262 results found
Altmann DM, Boyton RJ, 2023, Outsourcing covid-19 vaccination to the private sector will increase health inequalities, BMJ: British Medical Journal, Vol: 382, Pages: 2012-2012, ISSN: 0959-535X
Altmann DM, Reynolds CJ, Joy G, et al., 2023, Persistent symptoms after COVID-19 are not associated with differential SARS-CoV-2 antibody or T cell immunity, Nature Communications, Vol: 14, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2041-1723
Among the unknowns in decoding the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 persistent symptoms in Long Covid is whether there is a contributory role of abnormal immunity during acute infection. It has been proposed that Long Covid is a consequence of either an excessive or inadequate initial immune response. Here, we analyze SARS-CoV-2 humoral and cellular immunity in 86 healthcare workers with laboratory confirmed mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first wave. Symptom questionnaires allow stratification into those with persistent symptoms and those without for comparison. During the period up to 18-weeks post-infection, we observe no difference in antibody responses to spike RBD or nucleoprotein, virus neutralization, or T cell responses. Also, there is no difference in the profile of antibody waning. Analysis at 1-year, after two vaccine doses, comparing those with persistent symptoms to those without, again shows similar SARS-CoV-2 immunity. Thus, quantitative differences in these measured parameters of SARS-CoV-2 adaptive immunity following mild or asymptomatic acute infection are unlikely to have contributed to Long Covid causality. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04318314).
Jackson C, Stewart ID, Plekhanova T, et al., 2023, Effects of sleep disturbance on dyspnoea and impaired lung function following hospital admission due to COVID-19 in the UK: a prospective multicentre cohort study, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Vol: 11, Pages: 673-684, ISSN: 2213-2600
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance is common following hospital admission both for COVID-19 and other causes. The clinical associations of this for recovery after hospital admission are poorly understood despite sleep disturbance contributing to morbidity in other scenarios. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and nature of sleep disturbance after discharge following hospital admission for COVID-19 and to assess whether this was associated with dyspnoea. METHODS: CircCOVID was a prospective multicentre cohort substudy designed to investigate the effects of circadian disruption and sleep disturbance on recovery after COVID-19 in a cohort of participants aged 18 years or older, admitted to hospital for COVID-19 in the UK, and discharged between March, 2020, and October, 2021. Participants were recruited from the Post-hospitalisation COVID-19 study (PHOSP-COVID). Follow-up data were collected at two timepoints: an early time point 2-7 months after hospital discharge and a later time point 10-14 months after hospital discharge. Sleep quality was assessed subjectively using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire and a numerical rating scale. Sleep quality was also assessed with an accelerometer worn on the wrist (actigraphy) for 14 days. Participants were also clinically phenotyped, including assessment of symptoms (ie, anxiety [Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale questionnaire], muscle function [SARC-F questionnaire], dyspnoea [Dyspnoea-12 questionnaire] and measurement of lung function), at the early timepoint after discharge. Actigraphy results were also compared to a matched UK Biobank cohort (non-hospitalised individuals and recently hospitalised individuals). Multivariable linear regression was used to define associations of sleep disturbance with the primary outcome of breathlessness and the other clinical symptoms. PHOSP-COVID is registered on the ISRCTN Registry (ISRCTN10980107). FINDINGS: 2320 of 2468 participants in the PHOSP-COVID study attended
da Silva Duarte G, Jones AD, de Goes Cavalcanti LP, et al., 2023, Multicenter study of the natural history and therapeutic responses of patients with chikungunya, focusing on acute and chronic musculoskeletal manifestations - a study protocol from the clinical and applied research in Chikungunya (REPLICK network), BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol: 23, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 1471-2334
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya is associated with high morbidity and the natural history of symptomatic infection has been divided into three phases (acute, post-acute, and chronic) according to the duration of musculoskeletal symptoms. Although this classification has been designed to help guide therapeutic decisions, it does not encompass the complexity of the clinical expression of the disease and does not assist in the evaluation of the prognosis of severity nor chronic disease. Thus, the current challenge is to identify and diagnose musculoskeletal disorders and to provide the optimal treatment in order to prevent perpetuation or progression to a potentially destructive disease course. METHODS: The study is the first product of the Clinical and Applied Research Network in Chikungunya (REPLICK). This is a prospective, outpatient department-based, multicenter cohort study in Brazil. Four work packages were defined: i. Clinical research; ii) Translational Science - comprising immunology and virology streams; iii) Epidemiology and Economics; iv) Therapeutic Response and clinical trials design. Scheduled appointments on days 21 (D21) ± 7 after enrollment, D90 ± 15, D120 ± 30, D180 ± 30; D360 ± 30; D720 ± 60, and D1080 ± 60 days. On these visits a panel of blood tests are collected in addition to the clinical report forms to obtain data on socio-demographic, medical history, physical examination and questionnaires devoted to the evaluation of musculoskeletal manifestations and overall health are performed. Participants are asked to consent for their specimens to be maintained in a biobank. Aliquots of blood, serum, saliva, PAXgene, and when clinically indicated to be examined, synovial fluid, are stored at -80° C. The study protocol was submitted and approved to the National IRB and local IRB at each study site. DISCUSSI
Long COVID is the patient-coined term for the disease entity whereby persistent symptoms ensue in a significant proportion of those who have had COVID-19, whether asymptomatic, mild or severe. Estimated numbers vary but the assumption is that, of all those who had COVID-19 globally, at least 10% have long COVID. The disease burden spans from mild symptoms to profound disability, the scale making this a huge, new health-care challenge. Long COVID will likely be stratified into several more or less discrete entities with potentially distinct pathogenic pathways. The evolving symptom list is extensive, multi-organ, multisystem and relapsing-remitting, including fatigue, breathlessness, neurocognitive effects and dysautonomia. A range of radiological abnormalities in the olfactory bulb, brain, heart, lung and other sites have been observed in individuals with long COVID. Some body sites indicate the presence of microclots; these and other blood markers of hypercoagulation implicate a likely role of endothelial activation and clotting abnormalities. Diverse auto-antibody (AAB) specificities have been found, as yet without a clear consensus or correlation with symptom clusters. There is support for a role of persistent SARS-CoV-2 reservoirs and/or an effect of Epstein-Barr virus reactivation, and evidence from immune subset changes for broad immune perturbation. Thus, the current picture is one of convergence towards a map of an immunopathogenic aetiology of long COVID, though as yet with insufficient data for a mechanistic synthesis or to fully inform therapeutic pathways.
Boyton RJ, Altmann DM, 2023, Imprinted hybrid immunity against XBB reinfection, Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol: 23, Pages: 764-765, ISSN: 1473-3099
Milighetti M, Peng Y, Tan C, et al., 2023, Large clones of pre-existing T cells drive early immunity against SARS-COV-2 and LCMV infection, iScience, Vol: 26, Pages: 1-20, ISSN: 2589-0042
T cell responses precede antibody and may provide early control of infection. We analyzed the clonal basis of this rapid response following SARS-COV-2 infection. We applied T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing to define the trajectories of individual T cell clones immediately. In SARS-COV-2 PCR+ individuals, a wave of TCRs strongly but transiently expand, frequently peaking the same week as the first positive PCR test. These expanding TCR CDR3s were enriched for sequences functionally annotated as SARS-COV-2 specific. Epitopes recognized by the expanding TCRs were highly conserved between SARS-COV-2 strains but not with circulating human coronaviruses. Many expanding CDR3s were present at high frequency in pre-pandemic repertoires. Early response TCRs specific for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus epitopes were also found at high frequency in the preinfection naive repertoire. High-frequency naive precursors may allow the T cell response to respond rapidly during the crucial early phases of acute viral infection.
Zheng B, Vivaldi G, Daines L, et al., 2023, Determinants of recovery from post-COVID-19 dyspnoea: analysis of UK prospective cohorts of hospitalised COVID-19 patients and community-based controls, The Lancet Regional Health. Europe, Vol: 29, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2666-7762
BackgroundThe risk factors for recovery from COVID-19 dyspnoea are poorly understood. We investigated determinants of recovery from dyspnoea in adults with COVID-19 and compared these to determinants of recovery from non-COVID-19 dyspnoea.MethodsWe used data from two prospective cohort studies: PHOSP-COVID (patients hospitalised between March 2020 and April 2021 with COVID-19) and COVIDENCE UK (community cohort studied over the same time period). PHOSP-COVID data were collected during hospitalisation and at 5-month and 1-year follow-up visits. COVIDENCE UK data were obtained through baseline and monthly online questionnaires. Dyspnoea was measured in both cohorts with the Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify determinants associated with a reduction in dyspnoea between 5-month and 1-year follow-up.FindingsWe included 990 PHOSP-COVID and 3309 COVIDENCE UK participants. We observed higher odds of improvement between 5-month and 1-year follow-up among PHOSP-COVID participants who were younger (odds ratio 1.02 per year, 95% CI 1.01–1.03), male (1.54, 1.16–2.04), neither obese nor severely obese (1.82, 1.06–3.13 and 4.19, 2.14–8.19, respectively), had no pre-existing anxiety or depression (1.56, 1.09–2.22) or cardiovascular disease (1.33, 1.00–1.79), and shorter hospital admission (1.01 per day, 1.00–1.02). Similar associations were found in those recovering from non-COVID-19 dyspnoea, excluding age (and length of hospital admission).InterpretationFactors associated with dyspnoea recovery at 1-year post-discharge among patients hospitalised with COVID-19 were similar to those among community controls without COVID-19.FundingPHOSP-COVID is supported by a grant from the MRC-UK Research and Innovation and the Department of Health and Social Care through the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) rapid response panel to tackle COVID-19. The views expressed in the publica
Boyton RJ, Altmann DM, 2023, Redirected vaccine imprinting by co-administration of COVID-19 and influenza vaccines, The Lancet Regional Health. Europe, Vol: 29, ISSN: 2666-7762
McAuley HJC, Evans RA, Bolton CE, et al., 2023, Prevalence of physical frailty, including risk factors, up to 1 year after hospitalisation for COVID-19 in the UK: a multicentre, longitudinal cohort study., EClinicalMedicine, Vol: 57, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2589-5370
BACKGROUND: The scale of COVID-19 and its well documented long-term sequelae support a need to understand long-term outcomes including frailty. METHODS: This prospective cohort study recruited adults who had survived hospitalisation with clinically diagnosed COVID-19 across 35 sites in the UK (PHOSP-COVID). The burden of frailty was objectively measured using Fried's Frailty Phenotype (FFP). The primary outcome was the prevalence of each FFP group-robust (no FFP criteria), pre-frail (one or two FFP criteria) and frail (three or more FFP criteria)-at 5 months and 1 year after discharge from hospital. For inclusion in the primary analysis, participants required complete outcome data for three of the five FFP criteria. Longitudinal changes across frailty domains are reported at 5 months and 1 year post-hospitalisation, along with risk factors for frailty status. Patient-perceived recovery and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were retrospectively rated for pre-COVID-19 and prospectively rated at the 5 month and 1 year visits. This study is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN10980107. FINDINGS: Between March 5, 2020, and March 31, 2021, 2419 participants were enrolled with FFP data. Mean age was 57.9 (SD 12.6) years, 933 (38.6%) were female, and 429 (17.7%) had received invasive mechanical ventilation. 1785 had measures at both timepoints, of which 240 (13.4%), 1138 (63.8%) and 407 (22.8%) were frail, pre-frail and robust, respectively, at 5 months compared with 123 (6.9%), 1046 (58.6%) and 616 (34.5%) at 1 year. Factors associated with pre-frailty or frailty were invasive mechanical ventilation, older age, female sex, and greater social deprivation. Frail participants had a larger reduction in HRQoL compared with before their COVID-19 illness and were less likely to describe themselves as recovered. INTERPRETATION: Physical frailty and pre-frailty are common following hospitalisation with COVID-19. Improvement in frailty was seen between 5 and 12 months although
Liu Z, Le K, Zhou X, et al., 2023, Neutralising antibody potency against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and Omicron BA.1 and BA.4/5 variants in infliximab and vedolizumab treated patients with inflammatory bowel disease after three doses of COVID-19 vaccine: a prospective multicentre cohort study (CLARITY), The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Vol: 8, Pages: 145-156, ISSN: 2468-1253
Background:Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) drugs such as infliximab are associated with attenuated antibody responses after COVID-19 vaccination. It is unknown how infliximab impacts vaccine-induced serological responses against highly transmissible Omicron variants, which possess the ability to evade host immunity and are now the dominating variants causing current waves of infection. Methods:CLARITY IBD is a prospective, multicentre, observational cohort study investigating the impact of infliximab and vedolizumab on SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the current work, the primary outcome was neutralising antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and Omicron BA.1 and BA.4/5 variants after three doses of COVID-19 vaccination in 1288 patients with IBD without prior COVID-19 infection, who were established on either infliximab (n=871) or vedolizumab (n=417). Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to investigate the risk of breakthrough infection in relation to neutralising antibody titres.Findings:Following three doses of COVID-19 vaccine, neutralising titre NT50 (half-inhibitory neutralising titre) was significantly diminished in patients treated with infliximab as compared to patients treated with vedolizumab, against wild-type (geometric mean [95% CI], 1990 [1781, 2223] vs 3212 [2780, 3712], p<0·0001), BA.1 (95·46 [82·80, 110·0] vs 599·1 [492·6, 728·6], p<0·0001) and BA.4/5 (30·73 [26·26, 35·96] vs 212·2 [177·0, 254·4], p<0·0001) variants. Breakthrough infection was significantly more frequent in patients treated with infliximab (13·66% [11·49%, 16·16%], 119/871) compared to patients treated with vedolizumab (6·95% [4·79%, 9·95%], 29/417, p=0·0004). Cox proportional hazards models of time to breakthrough infection after the third d
Liu Z, Alexander J, LIN K, et al., 2023, Infliximab and tofacitinib attenuate neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 ancestral and Omicron variants in IBD patients following 3 doses of COVID-19 vaccine, Gastroenterology, Vol: 164, Pages: 300-303.e3, ISSN: 0016-5085
Altmann DM, 2023, The COVID-19 immunology masterclass enters its third year, NATURE IMMUNOLOGY, ISSN: 1529-2908
Kennedy NA, Janjua M, Chanchlani N, et al., 2023, Vaccine escape, increased breakthrough and reinfection in infliximab-treated patients with IBD during the Omicron wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, Gut, Vol: 72, Pages: 295-305, ISSN: 0017-5749
Objective Antitumour necrosis factor (TNF) drugs impair serological responses following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We sought to assess if a third dose of a messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccine substantially boosted anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses and protective immunity in infliximab-treated patients with IBD.Design Third dose vaccine induced anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (anti-S) receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody responses, breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection, reinfection and persistent oropharyngeal carriage in patients with IBD treated with infliximab were compared with a reference cohort treated with vedolizumab from the impaCt of bioLogic therApy on saRs-cov-2 Infection and immuniTY (CLARITY) IBD study.Results Geometric mean (SD) anti-S RBD antibody concentrations increased in both groups following a third dose of an mRNA-based vaccine. However, concentrations were lower in patients treated with infliximab than vedolizumab, irrespective of whether their first two primary vaccine doses were ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (1856 U/mL (5.2) vs 10 728 U/mL (3.1), p<0.0001) or BNT162b2 vaccines (2164 U/mL (4.1) vs 15 116 U/mL (3.4), p<0.0001). However, no differences in anti-S RBD antibody concentrations were seen following third and fourth doses of an mRNA-based vaccine, irrespective of the combination of primary vaccinations received. Post-third dose, anti-S RBD antibody half-life estimates were shorter in infliximab-treated than vedolizumab-treated patients (37.0 days (95% CI 35.6 to 38.6) vs 52.0 days (95% CI 49.0 to 55.4), p<0.0001).Compared with vedolizumab-treated, infliximab-treated patients were more likely to experience SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection (HR 2.23 (95% CI 1.46 to 3.38), p=0.00018) and reinfection (HR 2.10 (95% CI 1.31 to 3.35), p=0.0019), but this effect was uncoupled from third vaccine dose anti-S RBD antibody concentrations. Reinfection occurred predominantly during the Omicron wave and was predicted by SARS-CoV-2 antinucleocapsid concentr
Liew F, Talwar S, Cross A, et al., 2023, SARS-CoV-2-specific nasal IgA wanes 9 months after hospitalisation with COVID-19 and is not induced by subsequent vaccination, EBioMedicine, Vol: 87, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2352-3964
Background:Most studies of immunity to SARS-CoV-2 focus on circulating antibody, giving limited insights into mucosal defences that prevent viral replication and onward transmission. We studied nasal and plasma antibody responses one year after hospitalisation for COVID-19, including a period when SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was introduced.Methods:In this follow up study, plasma and nasosorption samples were prospectively collected from 446 adults hospitalised for COVID-19 between February 2020 and March 2021 via the ISARIC4C and PHOSP-COVID consortia. IgA and IgG responses to NP and S of ancestral SARS-CoV-2, Delta and Omicron (BA.1) variants were measured by electrochemiluminescence and compared with plasma neutralisation data.Findings:Strong and consistent nasal anti-NP and anti-S IgA responses were demonstrated, which remained elevated for nine months (p < 0.0001). Nasal and plasma anti-S IgG remained elevated for at least 12 months (p < 0.0001) with plasma neutralising titres that were raised against all variants compared to controls (p < 0.0001). Of 323 with complete data, 307 were vaccinated between 6 and 12 months; coinciding with rises in nasal and plasma IgA and IgG anti-S titres for all SARS-CoV-2 variants, although the change in nasal IgA was minimal (1.46-fold change after 10 months, p = 0.011) and the median remained below the positive threshold determined by pre-pandemic controls. Samples 12 months after admission showed no association between nasal IgA and plasma IgG anti-S responses (R = 0.05, p = 0.18), indicating that nasal IgA responses are distinct from those in plasma and minimally boosted by vaccination.Interpretation:The decline in nasal IgA responses 9 months after infection and minimal impact of subsequent vaccination may explain the lack of long-lasting nasal defence against reinfection and the limited effects of vaccination on transmission. These findings highlight the need to develop vaccines that enhance nasal immunity.Funding:This
Alexander J, Liu Z, Munoz Sandoval D, et al., 2022, COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody and T cell responses in immunosuppressed patients with inflammatory bowel disease after the third vaccine dose: a multicentre, prospective, case-control study, The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Vol: 7, Pages: 1005-1015, ISSN: 2468-1253
Background:COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody responses are reduced in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) taking anti-TNF or tofacitinib after two vaccine doses. We sought to determine whether immunosuppressive treatments were associated with reduced antibody and T cell responses after a third vaccine dose.Methods:352 adults (72 healthy controls and 280 IBD) were sampled 28-49 days after a third dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. IBD medications studied included thiopurines (n=65), infliximab (n=46), thiopurine/infliximab combination therapy (n=49), ustekinumab (n=44), vedolizumab (n=50) or tofacitinib (n=26). SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody binding and T cell responses were measured. Findings:Geometric mean [geometric SD] anti-S1 RBD antibody concentrations increased in all groups following a third dose, but were significantly lower in patients treated with infliximab (2736.8 U/mL [4.3]; P<0.0001), infliximab and thiopurine combination (1818.3 U/mL [6.7]; P<0.0001) and tofacitinib (8071.5 U/mL [3.1]; P=0.0018) compared to controls (16774.2 U/ml [2.6]). There were no significant differences in anti-S1 RBD antibody concentrations between control subjects and thiopurine (12019.7 U/mL [2.2]; P=0.099), ustekinumab (11089.3 U/mL [2.8]; P=0.060), nor vedolizumab treated patients (13564.9 U/mL [2.4]; P=0.27). In multivariable modelling, lower anti-S1 RBD antibody concentrations were independently associated with infliximab (Geometric mean ratio 0.15, 95% CI 0.11-0.21, P<0.0001), tofacitinib (0.52, 95% CI 0.31-0.87, P=0.012) and thiopurine (0.69, 95% CI 0.51-0.95, P=0.021), but not with ustekinumab (0.64, 95% CI 0.39-1.06, P=0.083), or vedolizumab (0.84, 95% CI 0.54-1.30, P=0.43). Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection (1.58, 95% CI 1.22-2.05, P=0.00056) and older age (0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.97, P=0.0073) were independently associated with higher and lower anti-S1 antibody concentrations respectively. Antigen specific T cell responses were similar in all groups, except for reci
Captur G, Moon JC, Topriceanu C-C, et al., 2022, Plasma proteomic signature predicts who will get persistent symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 infection, EBioMedicine, Vol: 85, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2352-3964
BACKGROUND: The majority of those infected by ancestral Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during the UK first wave (starting March 2020) did not require hospitalisation. Most had a short-lived mild or asymptomatic infection, while others had symptoms that persisted for weeks or months. We hypothesized that the plasma proteome at the time of first infection would reflect differences in the inflammatory response that linked to symptom severity and duration. METHODS: We performed a nested longitudinal case-control study and targeted analysis of the plasma proteome of 156 healthcare workers (HCW) with and without lab confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Targeted proteomic multiple-reaction monitoring analysis of 91 pre-selected proteins was undertaken in uninfected healthcare workers at baseline, and in infected healthcare workers serially, from 1 week prior to 6 weeks after their first confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Symptom severity and antibody responses were also tracked. Questionnaires at 6 and 12 months collected data on persistent symptoms. FINDINGS: Within this cohort (median age 39 years, interquartile range 30-47 years), 54 healthcare workers (44% male) had PCR or antibody confirmed infection, with the remaining 102 (38% male) serving as uninfected controls. Following the first confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, perturbation of the plasma proteome persisted for up to 6 weeks, tracking symptom severity and antibody responses. Differentially abundant proteins were mostly coordinated around lipid, atherosclerosis and cholesterol metabolism pathways, complement and coagulation cascades, autophagy, and lysosomal function. The proteomic profile at the time of seroconversion associated with persistent symptoms out to 12 months. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD036590. INTERPRETATION: Our findings show that non-severe SARS-CoV-2 infection perturbs the plasma proteome for at least 6 weeks. The plasma proteomic signature at th
de Morais Batista F, Puga MAM, da Silva PV, et al., 2022, Serum biomarkers associated with SARS-CoV-2 severity, Scientific Reports, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2045-2322
Immunity with SARS-CoV-2 infection during the acute phase is not sufficiently well understood to differentiate mild from severe cases and identify prognostic markers. We evaluated the immune response profile using a total of 71 biomarkers in sera from patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed by RT-PCR and controls. We correlated biological marker levels with negative control (C) asymptomatic (A), nonhospitalized (mild cases-M), and hospitalized (severe cases-S) groups. Among angiogenesis markers, we identified biomarkers that were more frequently elevated in severe cases when compared to the other groups (C, A, and M). Among cardiovascular diseases, there were biomarkers with differences between the groups, with D-dimer, GDF-15, and sICAM-1 higher in the S group. The levels of the biomarkers Myoglobin and P-Selectin were lower among patients in group M compared to those in groups S and A. Important differences in cytokines and chemokines according to the clinical course were identified. Severe cases presented altered levels when compared to group C. This study helps to characterize biological markers related to angiogenesis, growth factors, heart disease, and cytokine/chemokine production in individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2, offering prognostic signatures and a basis for understanding the biological factors in disease severity.
Ascough S, Ingram RJ, Chu KKY, et al., 2022, Impact of HLA polymorphism on the immune response to bacillus anthracis protective antigen in vaccination versus natural infection, Vaccines, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 2076-393X
The causative agent of anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, evades the host immune response and establishes infection through the production of binary exotoxins composed of Protective Antigen (PA) and one of two subunits, lethal factor (LF) or edema factor (EF). The majority of vaccination strategies have focused upon the antibody response to the PA subunit. We have used a panel of humanised HLA class II transgenic mouse strains to define HLA-DR-restricted and HLA-DQ-restricted CD4+ T cell responses to the immunodominant epitopes of PA. This was correlated with the binding affinities of epitopes to HLA class II molecules, as well as the responses of two human cohorts: individuals vaccinated with the Anthrax Vaccine Precipitated (AVP) vaccine (which contains PA and trace amounts of LF), and patients recovering from cutaneous anthrax infections. The infected and vaccinated cohorts expressing different HLA types were found to make CD4+ T cell responses to multiple and diverse epitopes of PA. The effects of HLA polymorphism were explored using transgenic mouse lines, which demonstrated differential susceptibility, indicating that HLA-DR1 and HLA-DQ8 alleles conferred protective immunity relative to HLA-DR15, HLA-DR4 and HLA-DQ6. The HLA transgenics enabled a reductionist approach, allowing us to better define CD4+ T cell epitopes. Appreciating the effects of HLA polymorphism on the variability of responses to natural infection and vaccination is vital in planning protective strategies against anthrax.
Doykov I, Baldwin T, Spiewak J, et al., 2022, Quantitative, multiplexed, targeted proteomics for ascertaining variant specific SARS-CoV-2 antibody response, Cell Reports Methods, Vol: 2, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 2667-2375
Determining the protection an individual has to SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoC) is crucial for future immune surveillance, vaccine development and understanding the changing immune response. We devised a more informative assay to current ELISA based serology using multiplexed, baited, targeted-proteomics for direct detection of multiple proteins in the SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike antibody immunocomplex. Serum from individuals collected after infection, or first and second dose vaccination demonstrate this approach shows concordance with existing serology and neutralisation. Our assays show altered responses of both immunoglobulins and complement to the Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351) and Delta (B.1.617.1) VoC. and a reduced response to Omicron (B1.1.1529). We were able to identify individuals who had prior infection, and observed that C1q is closely associated with IgG1 (r>0.82) and may better reflect neutralisation to VoC. Analysing additional immunoproteins beyond IgG, provides important information about our understanding of the response to infection and vaccination.
Abhishek A, Boyton RJ, Peckham N, et al., 2022, Effect of a 2-week interruption in methotrexate treatment versus continued treatment on COVID-19 booster vaccine immunity in adults with inflammatory conditions (VROOM study): a randomised, open label, superiority trial, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Vol: 10, Pages: 840-850, ISSN: 2213-2600
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressive treatments inhibit vaccine-induced immunity against SARS-CoV-2. We evaluated whether a 2-week interruption of methotrexate treatment immediately after the COVID-19 vaccine booster improved antibody responses against the S1 receptor-binding domain (S1-RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein compared with uninterrupted treatment in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. METHODS: We did an open-label, prospective, two-arm, parallel-group, multicentre, randomised, controlled, superiority trial in 26 hospitals in the UK. We recruited adults from rheumatology and dermatology clinics who had been diagnosed with an immune-mediated inflammatory disease (eg, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis with or without arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis, atopic dermatitis, polymyalgia rheumatica, and systemic lupus erythematosus) and who were taking low-dose weekly methotrexate (≤25 mg per week) for at least 3 months. Participants also had to have received two primary vaccine doses from the UK COVID-19 vaccination programme. We randomly assigned the participants (1:1), using a centralised validated computer randomisation program, to suspend methotrexate treatment for 2 weeks immediately after their COVID-19 booster (suspend methotrexate group) or to continue treatment as usual (continue methotrexate group). Participants, investigators, clinical research staff, and data analysts were unmasked, while researchers doing the laboratory analyses were masked to group assignment. The primary outcome was S1-RBD antibody titres 4 weeks after receiving the COVID-19 booster vaccine dose, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ISRCT, ISRCTN11442263; following the pre-planned interim analysis, recruitment was stopped early. FINDINGS: Between Sept 30, 2021 and March 3, 2022, we recruited 340 participants, of whom 254 were included in the interim analysis and had been randomly assigned to one of the two groups: 127 in the co
Reynolds CJ, Pade C, Gibbons JM, et al., 2022, Immune boosting by B.1.1.529 (Omicron) depends on previous SARS-CoV-2 exposure, Science, Vol: 377, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 0036-8075
INTRODUCTIONB.1.1.529 (Omicron) and its subvariants pose new challenges for control of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although vaccinated populations are relatively protected from severe disease and death, countries with high vaccine uptake are experiencing substantial caseloads with breakthrough infection and frequent reinfection.RATIONALEWe analyzed cross-protective immunity against B.1.1.529 (Omicron) in triple-vaccinated health care workers (HCWs) with different immune-imprinted histories of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during the ancestral Wuhan Hu-1, B.1.1.7 (Alpha), and B.1.617.2 (Delta) waves and after infection during the B.1.1.529 (Omicron) wave in previously infection-naïve individuals and those with hybrid immunity, to investigate whether B.1.1.529 (Omicron) infection could further boost adaptive immunity. Spike subunit 1 (S1) receptor binding domain (RBD) and whole spike binding, live virus neutralizing antibody (nAb) potency, memory B cell (MBC) frequency, and T cell responses against peptide pools and naturally processed antigen were assessed.RESULTSB and T cell recognition and nAb potency were boosted against previous variants of concern (VOCs) in triple-vaccinated HCWs, but this enhanced immunity was attenuated against B.1.1.529 (Omicron) itself. Furthermore, immune imprinting after B.1.1.7 (Alpha) infection resulted in reduced durability of antibody binding against B.1.1.529 (Omicron), and S1 RBD and whole spike VOC binding correlated poorly with live virus nAb potency. Half of triple-vaccinated HCWs showed no T cell response to B.1.1.529 (Omicron) S1 processed antigen, and all showed reduced responses to the B.1.1.529 (Omicron) peptide pool, irrespective of SARS-CoV-2 infection history. Mapping T cell immunity in class II human leukocyte antigen transgenics showed that individual spike mutations could result in loss or gain of T cell epitope recognition, with changes to T cell effector and regulatory programs
Abhishek A, Boyton RJ, McKnight A, et al., 2022, Effects of temporarily suspending low- dose methotrexate treatment for 2 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 vaccine booster on vaccine response in immunosuppressed adults with inflammatory conditions: protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial and nested mechanistic substudy (Vaccine Response On/Off Methotrexate (VROOM) study), BMJ Open, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2044-6055
Introduction It is unknown if a temporary break in long-term immune-suppressive treatment after vaccination against COVID-19 improves vaccine response. The objective of this study was to evaluate if a 2-week interruption in low-dose weekly methotrexate treatment after SARS-CoV-2 vaccine boosters enhances the immune response compared with continuing treatment in adults with autoimmune inflammatory conditions.Methods and analysis An open-label, pragmatic, prospective, parallel group, randomised controlled superiority trial with internal feasibility assessment and nested mechanistic substudy will be conducted in rheumatology and dermatology clinics in approximately 25 UK hospitals. The sample size is 560, randomised 1:1 to intervention and usual care arms. The main outcome measure is anti-spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody level, collected at prebooster (baseline), 4 weeks (primary outcome) and 12 weeks (secondary outcome) post booster vaccination. Other secondary outcome measures are patient global assessments of disease activity, disease flares and their treatment, EuroQol 5- dimention 5-level (EQ-5D-5L), self-reported adherence with advice to interrupt or continue methotrexate, neutralising antibody titre against SARS-CoV-2 (mechanistic substudy) and oral methotrexate biochemical adherence (mechanistic substudy). Analysis of B-cell memory and T-cell responses at baseline and weeks 4 and 12 will be investigated subject to obtaining additional funding. The principal analysis will be performed on the groups as randomised (ie, intention to treat). The difference between the study arms in anti-spike RBD antibody level will be estimated using mixed effects model, allowing for repeated measures clustered within participants. The models will be adjusted for randomisation factors and prior SARS-CoV-2 infection status.Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the Leeds West Research Ethics Committee and Health Research Authority (REC reference: 21/HRA/3483
Li X, Qi L, Yang D, et al., 2022, Meningeal lymphatic vessels mediate neurotropic viral drainage from the central nervous system, NATURE NEUROSCIENCE, Vol: 25, Pages: 577-+, ISSN: 1097-6256
Gois BM, Peixoto RF, Guerra-Gomes IC, et al., 2022, Regulatory T cells in acute and chronic human Chikungunya infection, Microbes and Infection: a journal on infectious agents and host defenses, Vol: 24, Pages: 1-4, ISSN: 1286-4579
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection generates strong immune responses that are associated with the disease pathophysiology. Regulatory T cells (Treg-cluster of differentiation (CD)-4+CD25highforkhead box P3 (FOXP3+)) are essential for the induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Thus, they play key roles in determining the patient prognosis by preventing excessive immune responses via different suppression immune mechanisms. However, the regulatory mechanisms involved in human CHIKV infection are still poorly understood. Here, we characterize for the first time the Treg cell molecule-associated-mechanism during acute and chronic human Chikungunya disease. Here, we assessed the Treg cell population and molecule-associated mechanism in the peripheral blood samples of acute and chronic patients with Chikungunya. Our results indicate that CHIKV infection is associated with reduced frequency of Tregs, along with the impaired expression and production of Treg functional markers, including CD39, CD73, perforin, granzyme, programmed death 1 (PD-1), cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. This observation suggests that Treg cells possess the poor regulatory capacity in both acute and chronic phases of the disease. Taken together, these data provide significant evidence that the imbalanced response of Treg cells plays an essential role in establishing the pathogenesis of Chikungunya.
Alexander JL, Kennedy NA, Ibraheim H, et al., 2022, COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody responses in immunosuppressed patients with inflammatory bowel disease (VIP): a multicentre, prospective, case-control study, The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Vol: 7, Pages: 342-352, ISSN: 2468-1253
BACKGROUND: The effects that therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have on immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are not yet fully known. Therefore, we sought to determine whether COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody responses were altered in patients with IBD on commonly used immunosuppressive drugs. METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective, case-control study (VIP), we recruited adults with IBD treated with one of six different immunosuppressive treatment regimens (thiopurines, infliximab, a thiopurine plus infliximab, ustekinumab, vedolizumab, or tofacitinib) and healthy control participants from nine centres in the UK. Eligible participants were aged 18 years or older and had received two doses of COVID-19 vaccines (either ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 [Oxford-AstraZeneca], BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech], or mRNA1273 [Moderna]) 6-12 weeks apart (according to scheduling adopted in the UK). We measured antibody responses 53-92 days after a second vaccine dose using the Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The primary outcome was anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody concentrations in participants without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, adjusted by age and vaccine type, and was analysed by use of multivariable linear regression models. This study is registered in the ISRCTN Registry, ISRCTN13495664, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between May 31 and Nov 24, 2021, we recruited 483 participants, including patients with IBD being treated with thiopurines (n=78), infliximab (n=63), a thiopurine plus infliximab (n=72), ustekinumab (n=57), vedolizumab (n=62), or tofacitinib (n=30), and 121 healthy controls. We included 370 participants without evidence of previous infection in our primary analysis. Geometric mean anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody concentrations were significantly lower in patients treated with infliximab (156·8 U/mL [geometric SD 5·7]; p<0·0001), infliximab plus thiopurine (111·1 U/mL [5·
Lin S, Kennedy NA, Saifuddin A, et al., 2022, Antibody decay, T cell immunity and breakthrough infections following two SARS-CoV-2 vaccine doses in inflammatory bowel disease patients treated with infliximab and vedolizumab, Nature Communications, Vol: 13, ISSN: 2041-1723
Anti tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) drugs increase the risk of serious respiratory infection and impair protective immunity following pneumococcal and influenza vaccination. Here we report SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immune responses and breakthrough infections in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, who are treated either with the anti-TNF antibody, infliximab, or with vedolizumab targeting a gut-specific anti-integrin that does not impair systemic immunity. Geometric mean [SD] anti-S RBD antibody concentrations are lower and half-lives shorter in patients treated with infliximab than vedolizumab, following two doses of BNT162b2 (566.7 U/mL [6.2] vs 4555.3 U/mL [5.4], p <0.0001; 26.8 days [95% CI 26.2 – 27.5] vs 47.6 days [45.5 – 49.8], p <0.0001); similar results are also observed with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination (184.7 U/mL [5.0] vs 784.0 U/mL [3.5], p <0.0001; 35.9 days [34.9 – 36.8] vs 58.0 days [55.0 – 61.3], p value < 0.0001). One fifth of patients fail to mount a T cell response in both treatment groups. Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections are more frequent (5.8% (201/3441) vs 3.9% (66/1682), p = 0.0039) in patients treated with infliximab than vedolizumab, and the risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection is predicted by peak anti-S RBD antibody concentration after two vaccine doses. Irrespective of the treatments, higher, more sustained antibody levels are observed in patients with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to vaccination. Our results thus suggest that adapted vaccination schedules may be required to induce immunity in at-risk, anti-TNF-treated patients.
Altmann DM, Boyton RJ, 2022, COVID-19 vaccination: The road ahead, SCIENCE, Vol: 375, Pages: 1127-1132, ISSN: 0036-8075
Astbury S, Reynolds CJ, Butler DK, et al., 2022, HLA-DR polymorphism in SARS-CoV-2 infection and susceptibility to symptomatic COVID-19, Immunology, Vol: 166, Pages: 68-77, ISSN: 0019-2805
SARS-CoV-2 infection results in different outcomes ranging from asymptomatic infection to mild or severe disease and death. Reasons for this diversity of outcome include differences in challenge dose, age, gender, comorbidity and host genomic variation. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphisms may influence immune response and disease outcome. We investigated the association of HLAII alleles with case definition symptomatic COVID-19, virus-specific antibody and T-cell immunity. A total of 1364 UK healthcare workers (HCWs) were recruited during the first UK SARS-CoV-2 wave and analysed longitudinally, encompassing regular PCR screening for infection, symptom reporting, imputation of HLAII genotype and analysis for antibody and T-cell responses to nucleoprotein (N) and spike (S). Of 272 (20%) HCW who seroconverted, the presence of HLA-DRB1*13:02 was associated with a 6·7-fold increased risk of case definition symptomatic COVID-19. In terms of immune responsiveness, HLA-DRB1*15:02 was associated with lower nucleocapsid T-cell responses. There was no association between DRB1 alleles and anti-spike antibody titres after two COVID vaccine doses. However, HLA DRB1*15:01 was associated with increased spike T-cell responses following both first and second dose vaccination. Trial registration: NCT04318314 and ISRCTN15677965.
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