184 results found
Matta M, Huybrechts I, Biessy C, et al., 2021, Dietary intake of trans fatty acids and breast cancer risk in 9 European countries, BMC Medicine, Vol: 19
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:sec> <jats:title>Background</jats:title> <jats:p><jats:italic>Trans</jats:italic> fatty acids (TFAs) have been hypothesised to influence breast cancer risk. However, relatively few prospective studies have examined this relationship, and well-powered analyses according to hormone receptor-defined molecular subtypes, menopausal status, and body size have rarely been conducted.</jats:p> </jats:sec><jats:sec> <jats:title>Methods</jats:title> <jats:p>In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), we investigated the associations between dietary intakes of TFAs (industrial <jats:italic>trans</jats:italic> fatty acids [ITFAs] and ruminant <jats:italic>trans</jats:italic> fatty acids [RTFAs]) and breast cancer risk among 318,607 women. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for other breast cancer risk factors.</jats:p> </jats:sec><jats:sec> <jats:title>Results</jats:title> <jats:p>After a median follow-up of 8.1 years, 13,241 breast cancer cases occurred. In the multivariable-adjusted model, higher total ITFA intake was associated with elevated breast cancer risk (HR for highest vs lowest quintile, 1.14, 95% CI 1.06–1.23; <jats:italic>P</jats:italic> trend = 0.001). A similar positive association was found between intake of elaidic acid, the predominant ITFA, and breast cancer risk (HR for highest vs lowest quintile, 1.14, 95% CI 1.06–1.23; <jats:italic>P</jats:italic> trend = 0.001). Intake of total RTFAs was also associated with higher breast cancer risk (HR for highest vs lowest quintil
Nie J, O'Neil A, Liao B, et al., 2021, Risk factors for completed suicide in the general population: A prospective cohort study of 242, 952 people, JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS, Vol: 282, Pages: 707-711, ISSN: 0165-0327
Perez-Cornago A, Crowe FL, Appleby PN, et al., 2021, Plant foods, dietary fibre and risk of ischaemic heart disease in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort, International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol: 50, Pages: 212-222, ISSN: 0300-5771
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets rich in plant foods are associated with a lower risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), but there is sparse information on fruit and vegetable subtypes and sources of dietary fibre. This study examined the associations of major plant foods, their subtypes and dietary fibre with risk of IHD in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis of 490 311 men and women without a history of myocardial infarction or stroke at recruitment (12.6 years of follow-up, n cases = 8504), in 10 European countries. Dietary intake was assessed using validated questionnaires, calibrated with 24-h recalls. Multivariable Cox regressions were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of IHD. RESULTS: There was a lower risk of IHD with a higher intake of fruit and vegetables combined [HR per 200 g/day higher intake 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90-0.99, P-trend = 0.009], and with total fruits (per 100 g/day 0.97, 0.95-1.00, P-trend = 0.021). There was no evidence for a reduced risk for fruit subtypes, except for bananas. Risk was lower with higher intakes of nuts and seeds (per 10 g/day 0.90, 0.82-0.98, P-trend = 0.020), total fibre (per 10 g/day 0.91, 0.85-0.98, P-trend = 0.015), fruit and vegetable fibre (per 4 g/day 0.95, 0.91-0.99, P-trend = 0.022) and fruit fibre (per 2 g/day 0.97, 0.95-1.00, P-trend = 0.045). No associations were observed between vegetables, vegetables subtypes, legumes, cereals and IHD risk. CONCLUSIONS: In this large prospective study, we found some small inverse associations between plant foods and IHD risk, with fruit and vegetables combined being the most strongly inversely associated with risk. Whether these small associations are causal remains unclear.
Soltani S, Abdollahi S, Aune D, et al., 2021, Body mass index and cancer risk in patients with type 2 diabetes: a dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies, Scientific Reports, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2045-2322
Although obesity has been associated with an increased cancer risk in the general population, the association in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains controversial. We conducted a dose–response meta-analysis of cohort studies of body mass index (BMI) and the risk of total and site-specific cancers in patients with T2D. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, and Medline until September 2020 for cohort studies on the association between BMI and cancer risk in patients with T2D. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effects models. Ten prospective and three retrospective cohort studies (3,345,031 participants and 37,412 cases) were included in the meta-analysis. Each 5-unit increase in BMI (kg/m2) was associated with a 6% higher risk of total cancer (RR: 1.06, 95% CI 1.01, 1.10; I2 = 55.4%, n = 6), and with a 12% increased risk in the analysis of breast cancer (RR: 1.12, 95% CI 1.05, 1.20; I2 = 0%, n = 3). The pooled RRs showed no association with prostate cancer (RR: 1.02, 95% CI 0.92, 1.13; I2 = 64.6%, n = 4), pancreatic cancer (RR: 0.97, 95% CI 0.84, 1.11; I2 = 71%, n = 3), and colorectal cancer (RR: 1.05, 95% CI 0.98, 1.13; I2 = 65.9%, n = 2). There was no indication of nonlinearity for total cancer (Pnon-linearity = 0.99), however, there was evidence of a nonlinear association between BMI and breast cancer (Pnon-linearity = 0.004) with steeper increases in risk from a BMI around 35 and above respectively. Higher BMI was associated with a higher risk of total, and breast cancer but not with risk of other cancers, in patients with T2D, however, further studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn.
Ellingjord-Dale M, Papadimitriou N, Katsoulis M, et al., 2021, Coffee consumption and risk of breast cancer: A Mendelian randomization study, PLoS One, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1932-6203
Background:Observational studies have reported either null or weak protective associations for coffee consumption and risk of breast cancer.Methods:We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to evaluate the relationship between coffee consumption and breast cancer risk using 33 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coffee consumption from a genome-wide association (GWA) study on 212,119 female UK Biobank participants of White British ancestry. Risk estimates for breast cancer were retrieved from publicly available GWA summary statistics from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) on 122,977 cases (of which 69,501 were estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, 21,468 ER-negative) and 105,974 controls of European ancestry. Random-effects inverse variance weighted (IVW) MR analyses were performed along with several sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of potential MR assumption violations.Results:One cup per day increase in genetically predicted coffee consumption in women was not associated with risk of total (IVW random-effects; odds ratio (OR): 0.91, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.80–1.02, P: 0.12, P for instrument heterogeneity: 7.17e-13), ER-positive (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79–1.02, P: 0.09) and ER-negative breast cancer (OR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.75–1.03, P: 0.12). Null associations were also found in the sensitivity analyses using MR-Egger (total breast cancer; OR: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.80–1.25), weighted median (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89–1.05) and weighted mode (OR: 1.00, CI: 0.93–1.07).Conclusions:The results of this large MR study do not support an association of genetically predicted coffee consumption on breast cancer risk, but we cannot rule out existence of a weak association.
Lee DH, Rezende LFM, Ferrari G, et al., 2021, Physical activity and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: assessing the impact of reverse causation and measurement error in two large prospective cohorts, European Journal of Epidemiology, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 0393-2990
Most cohort studies have only a single physical activity (PA) measure and are thus susceptible to reverse causation and measurement error. Few studies have examined the impact of these potential biases on the association between PA and mortality. A total of 133,819 participants from Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986–2014) reported PA through biennial questionnaires. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PA and mortality using different analytic approaches comparing single (baseline, simple update = most recent) versus repeated (cumulative average) measures of PA and applying various lag times separating PA measurement and time at risk. Over 3.2 million person-years, we documented 47,273 deaths. The pooled multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) of all-cause mortality per 10 MET-hour/week was 0.95 (0.94–0.96) for baseline PA, 0.78 (0.77–0.79) for simple updated PA and 0.87 (0.86–0.88) for cumulative average PA in the range of 0–50 MET-hour/week. Simple updated PA showed the strongest inverse association, suggesting larger impact of reverse causation. Application of 2-year lag substantially reduced the apparent reverse causation (0.85 (0.84–0.86) for simple updated PA and 0.90 (0.89–0.91) for cumulative average PA), and 4–12-year lags had minimal additional effects. In the dose–response analysis, baseline or simple updated PA showed a J or U-shaped association with all-cause mortality while cumulative average PA showed an inverse association across a wide range of PA (0–150 MET-hour/week). Similar findings were observed for different specific mortality causes. In conclusion, PA measured at baseline or with short lag time was prone to bias. Cumulative average PA showed robust evidence that PA is inversely associated with mortality in a dose-response manner.
Zamora-Ros R, Lujan-Barroso L, Achaintre D, et al., 2021, Blood polyphenol concentrations and differentiated thyroid carcinoma in women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, Vol: 113, Pages: 162-171, ISSN: 0002-9165
Rothwell JA, Murphy N, Bešević J, et al., 2020, Metabolic Signatures of Healthy Lifestyle Patterns and Colorectal Cancer Risk in a European Cohort, Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, ISSN: 1542-3565
Background & AimsColorectal cancer risk can be lowered by adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guidelines. We derived metabolic signatures of adherence to these guidelines and tested their associations with colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer cohort.MethodsScores reflecting adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations (scale, 1–5) were calculated from participant data on weight maintenance, physical activity, diet, and alcohol among a discovery set of 5738 cancer-free European Prospective Investigation into Cancer participants with metabolomics data. Partial least-squares regression was used to derive fatty acid and endogenous metabolite signatures of the WCRF/AICR score in this group. In an independent set of 1608 colorectal cancer cases and matched controls, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated for colorectal cancer risk per unit increase in WCRF/AICR score and per the corresponding change in metabolic signatures using multivariable conditional logistic regression.ResultsHigher WCRF/AICR scores were characterized by metabolic signatures of increased odd-chain fatty acids, serine, glycine, and specific phosphatidylcholines. Signatures were inversely associated more strongly with colorectal cancer risk (fatty acids: OR, 0.51 per unit increase; 95% CI, 0.29–0.90; endogenous metabolites: OR, 0.62 per unit change; 95% CI, 0.50–0.78) than the WCRF/AICR score (OR, 0.93 per unit change; 95% CI, 0.86–1.00) overall. Signature associations were stronger in male compared with female participants.ConclusionsMetabolite profiles reflecting adherence to WCRF/AICR guidelines and additional lifestyle or biological risk factors were associated with colorectal cancer. Measuring a specific panel of metabolites representative of a healthy or unhealthy lifestyle may identify strata of the population at higher risk of colorectal cancer.
Aune D, Sen A, Kobeissi E, et al., 2020, Physical activity and the risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies, Scientific Reports, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2045-2322
The association between physical activity and risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm has been inconsistent with some studies reporting a reduced risk while others have found no association. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to quantify the association. PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to 3 October 2020. Prospective studies were included if they reported adjusted relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with physical activity. Summary RRs (95% CIs) were estimated using a random effects model. Nine prospective studies (2073 cases, 409732 participants) were included. The summary RR for high vs. low physical activity was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.56-0.87, I2=58%) and per 20 metabolic equivalent task (MET)-hours/week increase of activity was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.74-0.95, I2=59%, n=6). Although the test for nonlinearity was not significant (p=0.09) the association appeared to be stronger when increasing the physical activity level from 0 to around 20-25 MET-hours/week than at higher levels. The current meta-analysis suggest that higher physical activity may reduce the risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm, however, further studies are needed to clarify the dose-response relationship between different subtypes and intensities of activity and abdominal aortic aneurysm risk.
Aune D, Schlesinger S, Leitzmann MF, et al., 2020, Physical activity and the risk of heart failure: a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies, European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN: 0393-2990
Although physical activity is an established protective factor for cardiovascular diseases such as ischemic heart disease and stroke, less is known with regard to the association between specific domains of physical activity and heart failure, as well as the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and heart failure. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies to clarify the relations of total physical activity, domains of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness to risk of heart failure. PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to January 14th, 2020. Summary relative risks (RRs) were calculated using random effects models. Twenty-nine prospective studies (36 publications) were included in the review. The summary RRs for high versus low levels were 0.77 (95% CI 0.70–0.85, I2 = 49%, n = 7) for total physical activity, 0.74 (95% CI 0.68–0.81, I2 = 88.1%, n = 16) for leisure-time activity, 0.66 (95% CI 0.59–0.74, I2 = 0%, n = 2) for vigorous activity, 0.81 (95% CI 0.69–0.94, I2 = 86%, n = 3) for walking and bicycling combined, 0.90 (95% CI 0.86–0.95, I2 = 0%, n = 3) for occupational activity, and 0.31 (95% CI 0.19–0.49, I2 = 96%, n = 6) for cardiorespiratory fitness. In dose–response analyses, the summary RRs were 0.89 (95% CI 0.83–0.95, I2 = 67%, n = 4) per 20 MET-hours per day of total activity and 0.71 (95% CI 0.65–0.78, I2 = 85%, n = 11) per 20 MET-hours per week of leisure-time activity. Nonlinear associations were observed in both analyses with a flattening of the dose–response curve at 15–20 MET-hours/week for leisure-time activity. These findings suggest that high levels of total physical activity, leisure-time activi
Berlanga A, Cupp M, Tzoulaki I, et al., 2020, Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and cancer prognosis: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies, BMC Medicine, Vol: 18, ISSN: 1741-7015
BackgroundAlthough neutrophils have been linked to the progression of cancer, uncertainty exists around their association with cancer outcomes, depending on the site, outcome and treatments considered. We aimed to evaluate the strength and validity of evidence on the association between either the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) or tumour-associated neutrophils (TAN) and cancer prognosis.MethodsWe searched MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception to 29 May 2020 for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies on neutrophil counts (here NLR or TAN) and specific cancer outcomes related to disease progression or survival. The available evidence was graded as strong, highly suggestive, suggestive, weak or uncertain through the application of pre-set GRADE criteria.ResultsA total of 204 meta-analyses from 86 studies investigating the association between either NLR or TAN and cancer outcomes met the criteria for inclusion. All but one meta-analyses found a hazard ratio (HR) which increased risk (HR > 1). We did not find sufficient meta-analyses to evaluate TAN and cancer outcomes (N = 9). When assessed for magnitude of effect, significance and bias related to heterogeneity and small study effects, 18 (9%) associations between NLR and outcomes in composite cancer endpoints (combined analysis), cancers treated with immunotherapy and some site specific cancers (urinary, nasopharyngeal, gastric, breast, endometrial, soft tissue sarcoma and hepatocellular cancers) were supported by strong evidence.ConclusionIn total, 60 (29%) meta-analyses presented strong or highly suggestive evidence. Although the NLR and TAN hold clinical promise in their association with poor cancer prognosis, further research is required to provide robust evidence, assess causality and test clinical utility.
Ibsen DB, Steur M, Imamura F, et al., 2020, Replacement of red and processed meat with other food sources of protein and the risk of type 2 diabetes in European populations: The EPIC-interAct study, Diabetes Care, Vol: 43, Pages: 2660-2667, ISSN: 0149-5992
OBJECTIVE There is sparse evidence for the association of suitable food substitutions for red and processed meat on the risk of type 2 diabetes. We modeled the association between replacing red and processed meat with other protein sources and the risk of type 2 diabetes and estimated its population impact.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-InterAct case cohort included 11,741 individuals with type 2 diabetes and a subcohort of 15,450 participants in eight countries. We modeled the replacement of self-reported red and processed meat with poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, cheese, cereals, yogurt, milk, and nuts. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for incident type 2 diabetes were estimated by Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled using random-effects meta-analysis.RESULTS There was a lower hazard for type 2 diabetes for the modeled replacement of red and processed meat (50 g/day) with cheese (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83–0.97) (30 g/day), yogurt (0.90, 0.86–0.95) (70 g/day), nuts (0.90, 0.84–0.96) (10 g/day), or cereals (0.92, 0.88–0.96) (30 g/day) but not for replacements with poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, or milk. If a causal association is assumed, replacing red and processed meat with cheese, yogurt, or nuts could prevent 8.8%, 8.3%, or 7.5%, respectively, of new cases of type 2 diabetes.CONCLUSIONS Replacement of red and processed meat with cheese, yogurt, nuts, or cereals was associated with a lower rate of type 2 diabetes. Substituting red and processed meat by other protein sources may contribute to the prevention of incident type 2 diabetes in European populations.
Kim TL, Jeong GH, Yang JW, et al., 2020, Tea Consumption and Risk of Cancer: An Umbrella Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies, ADVANCES IN NUTRITION, Vol: 11, Pages: 1437-1452, ISSN: 2161-8313
Naudin S, Viallon V, Hashim D, et al., 2020, Healthy lifestyle and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the EPIC study, European Journal of Epidemiology, Vol: 35, Pages: 975-986, ISSN: 0393-2990
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly fatal cancer with currently limited opportunities for early detection and effective treatment. Modifiable factors may offer pathways for primary prevention. In this study, the association between the Healthy Lifestyle Index (HLI) and PC risk was examined. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, 1113 incident PC (57% women) were diagnosed from 400,577 participants followed-up for 15 years (median). HLI scores combined smoking, alcohol intake, dietary exposure, physical activity and, in turn, overall and central adiposity using BMI (HLIBMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, HLIWHR), respectively. High values of HLI indicate adherence to healthy behaviors. Cox proportional hazard models with age as primary time variable were used to estimate PC hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sensitivity analyses were performed by excluding, in turn, each factor from the HLI score. Population attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated assuming participants' shift to healthier lifestyles. The HRs for a one-standard deviation increment of HLIBMI and HLIWHR were 0.84 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.89; ptrend = 4.3e-09) and 0.77 (0.72, 0.82; ptrend = 1.7e-15), respectively. Exclusions of smoking from HLIWHR resulted in HRs of 0.88 (0.82, 0.94; ptrend = 4.9e-04). The overall PAF estimate was 19% (95% CI: 11%, 26%), and 14% (6%, 21%) when smoking was removed from the score. Adherence to a healthy lifestyle was inversely associated with PC risk, beyond the beneficial role of smoking avoidance. Public health measures targeting compliance with healthy lifestyles may have an impact on PC incidence.
Ohno T, Aune D, Heath A, 2020, Adiposity and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies, Scientific Reports, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 2045-2322
ABSTRACTBackground: Several studies have investigated associations between overweight/obesity and risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis, however, the evidence is not entirely consistent, and previous meta-analyses mainly included case-control studies, which can be affected by various biases. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies on adiposity and risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase databases. Random effects models were used to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for rheumatoid arthritis in relation to different measures of adiposity. Results: Thirteen cohort studies (10 publications) were included. The summary RR per 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.05-1.18, I2=50%), but the association was restricted to women (1.15, 95% CI: 1.08-1.21, I2=17%) and not observed in men (0.89, 95% CI: 0.73-1.09, I2=58%). The summary RR per 5 kg/m2 increment in BMI at age 18 years was 1.17 (95% CI: 1.01-1.36, I2=26%, n=3), and per 10 cm increase in waist circumference was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.02-1.25, I2=44%, n=2). Conclusions: Higher BMI in middle age, BMI at age 18 years, and waist circumference were associated with increased rheumatoid arthritis risk, suggesting adiposity could be targeted for primary prevention.
Naudin S, Margalef MS, Hosnijeh FS, et al., 2020, Healthy lifestyle and the risk of lymphoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, International Journal of Cancer, Vol: 147, Pages: 1649-1656, ISSN: 0020-7136
Limited evidence exists on the role of modifiable lifestyle factors on the risk of lymphoma. In this work, the associations between adherence to healthy lifestyles and risks of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non‐Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) were evaluated in a large‐scale European prospective cohort. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 2,999 incident lymphoma cases (132 HL and 2,746 NHL) were diagnosed among 453,808 participants after 15 years (median) of follow‐up. The healthy lifestyle index (HLI) score combined information on smoking, alcohol intake, diet, physical activity and BMI, with large values of HLI expressing adherence to healthy behavior. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate lymphoma hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Sensitivity analyses were conducted by excluding, in turn, each lifestyle factor from the HLI score. The HLI was inversely associated with HL, with HR for a 1‐standard deviation (SD) increment in the score equal to 0.78 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.94). Sensitivity analyses showed that the association was mainly driven by smoking and marginally by diet. NHL risk was not associated with the HLI, with HRs for a 1‐SD increment equal to 0.99 (0.95, 1.03), with no evidence for heterogeneity in the association across NHL subtypes. In the EPIC study, adherence to healthy lifestyles was not associated with overall lymphoma or NHL risk, while an inverse association was observed for HL, although this was largely attributable to smoking. These findings suggest a limited role of lifestyle factors in the etiology of lymphoma subtypes.
Bueno-de-Mesquita B, Cross A, Aune D, et al., 2020, Circulating bilirubin levels and risk of colorectal cancer: serological and Mendelian randomization analyses, BMC Medicine, Vol: 18, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 1741-7015
BACKGROUND: Bilirubin, a byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown and purported antioxidant, is thought to be cancer preventive. We conducted complementary serological and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to investigate whether alterations in circulating levels of bilirubin are associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We decided a priori to perform analyses separately in men and women based on suggestive evidence that associations may differ by sex.METHODS: In a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), pre-diagnostic unconjugated bilirubin (UCB, main component of total bilirubin) concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in plasma samples of 1386 CRC cases and their individually matched controls. Additionally, 115 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated (P < 5x10-8) with circulating total bilirubin were instrumented in a 2-sample MR to test for a potential causal effect of bilirubin on CRC risk in 52,775 CRC cases and 45,940 matched controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), and the Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT) study.RESULTS: The associations between circulating UCB levels and CRC risk differed by sex (Pheterogeneity=0.008). Among men, higher levels of UCB were positively associated with CRC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.36; per 1-SD increment of log-UCB). In women, an inverse association was observed (OR = 0.86 (0.76-0.97)). In the MR analysis of the main UGT1A1 SNP (rs6431625), genetically predicted higher levels of total bilirubin, were associated with a 7% increase in CRC risk in men (OR = 1.07 (1.02-1.12); P=0.006; per 1-SD increment of total bilirubin), while there was no association in women (OR = 1.01 (0.96-1.06); P=0.73). Raised bilirubin levels, predicted by instrumental variables excluding rs6431625, were
Christakoudi S, Tsilidis KK, Muller DC, et al., 2020, ABSI (A Body Shape Index) achieves better mortality risk stratification than alternative indices of abdominal obesity: results from a large European cohort, Scientific Reports, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2045-2322
Abdominal and general adiposity are independently associated with mortality, but there is no consensus on how best to assess abdominal adiposity. We compared the ability of alternative waist indices to complement body mass index (BMI) when assessing all-cause mortality. We used data from 352,985 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for other risk factors. During a mean follow-up of 16.1 years, 38,178 participants died. Combining in one model BMI and a strongly correlated waist index altered the association patterns with mortality, to a predominantly negative association for BMI and a stronger positive association for the waist index, while combining BMI with the uncorrelated A Body Shape Index (ABSI) preserved the association patterns. Sex-specific cohort-wide quartiles of waist indices correlated with BMI could not separate high-risk from low-risk individuals within underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2) or obese (BMI≥30 kg/m2) categories, while the highest quartile of ABSI separated 18%-39% of the individuals within each BMI category, which had 22%-55% higher risk of death. In conclusion, only a waist index independent of BMI by design, such as ABSI, complements BMI and enables efficient risk stratification, which could facilitate personalisation of screening, treatment and monitoring.
Yammine S, Huybrechts I, Biessy C, et al., 2020, Dietary and Circulating Fatty Acids and Ovarian Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY BIOMARKERS & PREVENTION, Vol: 29, Pages: 1739-1749, ISSN: 1055-9965
Hosnijeh FS, Kolijn PM, Casabonne D, et al., 2020, Mediating effect of soluble B-cell activation immune markers on the association between anthropometric and lifestyle factors and lymphoma development, Scientific Reports, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 2045-2322
Sustained B-cell activation is an important mechanism contributing to B-cell lymphoma (BCL). We aimed to validate four previously reported B-cell activation markers predictive of BCL risk (sCD23, sCD27, sCD30, and CXCL13) and to examine their possible mediating effects on the association between anthropometric and lifestyle factors and major BCL subtypes. Pre-diagnostic serum levels were measured for 517 BCL cases and 525 controls in a nested case–control study. The odds ratios of BCL were 6.2 in the highest versus lowest quartile for sCD23, 2.6 for sCD30, 4.2 for sCD27, and 2.6 for CXCL13. Higher levels of all markers were associated with increased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Following mutual adjustment for the other immune markers, sCD23 remained associated with all subtypes and CXCL13 with FL and DLBCL. The associations of sCD23 with CLL and DLBCL and CXCL13 with DLBCL persisted among cases sampled > 9 years before diagnosis. sCD23 showed a good predictive ability (area under the curve = 0.80) for CLL, in particular among older, male participants. sCD23 and CXCL13 showed a mediating effect between body mass index (positive) and DLBCL risk, while CXCL13 contributed to the association between physical activity (inverse) and DLBCL. Our data suggest a role of B-cell activation in BCL development and a mediating role of the immune system for lifestyle factors.
Mahamat-Saleh Y, Aune D, Schlesinger S, 2020, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D status, vitamin D intake, and skin cancer risk: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies, Scientific Reports, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 2045-2322
Sun exposure is a major environmental risk factor for skin cancers and is also an important source of vitamin D. However, while experimental evidence suggests that vitamin D may have a protective effect on skin cancer risk, epidemiologic studies investigating the influence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and/or vitamin D intake on skin cancer risk are conflicting. A systematic review and dose–response meta-analyses of prospective studies was conducted to clarify these associations. Relevant studies were identified by searching the PubMed database up to 30th August 2019. Random effects dose–response meta-analyses were used to estimate summary relative risks (SRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, thirteen prospective studies were included. Circulating level of 25(OH)D was associated with higher risks of melanoma (SRR (95% CI) per 30 nmol = 1.42 (1.17–1.72)) and keratinocyte cancer (KC) (SRR (95% CI) per 30 nmol/L = 1.30 (1.13–1.49)). The SRR (95% CI) per 30 nmol/L increase in 25(OH) D level was 1.41 (1.19–1.67), and 1.57 (0.64–3.86), for basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), respectively. However, while we found that vitamin D intake (from diet, supplemental and total) was not associated with risks of melanoma and SCC, vitamin D intake was associated with slightly increased BCC risk, albeit with no heterogeneity across skin cancer type. This meta-analysis suggests positive associations between circulating 25(OH)D level and risk of melanoma and KC, however, this finding is most likely confounded by sun exposure. We found no associations between vitamin D intake skin cancers, except positive associations with BCC risk.
Kliemann N, Murphy N, Viallon V, et al., 2020, Predicted Basal metabolic rate and cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (Epic), International Journal of Cancer, Vol: 147, Pages: 648-661, ISSN: 0020-7136
Emerging evidence suggests that a metabolic profile associated with obesity may be a more relevant risk factor for some cancers than adiposity per se. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an indicator of overall body metabolism and may be a proxy for the impact of a specific metabolic profile on cancer risk. Therefore, we investigated the association of estimated BMR with incidence of 13 obesity-related cancers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Estimated BMR at baseline was calculated using the WHO/FAO/UNU equations and the relationships between BMR and cancer risk were investigated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. A total of 141,295 men and 317,613 women, with a mean follow-up of 14 years were included in the analysis. Overall, higher BMR was associated with a greater risk for most cancers that have been linked with obesity. However, among normal weight participants, higher BMR was associated with elevated risks of esophageal adenocarcinoma (Hazard Ratio per 1-standard deviation change in BMR [HR1-sd ]: 2.46; 95%CI 1.20; 5.03), and distal colon cancer (HR1-sd : 1.33; 95%CI 1.001; 1.77) among men, and with proximal colon (HR1-sd : 1.16; 95%CI 1.01; 1.35), pancreatic (HR1-sd : 1.37; 95%CI 1.13; 1.66), thyroid (HR1-sd : 1.65; 95%CI 1.33; 2.05), postmenopausal breast (HR1-sd : 1.17; 95%CI 1.11; 1.22), and endometrial (HR1-sd : 1.20; 95%CI 1.03; 1.40) cancers in women. These results indicate that higher BMR may be an indicator of a metabolic phenotype associated with risk of certain cancer types, and may be a useful predictor of cancer risk independent of body fatness. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Tong TYN, Appleby PN, Key TJ, et al., 2020, The associations of major foods and fibre with risks of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke: a prospective study of 418 329 participants in the EPIC cohort across nine European countries, European Heart Journal, Vol: 41, Pages: 2632-2640, ISSN: 0195-668X
AIM: To investigate the associations between major foods and dietary fibre with subtypes of stroke in a large prospective cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed data on 418 329 men and women from nine European countries, with an average of 12.7 years of follow-up. Diet was assessed using validated country-specific questionnaires which asked about habitual intake over the past year, calibrated using 24-h recalls. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke associated with consumption of red and processed meat, poultry, fish, dairy foods, eggs, cereals, fruit and vegetables, legumes, nuts and seeds, and dietary fibre. For ischaemic stroke (4281 cases), lower risks were observed with higher consumption of fruit and vegetables combined (HR; 95% CI per 200 g/day higher intake, 0.87; 0.82-0.93, P-trend < 0.001), dietary fibre (per 10 g/day, 0.77; 0.69-0.86, P-trend < 0.001), milk (per 200 g/day, 0.95; 0.91-0.99, P-trend = 0.02), yogurt (per 100 g/day, 0.91; 0.85-0.97, P-trend = 0.004), and cheese (per 30 g/day, 0.88; 0.81-0.97, P-trend = 0.008), while higher risk was observed with higher red meat consumption which attenuated when adjusted for the other statistically significant foods (per 50 g/day, 1.07; 0.96-1.20, P-trend = 0.20). For haemorrhagic stroke (1430 cases), higher risk was associated with higher egg consumption (per 20 g/day, 1.25; 1.09-1.43, P-trend = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Risk of ischaemic stroke was inversely associated with consumption of fruit and vegetables, dietary fibre, and dairy foods, while risk of haemorrhagic stroke was positively associated with egg consumption. The apparent differences in the associations highlight the importance of examining ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke subtypes separately.
Wang Y, Huang W, O'Neil A, et al., 2020, Association between sleep duration and mortality risk among adults with type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study, Diabetologia, Vol: 63, Pages: 2292-2304, ISSN: 0012-186X
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to investigate whether the effects of sleep duration interacted with the presence of diabetes. We specifically sought to examine the relationship between sleep duration and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in people with type 2 diabetes across sex, age at diagnosis, duration of diabetes and treatment type. METHODS: The sample consisted of 273,029 adults, including 248,817 without diabetes and 24,212 with type 2 diabetes, who participated in the National Health Interview Survey from 2004 to 2013 and whose data were linked to a mortality database up to 31 December 2015. Sleep duration was measured using self-report, whereby participants were asked 'on average how long do you sleep each day (≤5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or ≥10 h/day)?' The relationship between sleep duration and mortality risk was investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression model, with adjustments for demographics, BMI, lifestyle behaviours and clinical variables. RESULTS: Absolute mortality rate was higher in adults with diabetes and extremes of sleep duration (≤5 h/day, 215.0 per 10,000 person-years; ≥10 h/day, 363.5 per 10,000 person-years). There was a non-significant interaction between sleep duration and the presence of diabetes (p for interaction = 0.08). A J-shaped relationship existed between sleep duration and all-cause mortality risk in people with type 2 diabetes. Compared with the reference group (7 h/day), both shorter and longer sleep durations were associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (≤5 h/day, HR 1.24 [95% CI 1.09, 1.40]; 6 h/day, HR 1.13 [1.01, 1.28]; 8 h/day, HR 1.17 [1.06, 1.30]; ≥10 h/day, HR 1.83 [1.61, 2.08]). Similar associations were also observed for mortality risk from CVD, cancer, kidney disease, Alzheimer's disease and chronic lower respiratory diseases. Longer sleep duration in those with a younger age at diabetes onset was associated with greater risks
Zheng J-S, Sharp SJ, Imamura F, et al., 2020, Association of plasma biomarkers of fruit and vegetable intake with incident type 2 diabetes: EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study in eight European countries, BMJ: British Medical Journal, Vol: 370, ISSN: 0959-535X
Objective To investigate the association of plasma vitamin C and carotenoids, as indicators of fruit and vegetable intake, with the risk of type 2 diabetes.Design Prospective case-cohort study.Setting Populations from eight European countries.Participants 9754 participants with incident type 2 diabetes, and a subcohort of 13 662 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort of 340 234 participants: EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study.Main outcome measure Incident type 2 diabetes.Results In a multivariable adjusted model, higher plasma vitamin C was associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.76 to 0.89). A similar inverse association was shown for total carotenoids (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.75, 0.68 to 0.82). A composite biomarker score (split into five equal groups), comprising vitamin C and individual carotenoids, was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes with hazard ratios 0.77, 0.66, 0.59, and 0.50 for groups 2-5 compared with group 1 (the lowest group). Self-reported median fruit and vegetable intake was 274 g/day, 396 g/day, and 508 g/day for participants in categories defined by groups 1, 3, and 5 of the composite biomarker score, respectively. One standard deviation difference in the composite biomarker score, equivalent to a 66 (95% confidence interval 61 to 71) g/day difference in total fruit and vegetable intake, was associated with a hazard ratio of 0.75 (0.67 to 0.83). This would be equivalent to an absolute risk reduction of 0.95 per 1000 person years of follow up if achieved across an entire population with the characteristics of the eight European countries included in this analysis.Conclusions These findings indicate an inverse association between plasma vitamin C, carotenoids, and their composite biomarker score, and incident type 2 diabetes in different European countries. These biomarkers are ob
Aune D, Schlesinger S, Hamer M, et al., 2020, Physical activity and the risk of sudden cardiac death: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies, BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, Vol: 20, ISSN: 1471-2261
BackgroundPhysical activity has been associated with a significant reduction in risk of sudden cardiac death in epidemiological studies, however, the strength of the association needs clarification. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the available data from population-based prospective studies.MethodsPubMed and Embase databases were searched for studies of physical activity and sudden cardiac death from inception to March 26th 2019. Prospective studies reporting adjusted relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of sudden cardiac death associated with physical activity were included. A random effects model was used to estimate summary RRs (95% CIs).ResultsThirteen prospective studies were included in the systematic review. Eight prospective studies with 1193 sudden cardiac deaths among 136,298 participants were included in the meta-analysis of physical activity and sudden cardiac death and the summary RR for highest vs. lowest level of physical activity was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.45–0.60, I2 = 0%, pheterogeneity = 0.72). The association was similar in men and women and among American and European studies. In the dose-response analysis the summary RR was 0.68 (95% CI: 0.55–0.86, I2 = 44%, n = 3) per 20 MET-hours/week. Although the test for nonlinearity was not significant, pnonlinearity = 0.18, there was no further reduction in risk beyond 20–25 MET-hours/week. The summary RR was 0.58 (95% CI: 0.41–0.81, I2 = 0%, pheterogeneity = 0.65, n = 2) for the highest vs. the lowest level of cardiorespiratory fitness.ConclusionThis meta-analysis suggest that a high compared to a low level of physical activity may reduce the risk of sudden cardiac death in the general population. Further studies are needed to clarify the dose-response relationship between specific subtypes and intensities of physical activity in relation
Fadnes LT, Arnesen EK, Aune D, 2020, Should we reduce consumption of red meat?, Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening, Vol: 140, Pages: 990-992, ISSN: 0029-2001
Aune D, Mahamat-Saleh Y, Norat T, et al., 2020, High Body Mass Index and Central Adiposity Is Associated with Increased Risk of Acute Pancreatitis: A Meta-Analysis, DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES, ISSN: 0163-2116
Aune D, Mahamat-Saleh Y, Norat T, et al., 2020, Diabetes mellitus and the risk of pancreatitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies, Pancreatology, Vol: 20, Pages: 602-607, ISSN: 1424-3903
BackgroundDiabetes mellitus has been associated with increased risk of pancreatitis in several studies, however, not all studies have found an association. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies on diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis to clarify the association.MethodsPubMed and Embase databases were searched for studies on diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis up to 8th of January 2020. Cohort studies that reported adjusted relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between diabetes diagnosis and pancreatitis were included and summary RRs (95% CIs) were calculated using a random effects model.ResultsEight cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis, and seven of these were included in the analysis of diabetes mellitus and acute pancreatitis (14124 cases, 5.7 million participants). Comparing diabetes patients with persons without diabetes the summary RRs (95% CIs) were 1.74 (95% CI: 1.33–2.29, I2 = 95%) for acute pancreatitis, 1.40 (95% CI: 0.88–2.22, I2 = 0%, n = 2) for chronic pancreatitis, and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.07–1.80, I2 = 54%, n = 3) for pancreatitis overall. Although there was some indication of publication bias in the analysis of acute pancreatitis this appeared to be explained by one outlying study which when excluded did not substantially alter the association. The results persisted in several subgroup and sensitivity analyses.ConclusionsThese results suggest that diabetes patients are at an increased risk of acute pancreatitis. Further studies are needed on diabetes and risk of chronic pancreatitis, pancreatitis overall and on gallstone-related and non-gallstone-related pancreatitis.
Christakoudi S, Kakourou A, Markozannes G, et al., 2020, Blood pressure and risk of cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition, International Journal of Cancer, Vol: 146, Pages: 2680-2693, ISSN: 0020-7136
Several studies have reported associations of hypertension with cancer, but not allresults were conclusive. We examined the association of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP)blood pressure with the development of incident cancer at all anatomical sites in theEuropean Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Hazard ratios (HR)(95% confidence intervals) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazardsmodels, stratified by EPIC-participating centre and age at recruitment, and adjusted for sex,education, smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diabetes and dietary (in women alsoreproductive) factors. The study included 307,318 men and women, with an average followup of 13.7 (standard deviation 4.4) years and 39,298 incident cancers. We confirmed theexpected positive association with renal cell carcinoma: HR=1.12 (1.08-1.17) per 10mmHghigher SBP and HR=1.23 (1.14-1.32) for DBP. We additionally found positive associationsfor esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): HR=1.16 (1.07-1.26) (SBP), HR=1.31 (1.13-1.51) (DBP), weaker for head and neck cancers: HR=1.08 (1.04-1.12) (SBP), HR=1.09(1.01-1.17) (DBP) and, similarly, for skin SCC, colon cancer, post-menopausal breast cancerand uterine adenocarcinoma (AC), but not for esophageal AC, lung SCC, lung AC, or uterineendometroid cancer. We observed weak inverse associations of SBP with cervical SCC:HR=0.91 (0.82-1.00) and lymphomas: HR=0.97 (0.93-1.00). There were no consistentassociations with cancers in other locations.Our results are largely compatible with published studies and support weak associations ofblood pressure with cancers in specific locations and morphologies.
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