239 results found
Bolling B, Aune D, Noh H, et al., 2023, Dried Fruits, Nuts, and Cancer Risk and Survival: A Review of the Evidence and Future Research Directions, Nutrients, ISSN: 2072-6643
Clasen J, Cole R, Aune D, et al., 2023, Vitamin D status and risk of rheumatoid arthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis, BMC Rheumatology, Vol: 7, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2520-1026
BackgroundVitamin D is important for immunomodulation and may play a role in autoimmune diseases. Studies have reported a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and vitamin D status, assessed by circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration, is inversely associated with RA disease activity. However, it is unclear whether vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of later developing RA. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of pre-diagnostic 25(OH)D concentrations and risk of RA.MethodsMedline and Embase databases were searched in December 2021 using various keywords for ‘vitamin D’, ‘rheumatoid arthritis’, and ‘prospective study’. Publications identified from the search were screened for eligibility, studies were excluded if vitamin D status was measured at or after RA diagnosis, and data were extracted from relevant articles. Bayesian meta-analysis was used to estimate the summary relative risk (RR) and 95% credible interval (CrI) for risk of RA in relation to circulating 25(OH)D concentrations, as well as the between-study heterogeneity.ResultsThe search strategy yielded 908 records, of which 4 publications reporting on 7 studies, involving a total of 15,604 participants and 1049 incident RA cases, were included in the meta-analysis. There was no suggestion of an association between 25(OH)D concentration and subsequent risk of RA. The pooled RR per 25 nmol/L increment in 25(OH)D was 0.96 (95% CrI 0.82–1.13; I2 = 52%). No associations were evident in men (RR = 1.02, 95% CrI 0.65–1.61; I2 = 77%, 2 studies) or women (RR = 0.94, 95% CrI 0.73–1.22; I2 = 71%, 4 studies).ConclusionsThis systematic review and meta-analysis did not identify evidence of an association between 25(OH)D and RA risk, but there was notable between-study heterogeneity and a lack of precision. Investigations in larg
Kliemann N, Rauber F, Levy R, et al., 2023, Food processing and cancer risk in Europe: results from the prospective EPIC cohort study, The Lancet Planetary Health, Vol: 7, Pages: E219-E232, ISSN: 2542-5196
BackgroundFood processing has been hypothesised to play a role in cancer development; however, data from large-scale epidemiological studies are scarce. This study investigated the association between dietary intake according to amount of food processing and risk of cancer at 25 anatomical sites using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.MethodsThis study used data from the prospective EPIC cohort study, which recruited participants between March 18, 1991, and July 2, 2001, from 23 centres in ten European countries. Participant eligibility within each cohort was based on geographical or administrative boundaries. Participants were excluded if they had a cancer diagnosis before recruitment, had missing information for the NOVA food processing classification, or were within the top and bottom 1% for ratio of energy intake to energy requirement. Validated dietary questionnaires were used to obtain information on food and drink consumption. Participants with cancer were identified using cancer registries or during follow-up from a combination of sources, including cancer and pathology centres, health insurance records, and active follow-up of participants. We performed a substitution analysis to assess the effect of replacing 10% of processed foods and ultra-processed foods with 10% of minimally processed foods on cancer risk at 25 anatomical sites using Cox proportional hazard models.Findings521 324 participants were recruited into EPIC, and 450 111 were included in this analysis (318 686 [70·8%] participants were female individuals and 131 425 [29·2%] were male individuals). In a multivariate model adjusted for sex, smoking, education, physical activity, height, and diabetes, a substitution of 10% of processed foods with an equal amount of minimally processed foods was associated with reduced risk of overall cancer (hazard ratio 0·96, 95% CI 0·95–0·9
Horn JW, Feng T, Mørkedal B, et al., 2023, Body Mass Index Measured Repeatedly over 42 Years as a Risk Factor for Ischemic Stroke: The HUNT Study., Nutrients, Vol: 15
BACKGROUND: Higher BMI in middle age is associated with ischemic stroke, but little is known about BMI over adulthood, and the risk for ischemic stroke as most studies relied on a single measurement of BMI. METHODS: BMI was measured four times over a period of 42 years. We calculated average BMI values and group-based trajectory models and related these to the prospective risk of ischemic stroke after the last examination in Cox models with a follow-up time of 12 years. RESULTS: A total of 14,139 participants, with a mean age of 65.2 years and 55.4% women, had information on BMI from all four examinations, and we observed 856 ischemic strokes. People with overweight and obesity over adulthood had a higher risk for ischemic stroke with a multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of 1.29 (95% CI 1.11-1.48) and 1.27 (95% CI 0.96-1.67), respectively, when compared to normal weight participants. Excess weight tended to have stronger effects earlier than later in life. A trajectory of developing obesity throughout life was associated with higher risk than other trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: High average BMI, especially at an early age, is a risk factor for ischemic stroke. Early weight control and long-term weight reduction for those with high BMI may decrease the later occurrence of ischemic stroke.
Hibino M, Halkos ME, Murphy DA, et al., 2023, Age period cohort analysis of rheumatic heart disease in high-income countries., Clin Res Cardiol
INTRODUCTION: Rheumatic heart disease is considered well-controlled in high-income countries; however, its actual trends in mortality remain unclarified. We analyzed trends in mortality from rheumatic heart disease in association with age, period, and birth cohort. METHODS: We analyzed the WHO mortality database to determine trends in mortality from rheumatic heart disease in the UK, Germany, France, Italy, Japan, Australia, USA, and Canada from 2000 to 2020. We used age-cohort-period modeling to estimate cohort and period effects. Net drift (overall annual percentage change), local drift (annual percentage change in each age group) and heterogeneity were calculated. RESULTS: In the most recent year, crude mortality rates and age-standardized mortality rates ranged from 1.10 in the USA to 6.17 in Germany, and 0.32 (95% CI 0.31-0.34) in Japan and 1.70 (95% CI 1.65-1.75) in Germany, respectively. During the observation period, while Germany had a constant trend in overall annual percentage change, all the other countries had significant decreasing trends (p < 0.0001, respectively). Annual percent change was not homogeneous across each group in all 8 countries (pheterogeneity < 0.0001), with 2 peaks in the younger and older age categories. In Germany, Italy, Australia, and Canada, we found increasing mortality rates among older patients. Improving period and cohort risks for rheumatic heart disease mortality were generally observed, excluding Germany where the period effect was worsening and the cohort effect was constant. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality trends from rheumatic heart disease were decreasing in the study high-income countries except for Germany where higher mortality and two peaks in annual percentage change in younger and older age groups warrant further investigation.
Chan DSM, Vieira R, Abar L, et al., 2023, Postdiagnosis body fatness, weight change and breast cancer prognosis: Global Cancer Update Program (CUP global) systematic literature review and meta-analysis, International Journal of Cancer, Vol: 152, Pages: 572-599, ISSN: 0020-7136
Previous evidence on postdiagnosis body fatness and mortality after breast cancer was graded as limited-suggestive. To evaluate the evidence on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-hip-ratio and weight change in relation to breast cancer prognosis, an updated systematic review was conducted. PubMed and Embase were searched for relevant studies published up to 31 October, 2021. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to estimate summary relative risks (RRs). The evidence was judged by an independent Expert Panel using pre-defined grading criteria. One randomized controlled trial and 225 observational studies were reviewed (220 publications). There was strong evidence (likelihood of causality: probable) that higher postdiagnosis BMI was associated with increased all-cause mortality (64 studies, 32 507 deaths), breast cancer-specific mortality (39 studies, 14 106 deaths) and second primary breast cancer (11 studies, 5248 events). The respective summary RRs and 95% confidence intervals per 5 kg/m2 BMI were 1.07 (1.05-1.10), 1.10 (1.06-1.14) and 1.14 (1.04-1.26), with high between-study heterogeneity (I2 = 56%, 60%, 66%), but generally consistent positive associations. Positive associations were also observed for waist circumference, waist-hip-ratio and all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. There was limited-suggestive evidence that postdiagnosis BMI was associated with higher risk of recurrence, nonbreast cancer deaths and cardiovascular deaths. The evidence for postdiagnosis (unexplained) weight or BMI change and all outcomes was graded as limited-no conclusion. The RCT showed potential beneficial effect of intentional weight loss on disease-free-survival, but more intervention trials and well-designed observational studies in diverse populations are needed to elucidate the impact of body composition and their changes on breast cancer outcomes.
Cariolou M, Abar L, Aune D, et al., 2023, Postdiagnosis recreational physical activity and breast cancer prognosis: Global Cancer Update Programme (CUP Global) systematic literature review and meta-analysis, International Journal of Cancer, Vol: 152, Pages: 600-615, ISSN: 0020-7136
It is important to clarify the associations between modifiable lifestyle factors such as physical activity and breast cancer prognosis to enable the development of evidence-based survivorship recommendations. We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses to summarise the evidence on the relationship between postbreast cancer diagnosis physical activity and mortality, recurrence and second primary cancers. We searched PubMed and Embase through 31st October 2021 and included 20 observational studies and three follow-up observational analyses of patients enrolled in clinical trials. In linear dose-response meta-analysis of the observational studies, each 10-unit increase in metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-h/week higher recreational physical activity was associated with 15% and 14% lower risk of all-cause (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8%-22%, studies = 12, deaths = 3670) and breast cancer-specific mortality (95% CI: 4%-23%, studies = 11, deaths = 1632), respectively. Recreational physical activity was not associated with breast cancer recurrence (HR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.91-1.05, studies = 6, deaths = 1705). Nonlinear dose-response meta-analyses indicated 48% lower all-cause and 38% lower breast cancer-specific mortality with increasing recreational physical activity up to 20 MET-h/week, but little further reduction in risk at higher levels. Predefined subgroup analyses across strata of body mass index, hormone receptors, adjustment for confounders, number of deaths, menopause and physical activity intensities were consistent in direction and magnitude to the main analyses. Considering the methodological limitations of the included studies, the independent Expert Panel concluded ‘limited-suggestive’ likelihood of causality for an association between recreational physical activity and lower risk of all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality.
Becerra-Tomas N, Balducci K, Abar L, et al., 2023, Postdiagnosis dietary factors, supplement use and breast cancer prognosis: Global Cancer Update Programme (CUP Global) systematic literature review and meta-analysis, International Journal of Cancer, Vol: 152, Pages: 616-634, ISSN: 0020-7136
Little is known about how diet might influence breast cancer prognosis. The current systematic reviews and meta-analyses summarise the evidence on postdiagnosis dietary factors and breast cancer outcomes from randomised controlled trials and longitudinal observational studies. PubMed and Embase were searched through 31st October 2021. Random-effects linear dose-response meta-analysis was conducted when at least three studies with sufficient information were available. The quality of the evidence was evaluated by an independent Expert Panel. We identified 108 publications. No meta-analysis was conducted for dietary patterns, vegetables, wholegrains, fish, meat, and supplements due to few studies, often with insufficient data. Meta-analysis was only possible for all-cause mortality with dairy, isoflavone, carbohydrate, dietary fibre, alcohol intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), and for breast cancer-specific mortality with fruit, dairy, carbohydrate, protein, dietary fat, fibre, alcohol intake and serum 25(OH)D. The results, with few exceptions, were generally null. There was limited-suggestive evidence that predefined dietary patterns may reduce the risk of all-cause and other causes of death; that isoflavone intake reduces the risk of all-cause mortality (relative risk (RR) per 2 mg/day: 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92-1.02), breast cancer-specific mortality (RR for high vs low: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.64-1.07), and recurrence (RR for high vs low: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.61-0.92); that dietary fibre intake decreases all-cause mortality (RR per 10 g/day: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.80-0.94); and that serum 25(OH)D is inversely associated with all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality (RR per 10 nmol/L: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89-0.97 and 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90-0.99, respectively). The remaining associations were graded as limited-no conclusion.
Tsilidis KK, Cariolou M, Becerra-Tomas N, et al., 2023, Postdiagnosis body fatness, recreational physical activity, dietary factors and breast cancer prognosis: Global Cancer Update Programme (CUP Global) summary of evidence grading, International Journal of Cancer, Vol: 152, Pages: 635-644, ISSN: 0020-7136
Based on the Global Cancer Update Programme, formally known as the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research Continuous Update Project, we performed systematic reviews and meta-analyses to investigate the association of postdiagnosis body fatness, physical activity and dietary factors with breast cancer prognosis. We searched PubMed and Embase for randomised controlled trials and longitudinal observational studies from inception to 31 October 2021. We calculated summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using random-effects meta-analyses. An independent Expert Panel graded the quality of evidence according to predefined criteria. The evidence on postdiagnosis body fatness and higher all-cause mortality (RR per 5 kg/m2 in body mass index: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.05-1.10), breast cancer-specific mortality (RR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.06-1.14) and second primary breast cancer (RR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04-1.26) was graded as strong (likelihood of causality: probable). The evidence for body fatness and breast cancer recurrence and other nonbreast cancer-related mortality was graded as limited (likelihood of causality: limited-suggestive). The evidence on recreational physical activity and lower risk of all-cause (RR per 10 metabolic equivalent of task-hour/week: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.78-0.92) and breast cancer-specific mortality (RR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.77-0.96) was judged as limited-suggestive. Data on dietary factors was limited, and no conclusions could be reached except for healthy dietary patterns, isoflavone and dietary fibre intake and serum 25(OH)D concentrations that were graded with limited-suggestive evidence for lower risk of the examined outcomes. Our results encourage the development of lifestyle recommendations for breast cancer patients to avoid obesity and be physically active.
Glenn AJ, Aune D, Freisling H, et al., 2023, Nuts and Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes: A Review of the Evidence and Future Directions., Nutrients, Vol: 15
Nuts are nutrient-rich foods that contain many bioactive compounds that are beneficial for cardiovascular health. Higher consumption of nuts has been associated with a reduced risk of several cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in prospective cohort studies, including a 19% and 25% lower risk of CVD incidence and mortality, respectively, and a 24% and 27% lower risk of coronary heart disease incidence and mortality, respectively. An 18% lower risk of stroke mortality, a 15% lower risk of atrial fibrillation, and a 19% lower risk of total mortality have also been observed. The role of nuts in stroke incidence, stroke subtypes, peripheral arterial disease and heart failure has been less consistent. This narrative review summarizes recommendations for nuts by clinical practice guidelines and governmental organizations, epidemiological evidence for nuts and CVD outcomes, nut-containing dietary patterns, potential mechanisms of nuts and CVD risk reduction, and future research directions, such as the use of biomarkers to help better assess nut intake. Although there are still some uncertainties around nuts and CVD prevention which require further research, as summarized in this review, there is a substantial amount of evidence that supports that consuming nuts will have a positive impact on primary and secondary prevention of CVD.
Sæby Dybvik J, Svendsen M, Aune D, 2023, Vegetarian and vegan diets and the risk of cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies, European Journal of Nutrition, Vol: 62, Pages: 51-69, ISSN: 0044-264X
Purpose:Vegetarian diets have been associated with reduced risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, results regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD) overall and stroke are less clear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies on CVD, IHD and stroke risk among vegetarians or vegans versus nonvegetarians to clarify these associations.Methods:PubMed and Ovid Embase databases were searched through August 12, 2021. Prospective cohort studies reporting adjusted relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incidence or mortality from CVD, IHD and stroke, comparing vegetarians and vegans to nonvegetarians were included. Risk of bias (RoB) was assessed using ROBINS-I and the strength of evidence was assessed using World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) criteria. Summary RRs (95% CIs) were estimated using a random effects model.Results:Thirteen cohort studies (844,175 participants, 115,392 CVD, 30,377 IHD, and 14,419 stroke cases) were included. The summary RR for vegetarians vs. nonvegetarians was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.79–0.92, I2 = 68%, n = 8) for CVD, 0.79 (95% CI: 0.71–0.88, I2 = 67%, n = 8) for IHD, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.77–1.05, I2 = 61%, n = 12) for total stroke, and for vegans vs. nonvegetarians was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.68–1.00, I2 = 0%, n = 6) for IHD. RoB was moderate (n = 8) to serious (n = 5). The associations between vegetarian diets and CVD and IHD were considered probably causal using WCRF criteria.Conclusions:Vegetarian diets are associated with reduced risk of CVD and IHD, but not stroke, but further studies are needed on stroke. These findings should be considered in dietary guidelines.
Aune D, Mahamat-Saleh Y, Kobeissi E, et al., 2023, Blood pressure, hypertension and the risk of atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies, European Journal of Epidemiology, Vol: 38, Pages: 145-178, ISSN: 0393-2990
Elevated blood pressure and hypertension have been associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation in a number of epidemiological studies, however, the strength of the association has differed between studies. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between blood pressure and hypertension and atrial fibrillation. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for studies of hypertension and blood pressure and atrial fibrillation up to June 6th 2022. Cohort studies reporting adjusted relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of atrial fibrillation associated with hypertension or blood pressure were included. A random effects model was used to estimate summary RRs. Sixty eight cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. The summary RR was 1.50 (95% CI: 1.42-1.58, I2 = 98.1%, n = 56 studies) for people with hypertension compared to those without hypertension (1,080,611 cases, 30,539,230 participants), 1.18 (95% CI: 1.16-1.21, I2 = 65.9%, n = 37 studies) per 20 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure (346,471 cases, 14,569,396 participants), and 1.07 (95% CI: 1.03-1.11, I2 = 91.5%, n = 22 studies) per 10 mmHg increase in diastolic blood pressure (332,867 cases, 14,354,980 participants). There was evidence of a nonlinear association between diastolic blood pressure and atrial fibrillation with a steeper increase in risk at lower levels of diastolic blood pressure, but for systolic blood pressure the association appeared to be linear. For both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the risk increased even within the normal range of blood pressure and persons at the high end of systolic and diastolic blood pressure around 180/110 mmHg had a 1.8-2.3 fold higher risk of atrial fibrillation compared to those with a blood pressure of 90/60 mmHg. These results suggest that elevated blood pressure and hypertension in
Amiri M, Raeisi-Dehkordi H, Verkaar AJCF, et al., 2023, Circulating lipoprotein (a) and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, ISSN: 0393-2990
Karavasiloglou N, Hughes DJ, Murphy N, et al., 2023, Prediagnostic serum calcium concentrations and risk of colorectal cancer development in 2 large European prospective cohorts, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol: 117, Pages: 33-45, ISSN: 0002-9165
BACKGROUND: Higher dietary calcium consumption is associated with lower colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, little data are available on the association between circulating calcium concentrations and CRC risk. OBJECTIVES: To explore the association between circulating calcium concentrations and CRC risk using data from 2 large European prospective cohort studies. METHODS: Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate multivariable-adjusted ORs and 95% CIs in case-control studies nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC; n-cases = 947, n-controls = 947) and the UK Biobank (UK-BB; n-cases = 2759, n-controls = 12,021) cohorts. RESULTS: In EPIC, nonalbumin-adjusted total serum calcium (a proxy of free calcium) was not associated with CRC (OR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.03; modeled as continuous variable, per 1 mg/dL increase), colon cancer (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.05) or rectal cancer (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.20) risk in the multivariable adjusted model. In the UK-BB, serum ionized calcium (free calcium, most active form) was inversely associated with the risk of CRC (OR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.95; per 1 mg/dL) and colon cancer (OR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.90), but not rectal cancer (OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.24) in multivariable adjusted models. Meta-analysis of EPIC and UK-BB CRC risk estimates showed an inverse risk association for CRC in the multivariable adjusted model (OR: 0.90; 95%CI: 0.84, 0.97). In analyses by quintiles, in both cohorts, higher levels of serum calcium were associated with reduced CRC risk (EPIC: ORQ5vs.Q1: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.47, 1.00; P-trend = 0.03; UK-BB: ORQ5vs.Q1: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.94; P-trend < 0.01). Analyses by anatomical subsite showed an inverse cancer risk association in the colon (EPIC: ORQ5vs.Q1: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.39, 1.02; P-trend = 0.05; UK-BB: ORQ5vs.Q1: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.64, 0.88; P-trend < 0.01) but not the rectum. CONCLUSIONS: In UK-BB, higher serum ionized calcium
Zargarzadeh N, Mousavi SM, Santos HO, et al., 2023, Legume Consumption and Risk of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies., Adv Nutr, Vol: 14, Pages: 64-76
There is an equivocal and inconsistent association between legume consumption and health outcomes and longevity. The purpose of this study was to examine and quantify the potential dose-response relationship between legume consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the general population. We conducted a systematic literature search on PubMed/Medline, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and Embase from inception to September 2022, as well as reference lists of relevant original papers and key journals. A random-effects model was used to calculate summary HRs and their 95% CIs for the highest and lowest categories, as well as for a 50 g/d increment. We also modeled curvilinear associations using a 1-stage linear mixed-effects meta-analysis. Thirty-two cohorts (31 publications) involving 1,141,793 participants and 93,373 deaths from all causes were included. Higher intakes of legumes, compared with lower intakes, were associated with a reduced risk of mortality from all causes (HR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.98; n = 27) and stroke (HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.99; n = 5). There was no significant association for CVD mortality (HR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.09; n =11), CHD mortality (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.78, 1.09; n = 5), or cancer mortality (HR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.01; n = 5). In the linear dose-response analysis, a 50 g/d increase in legume intake was associated with a 6% reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.99; n = 19), but no significant association was observed for the remaining outcomes. The certainty of evidence was judged from low to moderate. A higher legume intake was associated with lower mortality from all causes and stroke, but no association was observed for CVD, CHD, and cancer mortality. These results support dietary recommendations to increase the consumption of legumes.
Jahangiry L, Dehghan A, Farjam M, et al., 2022, Laboratory-based and office-based Globorisk scores to predict 10-year risk of cardiovascular diseases among Iranians: results from the Fasa PERSIAN cohort (vol 22, 305, 2022), BMC MEDICAL RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, Vol: 22
Aune D, Markozannes G, Abar L, et al., 2022, Physical activity and health-related quality of life in women with breast cancer: a meta-analysis, JNCI Cancer Spectrum, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2515-5091
Background: Physical activity (PA) is associated with improved health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) among women with breast cancer; however, uncertainty remains regarding PA types and dose (frequency, duration, intensity) and various HRQoL measures. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to clarify whether specific types and doses of physical activity was related to global and specific domains of HRQoL, as part of the Global Cancer Update Programme, formerly known as the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research Continuous Update Project. Methods: PubMed and CENTRAL databases were searched up to August 31, 2019. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) in HRQoL scores were estimated using random effects models. An independent Expert Panel graded the evidence. Results: Seventy-nine RCTs (14,554 breast cancer patients) were included. PA interventions resulted in higher global HRQoL as measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast, WMDs (95% confidence intervals)=5.94 (2.64-9.24, I2=59%, n=12), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General, 4.53 (1.94-7.13, I2=72%, n=18), European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30, 6.78 (2.61-10.95, I2=76.3%, n=17). The likelihood of causality was considered probable that PA improves HRqoL in breast cancer survivors. Effects were weaker for physical function and mental/emotional health. Evidence regarding dose and type of PA remains insufficient for firm conclusions. Conclusion: PA results in improved global HRQoL in breast cancer survivors with weaker effects observed for physical function and mental/emotional health. Additional research is needed to define the impact of types and doses of activity on various domains of HRQoL.
Jahangiry L, Dehghan A, Farjam M, et al., 2022, Laboratory-based and office-based Globorisk scores to predict 10-year risk of cardiovascular diseases among Iranians: results from the Fasa PERSIAN cohort., BMC Medical Research Methodology, Vol: 22, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 1471-2288
BACKGROUND: Globorisk is a novel risk prediction model for predicting cardiovascular disease (CVD). Globorisk is a country-specific risk prediction model that determines CVD risk for all countries. This model has two versions; laboratory-based and office-based. This study aimed to determine the agreement between laboratory-based and office-based models in a large sample of the general population. METHODS: Baseline data from the Fasa cohort study was used for the current study. In total, 6810 participants ≥ 40 years without any history of cardiovascular disease or stroke were included in the study. To determine the laboratory-based risk model, factors include age, sex, current smoking status, history of diabetes, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and total cholesterol. To estimate the office-based risk model, factors were age, sex, current smoking status, SBP, and body mass index (BMI). Kappa statistics was used to distinguish the agreement between grouped scores in these two models. Additionally, correlation coefficients and scatter plots were used to determine the linear correlation between the two models. RESULTS: In this study 46.53% of the participants were men. The mean age (SD) of participants was 51.08 (7.88) years. Agreements between the two models were moderate and substantial in all women and all men, respectively. The agreement between the two CVD risk groups was 90.15% (kappa = 0.717) in all men, 92.94% (kappa = 0.571) among men aged < 60 years and 77.60% (kappa = 0.645) in men aged ≥ 60 years. The agreement between the two CVD risk groups was 86.68% (kappa = 0.572) among all women, 93.96% (kappa = 0.274) among women aged < 60 years and 62.46% (kappa = 0.422) among women aged ≥ 60 years. A very strong positive correlation (r = 0.94) was found between the two risk scores in all
Jahangiry L, Aune D, Farhangi MA, 2022, Screen time and the risk of metabolic syndrome among children and adolescents: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis, NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, Vol: 32, Pages: 2483-2492, ISSN: 0939-4753
Balakrishna R, Bjørnerud T, Bemanian M, et al., 2022, Consumption of Nuts and Seeds and Health Outcomes Including Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes and Metabolic Disease, Cancer, and Mortality: An Umbrella Review., Adv Nutr, Vol: 13, Pages: 2136-2148
Consumption of nuts and seeds is associated with a range of health outcomes. Summarizing the best evidence on essential health outcomes from the consumption of nuts is essential to provide optimal recommendations. Our objective is to comprehensively assess health outcome associations related to the consumption of nuts and seeds, using a culinary definition including tree nuts and peanuts (registered in PROSPERO: CRD42021258300). Health outcomes of interest include cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, obesity, respiratory disease, mortality, and their disease biomarkers. We present associations for high compared with low consumption, per serving, and dose-response relations. MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and Epistemonikos were searched and screened for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Evidence was extracted from 89 articles on the consumption of nuts and relevant health outcomes, including 23 articles with meta-analysis on disease and mortality, 66 articles on biomarkers for disease, and 9 articles on allergy/adverse outcomes. Intake of nuts was associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases and related risk factors, with moderate quality of evidence. An intake of 28 g/d nuts compared with not eating nuts was associated with a 21% RR reduction of cardiovascular disease (including coronary heart disease incidence and mortality, atrial fibrillation, and stroke mortality), an 11% risk reduction of cancer deaths, and 22% reduction in all-cause mortality. Nut consumption was also inversely associated with mortality from respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, and diabetes; however, associations between nut consumption and diabetes incidence were mixed. Meta-analyses of trials on biomarkers for disease generally mirrored meta-analyses from observational studies on cardiovascular disease, cancers, and diabetes. Allergy and related adverse reactions to nuts were observed in 1-2% of adult populations, with substantial heterogeneity between studies. Overall
Balakrishna R, Bjørnerud T, Bemanian M, et al., 2022, Consumption of nuts and seeds and health outcomes including cardiovascular, diabetes and metabolic disease, cancer, and mortality: an umbrella review, Advances in Nutrition, Vol: 13, Pages: 2136-2148, ISSN: 2156-5376
Consumption of nuts and seeds is associated with a range of health outcomes. Summarizing the best evidence on essential health outcomes from the consumption of nuts is essential to provide optimal recommendations. Our objective is to comprehensively assess health outcomes associations related to the consumption of nuts and seeds, using a culinary definition including tree nuts and peanuts (registered in PROSPERO: CRD42021258300). Health outcomes of interest include cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, obesity, respiratory disease, mortality, and their biomarker for disease. We present associations for high versus low consumption, per serving, and dose-response relationships. Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and Epistemonikos were searched and screened for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Evidence was extracted from 89 articles on the consumption of nuts and relevant health outcomes, including 23 articles with meta-analysis on disease and mortality, 66 articles on biomarkers for disease, and 9 articles on allergy/adverse outcomes. Intake of nuts was associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases and related risk factors, with moderate quality of evidence. An intake of 28 grams of nuts per day compared to not eating nuts was associated with a 21% relative risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (including coronary heart disease incidence and mortality, atrial fibrillation, and stroke mortality), 11% risk reduction of cancer deaths, and 22% reduction in all-cause mortality. Nut consumption was also inversely associated with mortality from respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, and diabetes: however, associations between nut consumption and diabetes incidence were mixed. Meta-analyses of trials on biomarkers for disease generally mirrored meta-analyses from observational studies on cardiovascular disease, cancers, and diabetes. Allergy and related adverse reactions to nuts were observed among 1–2% of adult populations, with substantial heterogene
Hardt L, Mahamat-Saleh Y, Aune D, et al., 2022, Plant-Based Diets and Cancer Prognosis: a Review of Recent Research, CURRENT NUTRITION REPORTS, Vol: 11, Pages: 695-716
Fortuin-de Smidt MC, Sewe MO, Lassale C, et al., 2022, Physical activity attenuates but does not eliminate coronary heart disease risk amongst adults with risk factors: EPIC-CVD case-cohort study, European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, Vol: 29, Pages: 1618-1629, ISSN: 2047-4873
AimsThis study aimed to evaluate the association between physical activity and the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in individuals with and without CHD risk factors.Methods and resultsEPIC-CVD is a case-cohort study of 29 333 participants that included 13 582 incident CHD cases and a randomly selected sub-cohort nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Self-reported physical activity was summarized using the Cambridge physical activity index (inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, and active). Participants were categorized into sub-groups based on the presence or the absence of the following risk factors: obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2), hypercholesterolaemia (total cholesterol ≥6.2 mmol/L), history of diabetes, hypertension (self-reported or ≥140/90 mmHg), and current smoking. Prentice-weighted Cox regression was used to assess the association between physical activity and incident CHD events (non-fatal and fatal).Compared to inactive participants without the respective CHD risk factor (referent), excess CHD risk was highest in physically inactive and lowest in moderately active participants with CHD risk factors. Corresponding excess CHD risk estimates amongst those with obesity were 47% [95% confidence interval (CI) 32–64%] and 21% (95%CI 2–44%), with hypercholesterolaemia were 80% (95%CI 55–108%) and 48% (95%CI 22–81%), with hypertension were 80% (95%CI 65–96%) and 49% (95%CI 28–74%), with diabetes were 142% (95%CI 63–260%), and 100% (95%CI 32–204%), and amongst smokers were 152% (95%CI 122–186%) and 109% (95%CI 74–150%).ConclusionsIn people with CHD risk factors, moderate physical activity, equivalent to 40 mins of walking per day, attenuates but does not completely offset CHD risk.
dos Santos M, Ferrari G, Lee DH, et al., 2022, Association of the "Weekend Warrior" and Other Leisure-time Physical Activity Patterns With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality A Nationwide Cohort Study, JAMA INTERNAL MEDICINE, Vol: 182, Pages: 840-848, ISSN: 2168-6106
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Kliemann N, Ould Ammar R, Biessy C, et al., 2022, Metabolically-defined body size phenotypes and risk of endometrial cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC), Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, Vol: 31, Pages: 1359-1367, ISSN: 1055-9965
Background: Obesity is a risk factor for endometrial cancer but whether metabolic dysfunction is associated with endometrial cancer independent of body size is not known. Methods: The association of metabolically-defined body size phenotypes with endometrial cancer risk was investigated in a nested case-control study (817 cases/ 817 controls) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Concentrations of C-peptide were used to define metabolically healthy (MH; <1st tertile) and metabolically unhealthy (MU; >=1st tertile) status among the control participants. These metabolic health definitions were combined with normal weight (NW; Body Mass Index (BMI)<25kg/m2 or Waist Circumference (WC)<80cm or Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR)<0.8) and overweight (OW; BMI>=25kg/m2 or WC>=80cm or WHR>=0.8) status, generating four phenotype groups for each anthropometric measure: (1)MH/NW, (2)MH/OW (3)MU/NW and (4)MU/OW. Results: In a multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression model, compared with MH/NW individuals, endometrial cancer risk was higher among those classified as MU/NW (OR/WC=1.48; 95%CI 1.05-2.10 and OR/WHR=1.68; 95%CI 1.21-2.35) and MU/OW (OR/BMI=2.38, 95%CI 1.73-3.27; OR/WC=2.69, 95%CI 1.92-3.77 and OR/WHR=1.83, 95%CI 1.32-2.54). MH/OW individuals were also at increased endometrial cancer risk compared to MH/NW individuals (OR/WC=1.94, 95%CI 1.24-3.04). Conclusions: Women with metabolic dysfunction appear to have higher risk of endometrial cancer regardless of their body size. However, overweight status raises endometrial cancer risk even among women with lower insulin levels, suggesting that obesity-related pathways are relevant for the development of this cancer beyond insulin. Impact: Classifying women by metabolic health may be of greater utility in identifying those at higher risk for endometrial cancer than anthropometry per se.
Jayedi A, Khan TA, Aune D, et al., 2022, Body fat and risk of all-cause mortality: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY, Vol: 46, Pages: 1573-1581, ISSN: 0307-0565
Peluso M, Munnia A, Russo V, et al., 2022, Cruciferous vegetable intake and bulky DNA damage within non-smokers and former smokers in the gen-air study (EPIC Cohort), Nutrients, Vol: 14, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2072-6643
Epidemiologic studies have indicated that cruciferous vegetables can influence the cancer risk; therefore, we examined with a cross-sectional approach the correlation between the frequent consumption of the total cruciferous vegetables and the formation of bulky DNA damage, a biomarker of carcinogen exposure and cancer risk, in the Gen-Air study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. DNA damage measurements were performed in the peripheral blood of 696 of those apparently healthy without cancer controls, including 379 never-smokers and 317 former smokers from seven European countries by the 32P-postlabeling assay. In the Gen-Air controls, the median intake of cruciferous vegetables was 6.16 (IQR 1.16–13.66) g/day, ranging from 0.37 (IQR 0–6.00) g/day in Spain to 11.34 (IQR 6.02–16.07) g/day in the UK. Based on this information, participants were grouped into: (a) high consumers (>20 g/day), (b) medium consumers (3–20 g/day) and (c) low consumers (<3.0 g/day). Overall, low cruciferous vegetable intake was correlated with a greater frequency of bulky DNA lesions, including benzo(a)pyrene, lactone and quinone-adducts and bulky oxidative lesions, in the adjusted models. Conversely, a high versus low intake of cruciferous vegetables was associated with a reduction in DNA damage (up to a 23% change, p = 0.032); this was particularly evident in former smokers (up to a 40% change, p = 0.008). The Generalized Linear Regression models indicated an overall Mean Ratio between the high and the low consumers of 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.64–0.97). The current study suggests that a higher intake of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a lower level of bulky DNA adducts and supports the potential for cancer prevention strategies through dietary habit changes aimed at increasing the consumption of cruciferous vegetables.
Ahmed A, Aune D, Vineis P, et al., 2022, The impact of conditional cash transfers on the control of neglected tropical disease: a systematic review, The Lancet Global Health, Vol: 10, Pages: e640-e648, ISSN: 2214-109X
Background:Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are diseases of poverty and affect 1.5 billion people globally. Conditional cash transfer (CCTs) programmes alleviate poverty in many countries, potentially contributing to improved NTD outcomes. This systematic review examines the relationship between CCTs and screening, incidence or treatment outcomes of NTDs.Methods:A systematic review was carried out. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Lilacs, EconLit, Global Health, and grey literature websites were systematically searched in September 2020 with no date or language restrictions. Controlled quantitative studies including randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies evaluating CCT interventions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) were included. Any outcome measures related to the WHO’s 20 diseases classified as NTDs were included. Two authors extracted data from published studies and appraised risk of biases using the Risk of Bias in Non-Randomised Studies of Interventions and Risk of Bias 2 tools. Results were analysed narratively. PROSPERO registration: CRD42020202480.Findings:From the search, 5165 records were identified. Eleven studies were eligible for inclusion covering four CCTs in Brazil, the Philippines, Mexico and Zambia. Most studies were either RCTs or quasi-experimental studies and ten were assessed to be of moderate quality. Seven studies reported improved NTD outcomes associated with CCTs – particularly reduced incidence of leprosy and increased uptake of deworming treatments. There was some evidence of greater benefit in lower socioeconomic groups but sub-group analysis was limited. Methodological weaknesses include self-reported outcomes, missing data, improper randomisation and differences between CCT and comparator populations in observational studies. The available evidence is currently limited, covering a small proportion of CCTs and NTDs. Interpretation:CCTs can be associated with improved NTD outcomes, and could be driven by
Rothwell JA, Murphy N, Bešević J, et al., 2022, Metabolic signatures of healthy lifestyle patterns and colorectal cancer risk in a European cohort, Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Vol: 20, Pages: e1061-e1082, ISSN: 1542-3565
Background & AimsColorectal cancer risk can be lowered by adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guidelines. We derived metabolic signatures of adherence to these guidelines and tested their associations with colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer cohort.MethodsScores reflecting adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations (scale, 1–5) were calculated from participant data on weight maintenance, physical activity, diet, and alcohol among a discovery set of 5738 cancer-free European Prospective Investigation into Cancer participants with metabolomics data. Partial least-squares regression was used to derive fatty acid and endogenous metabolite signatures of the WCRF/AICR score in this group. In an independent set of 1608 colorectal cancer cases and matched controls, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated for colorectal cancer risk per unit increase in WCRF/AICR score and per the corresponding change in metabolic signatures using multivariable conditional logistic regression.ResultsHigher WCRF/AICR scores were characterized by metabolic signatures of increased odd-chain fatty acids, serine, glycine, and specific phosphatidylcholines. Signatures were inversely associated more strongly with colorectal cancer risk (fatty acids: OR, 0.51 per unit increase; 95% CI, 0.29–0.90; endogenous metabolites: OR, 0.62 per unit change; 95% CI, 0.50–0.78) than the WCRF/AICR score (OR, 0.93 per unit change; 95% CI, 0.86–1.00) overall. Signature associations were stronger in male compared with female participants.ConclusionsMetabolite profiles reflecting adherence to WCRF/AICR guidelines and additional lifestyle or biological risk factors were associated with colorectal cancer. Measuring a specific panel of metabolites representative of a healthy or unhealthy lifestyle may identify strata of the population at higher risk of colorectal cancer.
Golubovic J, Neerland BE, Aune D, et al., 2022, Music Interventions and Delirium in Adults: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis, BRAIN SCIENCES, Vol: 12
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