentation of energy infrastructure, International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 552-561, ISSN: 2373-6720
Automated inspection of energy infrastructure with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is becoming increasingly important, exhibiting significant advantages over manual inspection, including improved scalability, cost/time effectiveness, and risks reduction. Although recent technological advancements enabled the collection of an abundance of vision data from UAVs’ sensors, significant efforts are still required from experts to interpret manually the collected data and assess the condition of energy infrastructure. Thus, semantic understanding of vision data collected from UAVs during inspection is a critical prerequisite for performing autonomous robotic tasks. However, the lack of labeled data introduces challenges and limitations in evaluating the performance of semantic prediction algorithms. To this end, we release two novel semantic datasets (WTA and TLA) of aerial images captured from power transmission networks and wind turbine farms, collected during real inspection scenarios with UAVs. We also propose modifications to existing state-of-the-art semantic segmentation CNNs to achieve improved trade-off between accuracy and computational complexity. Qualitative and quantitative experiments demonstrate both the challenging properties of the provided dataset and the effectiveness of the proposed networks in this domain.The dataset is available at: https://github.com/gzamps/wta_tla_dataset.
Ahmadi N, Adiono T, Purwarianti A, et al., 2022, Improved spike-based brain-machine interface using bayesian adaptive kernel smoother and deep learning, IEEE Access, Vol: 10, Pages: 29341-29356, ISSN: 2169-3536
Multiunit activity (MUA) has been proposed to mitigate the robustness issue faced by single-unit activity (SUA)-based brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). Most MUA-based BMIs still employ a binning method for estimating firing rates and linear decoder for decoding behavioural parameters. The limitations of binning and linear decoder lead to suboptimal performance of MUA-based BMIs. To address this issue, we propose a method which consists of Bayesian adaptive kernel smoother (BAKS) as the firing rate estimation algorithm and deep learning, particularly quasi-recurrent neural network (QRNN), as the decoding algorithm. We evaluated the proposed method for reconstructing (offline) hand kinematics from intracortical neural data chronically recorded from the primary motor cortex of two non-human primates. Extensive empirical results across recording sessions and subjects showed that the proposed method consistently outperforms other combinations of firing rate estimation algorithm and decoding algorithm. Overall results suggest the effectiveness of the proposed method for improving the decoding performance of MUA-based BMIs.
Zampokas G, Bouganis C-S, Tzovaras D, 2022, Pushing the efficiency of StereoNet: exploiting spatial sparsity, 17th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications (VISIGRAPP) / 17th International Conference on Computer Vision Theory and Applications (VISAPP), Publisher: SCITEPRESS, Pages: 757-766, ISSN: 2184-4321
Current CNN-based stereo matching methods have demonstrated superior performance compared to traditional stereo matching methods. However, mapping these algorithms into embedded devices, which exhibit limited compute resources, and achieving high performance is a challenging task due to the high computational complexity of the CNN-based methods. The recently proposed StereoNet network, achieves disparity estimation with reduced complexity, whereas performance does not greatly deteriorate. Towards pushing this performance to complexity trade-off further, we propose an optimization applied to StereoNet that adapts the computations to the input data, steering the computations to the regions of the input that would benefit from the application of the CNN-based stereo matching algorithm, where the rest of the input is processed by a traditional, less computationally demanding method. Key to the proposed methodology is the introduction of a lightweight CNN that predicts the importance of r efining a region of the input to the quality of the final disparity map, allowing the system to trade-off computational complexity for disparity error on-demand, enabling the application of these methods to embedded systems with real-time requirements.
Montgomerie-Corcoran A, Yu Z, Bouganis C-S, 2022, SAMO: Optimised Mapping of Convolutional Neural Networks to Streaming Architectures, 2022 32ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON FIELD-PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC AND APPLICATIONS, FPL, Pages: 418-424, ISSN: 1946-1488
Montgomerie-Corcoran A, Yu Z, Bouganis C-S, 2022, SAMO: Optimised Mapping of Convolutional Neural Networks to Streaming Architectures., Pages: 418-424
Yu Z, Bouganis C-S, 2021, StreamSVD: Low-rank approximation and streaming accelerator co-design, 20th International Conference on Field-Programmable Technology (ICFPT), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 69-77
The post-training compression of a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) aims to produce Pareto-optimal designs on the accuracy-performance frontier when the access to training data is not possible. Low-rank approximation is one of the methods that is often utilised in such cases. However, existing work considers the low-rank approximation of the network and the optimisation of the hardware accelerator separately, leading to systems with sub-optimal performance. This work focuses on the efficient mapping of a CNN into an FPGA device, and presents StreamSVD, a model-accelerator co-design framework 1 . The framework considers simultaneously the compression of a CNN model through a hardware-aware low-rank approximation scheme, and the optimisation of the hardware accelerator's architecture by taking into account the approximation scheme's compute structure. Our results show that the co-designed StreamSVD outperforms existing work that utilises similar low-rank approximation schemes by providing better accuracy-throughput trade-off. The proposed framework also achieves competitive performance compared with other post-training compression methods, even outperforming them under certain cases.
Rosa LDS, Bouganis C-S, Bonato V, 2021, Non-iterative SDC modulo scheduling for high-level synthesis, Microprocessors and Microsystems, Vol: 86, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 0141-9331
High-level synthesis is a powerful tool for increasing productivity in digital hardware design. However, as digital systems become larger and more complex, designers have to consider an increased number of optimizations and directives offered by high-level synthesis tools to control the hardware generation process. One of the most explored optimizations is loop pipelining due to its impact on hardware throughput and resources. Nevertheless, the modulo scheduling algorithms used at resource-constrained loop pipelining are computationally expensive, and their application through the whole design space is often non-viable. Current state-of-the-art approaches rely on solving multiple optimization problems in polynomial time, or on solving one optimization problem in exponential time. This work proposes a novel data-flow-based approach, where exactly two optimization problems of polynomial time complexity are solved, leading to significant reductions on computation time for generating a single loop pipeline. Results indicate that, even for complex loops, the proposed method generates high-quality designs, comparable to the ones produced by existing state-of-the-art methods, achieving a reduction on the design-space exploration time by
Rosa LDS, Bouganis C-S, Bonato V, 2021, Non-iterative SDC modulo scheduling for high-level synthesis., Microprocess. Microsystems, Vol: 86, Pages: 104334-104334
Ahmadi N, Constandinou T, Bouganis C, 2021, Inferring entire spiking activity from local field potentials, Scientific Reports, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2045-2322
Extracellular recordings are typically analysed by separating them into two distinct signals: local field potentials (LFPs) andspikes. Previous studies have shown that spikes, in the form of single-unit activity (SUA) or multiunit activity (MUA), can beinferred solely from LFPs with moderately good accuracy. SUA and MUA are typically extracted via threshold-based techniquewhich may not be reliable when the recordings exhibit a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Another type of spiking activity, referredto as entire spiking activity (ESA), can be extracted by a threshold-less, fast, and automated technique and has led to betterperformance in several tasks. However, its relationship with the LFPs has not been investigated. In this study, we aim toaddress this issue by inferring ESA from LFPs intracortically recorded from the motor cortex area of three monkeys performingdifferent tasks. Results from long-term recording sessions and across subjects revealed that ESA can be inferred from LFPswith good accuracy. On average, the inference performance of ESA was consistently and significantly higher than those of SUAand MUA. In addition, local motor potential (LMP) was found to be the most predictive feature. The overall results indicate thatLFPs contain substantial information about spiking activity, particularly ESA. This could be useful for understanding LFP-spikerelationship and for the development of LFP-based BMIs.
Bonato V, Bouganis C-S, 2021, Class-specific early exit design methodology for convolutional neural networks., Applied Soft Computing, Vol: 107, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 1568-4946
Convolutional Neural Network-based (CNN) inference is a demanding computational task where a longsequence of operations is applied to an input as dictated by the network topology. Optimisationsby data quantisation, data reuse, network pruning, and dedicated hardware architectures have astrong impact on reducing both energy consumption and hardware resource requirements, and onimproving inference latency. Implementing new applications from established models available fromboth academic and industrial worlds is common nowadays. Further optimisations by preserving modelarchitecture have been proposed via early exiting approaches, where additional exit points are includedin order to evaluate classifications of samples that produce feature maps with sufficient evidence tobe classified before reaching the final model exit. This paper proposes a methodology for designingearly-exit networks from a given baseline model aiming to improve the average latency for a targetedsubset class constrained by the original accuracy for all classes. Results demonstrate average timesaving in the order of 2.09× to 8.79× for dataset CIFAR10 and 15.00× to 20.71× for CIFAR100 forbaseline models ResNet-21, ResNet-110, Inceptionv3-159, and DenseNet-121.
Miliadis P, Bouganis C-S, Pnevmatikatos D, 2021, Performance landscape of resource-constrained platforms targeting DNNs
Over the recent years, a significant number of complex, deep neural networkshave been developed for a variety of applications including speech and facerecognition, computer vision in the areas of health-care, automatictranslation, image classification, etc. Moreover, there is an increasing demandin deploying these networks in resource-constrained edge devices. As thecomputational demands of these models keep increasing, pushing to their limitsthe targeted devices, the constant development of new hardware systems tailoredto those workloads has been observed. Since programmability of these diverseand complex platforms -- compounded by the rapid development of new DNN models-- is a major challenge, platform vendors have developed Machine Learningtailored SDKs to maximize the platform's performance. This work investigates the performance achieved on a number of moderncommodity embedded platforms coupled with the vendors' provided softwaresupport when state-of-the-art DNN models from image classification, objectdetection and image segmentation are targeted. The work quantifies the relativelatency gains of the particular embedded platforms and provides insights on therelationship between the required minimum batch size for achieving maximumthroughput, concluding that modern embedded systems reach their maximumperformance even for modest batch sizes when a modern state of the art DNNmodel is targeted. Overall, the presented results provide a guide for theexpected performance for a number of state-of-the-art DNNs on popular embeddedplatforms across the image classification, detection and segmentation domains.
Ahmadi N, Constandinou TG, Bouganis C-S, 2021, Robust and accurate decoding of hand kinematics from entire spiking activity using deep learning, Journal of Neural Engineering, Vol: 18, Pages: 1-23, ISSN: 1741-2552
Objective. Brain–machine interfaces (BMIs) seek to restore lost motor functions in individuals with neurological disorders by enabling them to control external devices directly with their thoughts. This work aims to improve robustness and decoding accuracy that currently become major challenges in the clinical translation of intracortical BMIs. Approach. We propose entire spiking activity (ESA)—an envelope of spiking activity that can be extracted by a simple, threshold-less, and automated technique—as the input signal. We couple ESA with deep learning-based decoding algorithm that uses quasi-recurrent neural network (QRNN) architecture. We evaluate comprehensively the performance of ESA-driven QRNN decoder for decoding hand kinematics from neural signals chronically recorded from the primary motor cortex area of three non-human primates performing different tasks. Main results. Our proposed method yields consistently higher decoding performance than any other combinations of the input signal and decoding algorithm previously reported across long-term recording sessions. It can sustain high decoding performance even when removing spikes from the raw signals, when using the different number of channels, and when using a smaller amount of training data. Significance. Overall results demonstrate exceptionally high decoding accuracy and chronic robustness, which is highly desirable given it is an unresolved challenge in BMIs.
Ahmadi N, Constandinou T, Bouganis C-S, 2021, Impact of referencing scheme on decoding performance of LFP-based brain-machine interface, Journal of Neural Engineering, Vol: 18, ISSN: 1741-2552
OBJECTIVE: There has recently been an increasing interest in local field potential (LFP) for brain-machine interface (BMI) applications due to its desirable properties (signal stability and low bandwidth). LFP is typically recorded with respect to a single unipolar reference which is susceptible to common noise. Several referencing schemes have been proposed to eliminate the common noise, such as bipolar reference, current source density (CSD), and common average reference (CAR). However, to date, there have not been any studies to investigate the impact of these referencing schemes on decoding performance of LFP-based BMIs. APPROACH: To address this issue, we comprehensively examined the impact of different referencing schemes and LFP features on the performance of hand kinematic decoding using a deep learning method. We used LFPs chronically recorded from the motor cortex area of a monkey while performing reaching tasks. MAIN RESULTS: Experimental results revealed that local motor potential (LMP) emerged as the most informative feature regardless of the referencing schemes. Using LMP as the feature, CAR was found to yield consistently better decoding performance than other referencing schemes over long-term recording sessions. Significance Overall, our results suggest the potential use of LMP coupled with CAR for enhancing the decoding performance of LFP-based BMIs.
Boroumand S, Bouganis C, Constantinides G, 2021, Learning Boolean circuits from examples for approximate logic synthesis, 26th Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference - ASP-DAC 2021, Publisher: ACM, Pages: 524-529
Many computing applications are inherently error resilient. Thus,it is possible to decrease computing accuracy to achieve greater effi-ciency in area, performance, and/or energy consumption. In recentyears, a slew of automatic techniques for approximate computinghas been proposed; however, most of these techniques require fullknowledge of an exact, or ‘golden’ circuit description. In contrast,there has been significant recent interest in synthesizing computa-tion from examples, a form of supervised learning. In this paper, weexplore the relationship between supervised learning of Booleancircuits and existing work on synthesizing incompletely-specifiedfunctions. We show that when considered through a machine learn-ing lens, the latter work provides a good training accuracy butpoor test accuracy. We contrast this with prior work from the 1990swhich uses mutual information to steer the search process, aimingfor good generalization. By combining this early work with a recentapproach to learning logic functions, we are able to achieve a scal-able and efficient machine learning approach for Boolean circuitsin terms of area/delay/test-error trade-off.
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