47 results found
Aljuraiban GS, Gibson R, Chan DS, et al., 2023, The Role of Diet in the Prevention of Hypertension and Management of Blood Pressure: An Umbrella Review of Meta-Analyses of Interventional and Observational Studies., Adv Nutr
High blood pressure (BP) is a major pathological risk factor for the development of several cardiovascular diseases. Diet is a key modifier of BP, but the underlying relationships are not clearly demonstrated. This is an umbrella review of published meta-analyses to critically evaluate the wide range of dietary evidence from bioactive compounds to dietary patterns on BP and risk of hypertension. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception until October 31, 2021, for relevant meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials or meta-analyses of observational studies. A total of 175 publications reporting 341 meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (145 publications) and 70 meta-analyses of observational studies (30 publications) were included in the review. The methodological quality of the included publications was assessed using Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews 2 and the evidence quality of each selected meta-analysis was assessed using NutriGrade. This umbrella review supports recommended public health guidelines for prevention and control of hypertension. Dietary patterns including the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension and the Mediterranean-type diets that further restrict sodium, and moderate alcohol intake are advised. To produce high-quality evidence and substantiate strong recommendations, future research should address areas where the low quality of evidence was observed (for example, intake of dietary fiber, fish, egg, meat, dairy products, fruit juice, and nuts) and emphasize focus on dietary factors not yet conclusively investigated.
Cariolou M, Abar L, Aune D, et al., 2023, Postdiagnosis recreational physical activity and breast cancer prognosis: Global Cancer Update Programme (CUP Global) systematic literature review and meta-analysis, International Journal of Cancer, Vol: 152, Pages: 600-615, ISSN: 0020-7136
It is important to clarify the associations between modifiable lifestyle factors such as physical activity and breast cancer prognosis to enable the development of evidence-based survivorship recommendations. We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses to summarise the evidence on the relationship between postbreast cancer diagnosis physical activity and mortality, recurrence and second primary cancers. We searched PubMed and Embase through 31st October 2021 and included 20 observational studies and three follow-up observational analyses of patients enrolled in clinical trials. In linear dose-response meta-analysis of the observational studies, each 10-unit increase in metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-h/week higher recreational physical activity was associated with 15% and 14% lower risk of all-cause (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8%-22%, studies = 12, deaths = 3670) and breast cancer-specific mortality (95% CI: 4%-23%, studies = 11, deaths = 1632), respectively. Recreational physical activity was not associated with breast cancer recurrence (HR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.91-1.05, studies = 6, deaths = 1705). Nonlinear dose-response meta-analyses indicated 48% lower all-cause and 38% lower breast cancer-specific mortality with increasing recreational physical activity up to 20 MET-h/week, but little further reduction in risk at higher levels. Predefined subgroup analyses across strata of body mass index, hormone receptors, adjustment for confounders, number of deaths, menopause and physical activity intensities were consistent in direction and magnitude to the main analyses. Considering the methodological limitations of the included studies, the independent Expert Panel concluded ‘limited-suggestive’ likelihood of causality for an association between recreational physical activity and lower risk of all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality.
Aune D, Markozannes G, Abar L, et al., 2022, Physical activity and health-related quality of life in women with breast cancer: a meta-analysis, JNCI Cancer Spectrum, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2515-5091
Background: Physical activity (PA) is associated with improved health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) among women with breast cancer; however, uncertainty remains regarding PA types and dose (frequency, duration, intensity) and various HRQoL measures. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to clarify whether specific types and doses of physical activity was related to global and specific domains of HRQoL, as part of the Global Cancer Update Programme, formerly known as the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research Continuous Update Project. Methods: PubMed and CENTRAL databases were searched up to August 31, 2019. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) in HRQoL scores were estimated using random effects models. An independent Expert Panel graded the evidence. Results: Seventy-nine RCTs (14,554 breast cancer patients) were included. PA interventions resulted in higher global HRQoL as measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast, WMDs (95% confidence intervals)=5.94 (2.64-9.24, I2=59%, n=12), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General, 4.53 (1.94-7.13, I2=72%, n=18), European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30, 6.78 (2.61-10.95, I2=76.3%, n=17). The likelihood of causality was considered probable that PA improves HRqoL in breast cancer survivors. Effects were weaker for physical function and mental/emotional health. Evidence regarding dose and type of PA remains insufficient for firm conclusions. Conclusion: PA results in improved global HRQoL in breast cancer survivors with weaker effects observed for physical function and mental/emotional health. Additional research is needed to define the impact of types and doses of activity on various domains of HRQoL.
Tsilidis K, 2021, An umbrella review of the evidence associating diet and cancer risk at 11 anatomical sites, Nature Communications, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2041-1723
There is evidence that diet and nutrition are modifiable risk factors for several cancers, but associations may be flawed due to inherent biases. Nutritional epidemiology studies have largely relied on a single assessment of diet using food frequency questionnaires. We conduct an umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational studies to evaluate the strength and validity of the evidence for the association between food/nutrient intake and risk of developing or dying from 11 primary cancers. It is estimated that only few single food/nutrient and cancer associations are supported by strong or highly suggestive meta-analytic evidence, and future similar research is unlikely to change this evidence. Alcohol consumption is positively associated with risk of postmenopausal breast, colorectal, esophageal, head & neck and liver cancer. Consumption of dairy products, milk, calcium and wholegrains are inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Coffee consumption is inversely associated with risk of liver cancer and skin basal cell carcinoma.
Solans M, Chan DSM, Mitrou P, et al., 2020, Response to the letter to the editor 'Conceptual and clinical interpretation of 2007 WCRF/AICR Score in relation to cancer-related health outcomes', by R. Jayaraj, et al., ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY, Vol: 31, Pages: 1414-1415, ISSN: 0923-7534
Solans M, Chan DSM, Mitrou P, et al., 2020, A systematic review and meta-analysis of the 2007 WCRF/AICR score in relation to cancer-related health outcomes, ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY, Vol: 31, Pages: 352-368, ISSN: 0923-7534
Chan DSM, Abar L, Cariolou M, et al., 2019, World Cancer Research Fund International: Continuous Update Project-systematic literature review and meta-analysis of observational cohort studies on physical activity, sedentary behavior, adiposity, and weight change and breast cancer risk, Cancer Causes and Control, Vol: 30, Pages: 1183-1200, ISSN: 0957-5243
PurposeThe purpose of the present study was to systematically review the complex associations between energy balance-related factors and breast cancer risk, for which previous evidence has suggested different associations in the life course of women and by hormone receptor (HR) status of the tumor.MethodsRelevant publications on adulthood physical activity, sedentary behavior, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio, and weight change and pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk were identified in PubMed up to 30 April 2017. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to summarize the relative risks across studies.ResultsOne hundred and twenty-six observational cohort studies comprising over 22,900 premenopausal and 103,000 postmenopausal breast cancer cases were meta-analyzed. Higher physical activity was inversely associated with both pre- and postmenopausal breast cancers, whereas increased sitting time was positively associated with postmenopausal breast cancer. Although higher early adult BMI (ages 18–30 years) was inversely associated with pre- and postmenopausal breast cancers, adult weight gain and greater body adiposity increased breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women, and the increased risk was evident for HR+ but not HR− breast cancers, and among never but not current users of postmenopausal hormones. The evidence was less consistent in premenopausal women. There were no associations with adult weight gain, inverse associations with adult BMI (study baseline) and hip circumference, and non-significant associations with waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio that were reverted to positive associations on average in studies accounting for BMI. No significant associations were observed for HR-defined premenopausal breast cancers.ConclusionBetter understanding on the impact of these factors on pre- and postmenopausal breast cancers and their subtypes along the life course is needed.
Abar L, Sobiecki JG, Cariolou M, et al., 2019, Body size and obesity during adulthood, and risk of lympho-haematopoietic cancers: an update of the WCRF-AICR systematic review of published prospective studies., Ann Oncol, Vol: 30, Pages: 528-541, ISSN: 0923-7534
BACKGROUND: To summarise the evidence on the associations between body mass index (BMI) and BMI in early adulthood, height, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and risk of lympho-haematopoietic cancers. METHOD: We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies and identified relevant studies published up to December 2017 by searching PubMed. A random-effects model was used to calculate dose-response summary relative risks (RRs). RESULTS: Our findings showed BMI, and BMI in early adulthood (aged 18-21years) is associated with the risk of Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL and NHL), diffuse large beta-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), Leukaemia including acute and chronic myeloid lymphoma (AML and CML), and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and multiple myeloma (MM). The summary RR per 5kg/m2 increase in BMI were 1.12 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-1.20] for HL, 1.05 (95% CI: 1.03-1.08) for NHL, 1.11 (95% CI: 1.05-1.16) for DLBCL, 1.06 (95% CI: 1.03-1.09) for ML, 1.09 (95% CI: 1.03-1.15) for leukaemia, 1.13 (95% CI: 1.04-1.24) for AML, 1.13 (95% CI: 1.05-1.22) for CML and 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00-1.09) for CLL, and were1.12 (95% CI: 1.05-1.19) for NHL, 1.22 (95% CI: 1.09-1.37) for DLBCL, and 1.19 (95% CI: 1.03-1.38) for FL for BMI in early adulthood analysis. Results on mortality showed a 15%, 16% and 17% increased risk of NHL, MM and leukaemia, respectively. Greater height increased the risk of NHL by 7%, DLBCL by 10%, FL by 9%, MM by 5% and Leukaemia by 7%. WHR was associated with increased risk of DLBCL by 12%. No association was found between higher WC and risk of MM. CONCLUSION: Our results revealed that general adiposity in adulthood and early adulthood, and greater height may increase the risk of almost all types of lympho-haematopoietic cancers and this adds to a growing body of evidence linking body fatness to several types of cancers.
Abar L, Vieira AR, Aune D, et al., 2018, Height and body fatness and colorectal cancer risk: an update of the WCRF-AICR systematic review of published prospective studies, European Journal of Nutrition, Vol: 57, Pages: 1701-1720, ISSN: 0044-264X
PurposeThere is no published dose–response meta-analysis on the association between height and colorectal cancer risk (CRC) by sex and anatomical sub-site. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies on the association between height and CRC risk with subgroup analysis and updated evidence on the association between body fatness and CRC risk.MethodsPubMed and several other databases were searched up to November 2016. A random effects model was used to calculate dose–response summary relative risks (RR’s).Results47 studies were included in the meta-analyses including 50,936 cases among 7,393,510 participants. The findings support the existing evidence regarding a positive association of height, general and abdominal body fatness and CRC risk. The summary RR were 1.04 [95% (CI)1.02–1.05, I² = 91%] per 5 cm increase in height, 1.02 [95% (CI)1.01–1.02, I² = 0%] per 5 kg increase in weight, 1.06 [95% (CI)1.04–1.07, I² = 83%] per 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI, 1.02 [95% (CI)1.02–1.03, I² = 4%] per 10 cm increase in waist circumference, 1.03 [95% (CI)1.01–1.05, I² = 16%] per 0.1 unit increase in waist to hip ratio. The significant association for height and CRC risk was similar in men and women. The significant association for BMI and CRC risk was stronger in men than in women.ConclusionThe positive association between height and risk of CRC suggests that life factors during childhood and early adulthood might play a role in CRC aetiology. Higher general and abdominal body fatness during adulthood are risk factors of CRC and these associations are stronger in men than in women.
Vingeliene S, Chan DSM, Vieira AR, et al., 2017, An update of the WCRF/AICR systematic literature review and meta-analysis on dietary and anthropometric factors and esophageal cancer risk, Annals of Oncology, Vol: 28, Pages: 2409-2419, ISSN: 0923-7534
BackgroundIn the 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research Second Expert Report, the expert panel judged that there was strong evidence that alcoholic drinks and body fatness increased esophageal cancer risk, whereas fruits and vegetables probably decreased its risk. The judgments were mainly based on case–control studies. As part of the Continuous Update Project, we updated the scientific evidence accumulated from cohort studies in this topic.MethodsWe updated the Continuous Update Project database up to 10 January 2017 by searching in PubMed and conducted dose–response meta-analyses to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using random effects model.ResultsA total of 57 cohort studies were included in 13 meta-analyses. Esophageal adenocarcinoma risk was inversely related to vegetable intake (RR per 100 g/day: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.80–0.99, n = 3) and directly associated with body mass index (RR per 5 kg/m2: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.34–1.61, n = 9). For esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, inverse associations were observed with fruit intake (RR for 100 g/day increment: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.75–0.94, n = 3) and body mass index (RR for 5 kg/m2 increment: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.56–0.73, n = 8), and direct associations with intakes of processed meats (RR for 50 g/day increment: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.11–2.28, n = 3), processed and red meats (RR for 100 g/day increment: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.04–1.82, n = 3) and alcohol (RR for 10 g/day increment: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.12–1.41, n = 6). ConclusionsEvidence from cohort studies suggested a protective role of vegetables and body weight control in esophageal adenocarcinomas development. For squamous cell carcinomas, higher intakes of red and processed meats and alcohol may increase the risk, whereas fruits intak
Schlesinger S, Chan DSM, Vingeliene S, et al., 2017, Carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies, NUTRITION REVIEWS, Vol: 75, Pages: 420-441, ISSN: 0029-6643
Context: The investigation of dose–response associations between carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of breast cancer stratified by menopausal status, hormone receptor status, and body mass index (BMI) remains inconclusive. Objective: A systematic review and dose–response meta-analyses was conducted to investigate these associations. Data Sources: As part of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research Continuous Update Project, PubMed was searched up to May 2015 for relevant studies on these associations. Study Selection: Prospective studies reporting associations between carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, or glycemic load and breast cancer risk were included. Data Extraction: Two investigators independently extracted data from included studies. Results: Random-effects models were used to summarize relative risks (RRs) and 95%CIs. Heterogeneity between subgroups, including menopausal status, hormone receptor status, and BMI was explored using meta-regression. Nineteen publications were included. The summary RRs (95%CIs) for breast cancer were 1.04 (1.00–1.07) per 10 units/d for glycemic index, 1.01 (0.98–1.04) per 50 units/d for glycemic load, and 1.00 (0.96–1.05) per 50 g/d for carbohydrate intake. For glycemic index, the association appeared slightly stronger among postmenopausal women (summary RR per 10 units/d, 1.06; 95%CI, 1.02–1.10) than among premenopausal women, though the difference was not statistically significant (Pheterogeneity = 0.15). Glycemic load and carbohydrate intake were positively associated with breast cancer among postmenopausal women with estrogen-negative tumors (summary RR for glycemic load, 1.28; 95%CI, 1.08–1.52; and summary RR for carbohydrates, 1.13; 95%CI, 1.02–1.25). No differences in BMI were detected. Conclusions: Menopausal and hormone receptor status, but not BMI, might be potential influencing factors for the associations
Vieira AR, Abar L, Chan D, et al., 2017, Foods and beverages and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies, an update of the evidence of the WCRF-AICR Continuous Update Project., Annals of Oncology, Vol: 28, Pages: 1788-1802, ISSN: 1569-8041
Objective: As part of the World Cancer Research Fund International Continuous Update Project, we updated the systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to quantify the dose-response between foods and beverages intake and colorectal cancer risk. Data Sources: PubMed and several databases up to May 31 st 2015. Study selection: Prospective studies reporting adjusted relative risk estimates for the association of specific food groups and beverages and risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancer. Data synthesis: Dose-response meta-analyses using random effect models to estimate summary relative risks (RRs). Results: Results: 400 individual study estimates from 111 unique cohort studies were included. Overall, the risk increase of colorectal cancer is 12% for each 100g/day increase of red and processed meat intake (95%CI=4-21%, I2 =70%, pheterogeneity (ph)<0.01) and 7% for 10 g/day increase of ethanol intake in alcoholic drinks (95%CI=5-9%, I2 =25%, ph = 0.21). Colorectal cancer risk decrease in 17% for each 90g/day increase of whole grains (95%CI=11-21%, I2 =0%, ph = 0.30, 6 studies). For each 400 g/day increase of dairy products intake (95%CI=10-17%, I2 =18%, ph = 0.27, 10 studies). Inverse associations were also observed for vegetables intake (RR per 100 g/day =0.98 (95%CI=0.96-0.99, I2 =0%, ph = 0.48, 11 studies) and for fish intake (RR for 100g/day=0.89(95%CI=0.80-0.99, I2 =0%, ph = 0.52, 11 studies), that were weak for vegetables and driven by one study for fish. Intakes of fruits, coffee, tea, cheese, poultry and legumes were not associated with colorectal cancer risk. Conclusions: Our results reinforce the evidence that high intake of red and processed meat and alcohol increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Milk and whole grains may have a protective role against colorectal cancer. The evidence for vegetables and fish was less convincing.
Schlesinger S, Aleksandrova K, Abar L, et al., 2017, Adult weight gain and colorectal adenomas - a systematic review and meta-analysis., Annals of Oncology, Vol: 28, ISSN: 1569-8041
Background: Colorectal adenomas are known as precursors for the majority of colorectal carcinomas. While weight gain during adulthood has been identified as a risk factor for colorectal cancer, the association is less clear for colorectal adenomas. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the evidence on this association. Methods: : We searched MEDLINE up to September 2016 to identify observational (prospective, cross-sectional and retrospective) studies on weight gain during adulthood and colorectal adenoma occurrence and recurrence. We conducted meta-analysis on high weight gain versus stable weight, linear and non-linear dose-response meta-analyses to analyze the association. Summary odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using a random effects model. Results: For colorectal adenoma occurrence, the summary OR was 1.39 (95% CI: 1.17-1.65; I 2 :43%, N =9 studies, cases=5,507) comparing high (midpoint: 17.4 kg) versus stable weight gain during adulthood and with each 5 kg weight gain the odds increased by 7% (2%-11%; I 2 :65%, N =7 studies). Although there was indication of non-linearity ( Pnon-linearity <0.001) there was an increased odds of colorectal adenoma throughout the whole range of weight gain. Three studies were identified investigating the association between weight gain and colorectal adenoma recurrence and data were limited to draw firm conclusions. Conclusions: Even a small amount of adult weight gain was related to a higher odds of colorectal adenoma occurrence. Our findings add to the benefits of weight control in adulthood regarding colorectal adenomas occurrence, which might be relevant for early prevention of colorectal cancer.
Abar L, Vieira AR, Aune D, et al., 2016, Blood concentrations of carotenoids and retinol and lung cancer risk: an update of the WCRF–AICR systematic review of published prospective studies, Cancer Medicine, Vol: 5, Pages: 2069-2083, ISSN: 2045-7634
Carotenoids and retinol are considered biomarkers of fruits and vegetables intake, and are of much interest because of their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties; however, there is inconsistent evidence regarding their protective effects against lung cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies of blood concentrations of carotenoids and retinol, and lung cancer risk. We identified relevant prospective studies published up to December 2014 by searching the PubMed and several other databases. We calculated summary estimates of lung cancer risk for the highest compared with lowest carotenoid and retinol concentrations and dose–response meta-analyses using random effects models. We used fractional polynomial models to assess potential nonlinear relationships. Seventeen prospective studies (18 publications) including 3603 cases and 458,434 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Blood concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, total carotenoids, and retinol were significantly inversely associated with lung cancer risk or mortality. The summary relative risk were 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55–0.80) per 5 μg/100 mL of α-carotene (studies [n] = 5), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.76–0.94) per 20 μg/100 mL of β-carotene (n = 9), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.54–0.81) per 100 μg/100 mL of total carotenoids (n = 4), and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.73–0.90) per 70 μg/100 mL of retinol (n = 8). In stratified analysis by sex, the significant inverse associations for β-carotene and retinol were observed only in men and not in women. Nonlinear associations were observed for β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lycopene, with stronger associations observed at lower concentrations. There were not enough data to conduct stratified analyses by smoking. In conclusion, higher blood concentrations of several carotenoids and retinol are associated with reduced lung cancer risk. Further studies in never and former sm
Vingeliene S, Chan DS, Aune D, et al., 2016, An update of the WCRF/AICR systematic literature review on esophageal and gastric cancers and citrus fruits intake., Cancer Causes & Control, Vol: 27, Pages: 837-851, ISSN: 1573-7225
PURPOSE: The 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research expert report concluded that foods containing vitamin C probably protect against esophageal cancer and fruits probably protect against gastric cancer. Most of the previous evidence was from case-control studies, which may be affected by recall and selection biases. More recently, several cohort studies have examined these associations. We conducted a systematic literature review of prospective studies on citrus fruits intake and risk of esophageal and gastric cancers. METHODS: PubMed was searched for studies published until 1 March 2016. We calculated summary relative risks and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) using random-effects models. RESULTS: With each 100 g/day increase of citrus fruits intake, a marginally significant decreased risk of esophageal cancer was observed (summary RR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.74-1.00, 1,057 cases, six studies). The associations were similar for squamous cell carcinoma (RR 0.87, 95 % CI 0.69-1.08, three studies) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (RR 0.93, 95 % CI 0.78-1.11, three studies). For gastric cancer, the nonsignificant inverse association was observed for gastric cardia cancer (RR 0.75, 95 % CI 0.55-1.01, three studies), but not for gastric non-cardia cancer (RR 1.02, 95 % CI 0.90-1.16, four studies). Consistent summary inverse associations were observed when comparing the highest with lowest intake, with statistically significant associations for esophageal (RR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.64-0.91, seven studies) and gastric cardia cancers (RR 0.62, 95 % CI 0.39-0.99, three studies). CONCLUSIONS: Citrus fruits may decrease the risk of esophageal and gastric cardia cancers, but further studies are needed.
Chan DSM, Bandera EV, Greenwood DC, et al., 2015, Circulating C-Reactive Protein and Breast Cancer Risk-Systematic Literature Review and Meta-analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies, Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, Vol: 24, Pages: 1439-1449, ISSN: 1055-9965
We conducted a systematic literature review to explore the association between circulating C-reactive protein (CRP), a low-grade inflammation biomarker, and breast cancer risk. Relevant prospective studies in women were identified in PubMed and Web of Science until February 2015. Random-effects dose–response meta-analysis was conducted, overall and in postmenopausal women. Twelve out of 15 studies identified were included in the meta-analysis on any breast cancers (3,522 cases; 69,610 women) and nine on postmenopausal breast cancer (2,516 cases; 36,847 women). For each doubling of CRP concentration, a 7% [95% confidence interval (CI), 2%–12%] and 6% (95% CI, 1%–11%) increased risk was observed (I2 = 47% and 32%; Pheterogeneity = 0.04 and 0.17), respectively. The association was linear over most of the range of CRP concentrations. Positive associations remained in the studies that examined the exclusion of early years of follow-up. Associations were attenuated in studies adjusted for lifestyle factors, which partly explained the significant heterogeneity between studies in the overall analysis. On average, the associations in studies adjusted or not adjusted for body mass index were similar. Low-grade inflammation may have a role in breast cancer development. Additional prospective studies are needed to better understand confounding and effect modification from lifestyle factors.
Vieira AR, Abar L, Vingeliene S, et al., 2015, Fruits, vegetables and lung cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Annals of Oncology, Vol: 27, Pages: 81-96, ISSN: 1569-8041
Background Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death. Fruits and vegetables containing carotenoids and other antioxidants have been hypothesized to decrease lung cancer risk. As part of the World Cancer Research Fund International Continuous Update Project, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies.Methods We searched PubMed and several databases up to December 2014 for prospective studies. We conducted meta-analyses comparing the highest and lowest intakes and dose–response meta-analyses to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and examine possible non-linear associations. We combined results from the Pooling Project with the studies we identified to increase the statistical power of our analysis.Results When comparing the highest with the lowest intakes, the summary RR estimates were 0.86 [95% CI 0.78–0.94; n (studies) = 18] for fruits and vegetables, 0.92 (95% CI 0.87–0.97; n = 25) for vegetables and 0.82 (95% CI 0.76–0.89; n = 29) for fruits. The association with fruit and vegetable intake was marginally significant in current smokers and inverse but not significant in former or never smokers. Significant inverse dose–response associations were observed for each 100 g/day increase: for fruits and vegetables [RR: 0.96; 95% CI 0.94–0.98, I2 = 64%, n = 14, N (cases) = 9609], vegetables (RR: 0.94; 95% CI 0.89–0.98, I2 = 48%, n = 20, N = 12 563) and fruits (RR: 0.92; 95% CI 0.89–0.95, I2 = 57%, n = 23, N = 14 506). Our results were consistent among the different types of fruits and vegetables. The strength of the association differed across locations. There was evidence of a non-linear relationship (P < 0.01) between fruit and vegetable intake and lung cancer risk showing that no further benefit is obtained when increasing consumption above ∼400 g per day.Conclusions Eliminating tobacco smoking is the best strategy to prevent lung canc
Aune D, Rosenblatt DAN, Chan DSM, et al., 2015, Anthropometric factors and endometrial cancer risk: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies, ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY, Vol: 26, Pages: 1635-1648, ISSN: 0923-7534
Touvier M, Fassier P, His M, et al., 2015, Cholesterol and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies, British Journal of Nutrition, Vol: 114, Pages: 347-357, ISSN: 0007-1145
The objective of the present study was to conduct the first systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies investigating the associations between total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and the risk of breast cancer. Relevant studies were identified in PubMed (up to January 2014). Inclusion criteria were original peer-reviewed publications with a prospective design. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI. Distinction was made between studies that did or did not exclude cancer cases diagnosed during the first years of follow-up, thereby eliminating potential preclinical bias. Overall, the summary HR for the association between TC and breast cancer risk was 0·97 (95 % CI 0·94, 1·00; dose–response per 1 mmol/l increment, thirteen studies), and that between HDL-C and breast cancer risk was 0·86 (95 % CI 0·69, 1·09; dose–response per 1 mmol/l increment, six studies), with high heterogeneity (I 2= 67 and 47 %, respectively). For studies that eliminated preclinical bias, an inverse association was observed between the risk of breast cancer and TC (dose–response HR 0·94 (95 % CI 0·89, 0·99), seven studies, I 2= 78 %; highest v. lowest HR 0·82 (95 % CI 0·66, 1·02), nine studies, I 2= 81 %) and HDL-C (dose–response HR 0·81 (95 % CI 0·65, 1·02), five studies, I 2= 30 %; highest v. lowest HR 0·82 (95 % CI 0·69, 0·98), five studies, I 2= 0 %). There was no association observed between LDL-C and the risk of breast cancer (four studies). The present meta-analysis confirms the evidence of a modest but statistically significant inverse association between TC and more specifically HDL-C and the risk of breast cancer, supported by mechanistic plausibility from experimental studies. Further large prospective studies that adequately control f
Heine-Broering RC, Winkels RM, Renkema JMS, et al., 2015, Dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 136, Pages: 2388-2401, ISSN: 0020-7136
Chan DSM, Norat T, 2015, Obesity and Breast Cancer: Not Only a Risk Factor of the Disease, CURRENT TREATMENT OPTIONS IN ONCOLOGY, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1527-2729
Vieira AR, Vingeliene S, Chan DSM, et al., 2015, Fruits, vegetables, and bladder cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis, CANCER MEDICINE, Vol: 4, Pages: 136-146, ISSN: 2045-7634
Aune D, Rosenblatt DAN, Chan DSM, et al., 2015, Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, Vol: 101, Pages: 87-117, ISSN: 0002-9165
Fassier P, Latino-Martel P, His M, et al., 2015, Cholesterol and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies, ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM, Vol: 67, Pages: 324-325, ISSN: 0250-6807
Chan DSM, Vieira AR, Aune D, et al., 2014, Body mass index and survival in women with breast cancer-systematic literature review and meta-analysis of 82 follow-up studies, ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY, Vol: 25, Pages: 1901-1914, ISSN: 0923-7534
Aune D, Navarro Rosenblatt DA, Chan DS, et al., 2014, Anthropometric factors and ovarian cancer risk: A systematic review and nonlinear dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies., Int J Cancer
In the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research report from 2007 the evidence relating body fatness to ovarian cancer risk was considered inconclusive, while the evidence supported a probably causal relationship between adult attained height and increased risk. Several additional cohort studies have since been published, and therefore we conducted an updated meta-analysis of the evidence as part of the Continuous Update Project. We searched PubMed and several other databases up to 20th of August 2014. Summary relative risks (RRs) were calculated using a random effects model. The summary relative risk for a 5-U increment in BMI was 1.07 (95% CI: 1.03-1.11, I2 = 54%, n = 28 studies). There was evidence of a nonlinear association, pnonlinearity < 0.0001, with risk increasing significantly from BMI∼28 and above. The summary RR per 5 U increase in BMI in early adulthood was 1.12 (95% CI: 1.05-1.20, I2 = 0%, pheterogeneity = 0.54, n = 6), per 5 kg increase in body weight was 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02-1.05, I2 = 0%, n = 4) and per 10 cm increase in waist circumference was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.00-1.12, I2 = 0%, n = 6). No association was found for weight gain, hip circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. The summary RR per 10 cm increase in height was 1.16 (95% CI: 1.11-1.21, I2 = 32%, n = 16). In conclusion, greater body fatness as measured by body mass index and weight are positively associated risk of ovarian cancer, and in addition, greater height is associated with increased risk. Further studies are needed to clarify whether abdominal fatness and weight gain is associated with risk.
Druesne-Pecollo N, Keita Y, Touvier M, et al., 2014, Alcohol Drinking and Second Primary Cancer Risk in Patients with Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancers: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies, CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY BIOMARKERS & PREVENTION, Vol: 23, Pages: 324-331, ISSN: 1055-9965
Vergnaud A-C, Romaguera D, Peeters PHM, et al., 2013, No and low alcohol intake may have differential effects on risk of overall and cause-specific mortality Reply, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, Vol: 98, Pages: 507-507, ISSN: 0002-9165
Vergnaud A-C, Romaguera D, Peeters PH, et al., 2013, Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines and risk of death in Europe: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer cohort study, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, Vol: 97, Pages: 1107-1120, ISSN: 0002-9165
Aune D, Chan DSM, Vieira AR, et al., 2013, Red and processed meat intake and risk of colorectal adenomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies, CANCER CAUSES & CONTROL, Vol: 24, Pages: 611-627, ISSN: 0957-5243
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