29 results found
Karamanos A, Mudway I, Webb A, et al., 2021, Air pollution and Blood Pressure change over time in 3323 adolescents in London: differences by gender and ethnicity, Publisher: SPRINGERNATURE, Pages: 2-2, ISSN: 0950-9240
Newbury JB, Stewart R, Fisher HL, et al., 2021, Association between air pollution exposure and mental health service use among individuals with first presentations of psychotic and mood disorders: retrospective cohort study, The British Journal of Psychiatry, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 0007-1250
<jats:sec id="S0007125021001197_sec_a1"> <jats:title>Background</jats:title> <jats:p>Growing evidence suggests that air pollution exposure may adversely affect the brain and increase risk for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. However, little is known about the potential role of air pollution in severity and relapse following illness onset.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="S0007125021001197_sec_a2"> <jats:title>Aims</jats:title> <jats:p>To examine the longitudinal association between residential air pollution exposure and mental health service use (an indicator of illness severity and relapse) among individuals with first presentations of psychotic and mood disorders.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="S0007125021001197_sec_a3" sec-type="methods"> <jats:title>Method</jats:title> <jats:p>We identified individuals aged ≥15 years who had first contact with the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust for psychotic and mood disorders in 2008–2012 (<jats:italic>n</jats:italic> = 13 887). High-resolution (20 × 20 m) estimates of nitrogen dioxide (NO<jats:sub>2</jats:sub>), nitrogen oxides (NO<jats:sub>x</jats:sub>) and particulate matter (PM<jats:sub>2.5</jats:sub> and PM<jats:sub>10</jats:sub>) levels in ambient air were linked to residential addresses. In-patient days and community mental health service (CMHS) events were recorded over 1-year and 7-year follow-up periods.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="S0007125021001197_sec_a4" sec-type="results"> <jats:title>Results</jats:title> <jats:p>Following covariate adjustment, interquartile range increases in NO<jats:sub>2</jats:sub>, NO<jats:sub>x</jats:sub> and
Karamanos A, Mudway I, Kelly F, et al., 2021, Air pollution and trajectories of adolescent conduct problems: the roles of ethnicity and racism; evidence from the DASH longitudinal study, SOCIAL PSYCHIATRY AND PSYCHIATRIC EPIDEMIOLOGY, ISSN: 0933-7954
Bakolis I, Hammoud R, Stewart R, et al., 2020, Mental health consequences of urban air pollution: prospective population-based longitudinal survey, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology: the international journal for research in social and genetic epidemiology and mental health services, Vol: 56, Pages: 1587-1599, ISSN: 0933-7954
PURPOSE: The World Health Organisation (WHO) recently ranked air pollution as the major environmental cause of premature death. However, the significant potential health and societal costs of poor mental health in relation to air quality are not represented in the WHO report due to limited evidence. We aimed to test the hypothesis that long-term exposure to air pollution is associated with poor mental health. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal population-based mental health survey was conducted of 1698 adults living in 1075 households in South East London, from 2008 to 2013. High-resolution quarterly average air pollution concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and oxides (NOx), ozone (O3), particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 10 μm (PM10) and < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) were linked to the home addresses of the study participants. Associations with mental health were analysed with the use of multilevel generalised linear models, after adjusting for large number of confounders, including the individuals' socioeconomic position and exposure to road-traffic noise. RESULTS: We found robust evidence for interquartile range increases in PM2.5, NOx and NO2 to be associated with 18-39% increased odds of common mental disorders, 19-30% increased odds of poor physical symptoms and 33% of psychotic experiences only for PM10. These longitudinal associations were more pronounced in the subset of non-movers for NO2 and NOx. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that traffic-related air pollution is adversely affecting mental health. Whilst causation cannot be proved, this work suggests substantial morbidity from mental disorders could be avoided with improved air quality.
Smith RB, Beevers SD, Gulliver J, et al., 2020, Impacts of air pollution and noise on risk of preterm birth and stillbirth in London, Environment International, Vol: 134, ISSN: 0160-4120
BackgroundEvidence for associations between ambient air pollution and preterm birth and stillbirth is inconsistent. Road traffic produces both air pollutants and noise, but few studies have examined these co-exposures together and none to date with all-cause or cause-specific stillbirths.ObjectivesTo analyse the relationship between long-term exposure to air pollution and noise at address level during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth and stillbirth.MethodsThe study population comprised 581,774 live and still births in the Greater London area, 2006–2010. Outcomes were preterm birth (<37 completed weeks gestation), all-cause stillbirth and cause-specific stillbirth. Exposures during pregnancy to particulate matter with diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) and <10 μm (PM10), ozone (O3), primary traffic air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, PM2.5 from traffic exhaust and traffic non-exhaust), and road traffic noise were estimated based on maternal address at birth.ResultsAn interquartile range increase in O3 exposure was associated with elevated risk of preterm birth (OR 1.15 95% CI: 1.11, 1.18, for both Trimester 1 and 2), all-cause stillbirth (Trimester 1 OR 1.17 95% CI: 1.07, 1.27; Trimester 2 OR 1.20 95% CI: 1.09, 1.32) and asphyxia-related stillbirth (Trimester 1 OR 1.22 95% CI: 1.01, 1.49). Odds ratios with the other air pollutant exposures examined were null or <1, except for primary traffic non-exhaust related PM2.5, which was associated with 3% increased odds of preterm birth (Trimester 1) and 7% increased odds stillbirth (Trimester 1 and 2) when adjusted for O3. Elevated risk of preterm birth was associated with increasing road traffic noise, but only after adjustment for certain air pollutant exposures.DiscussionOur findings suggest that exposure to higher levels of O3 and primary traffic non-exhaust related PM2.5 during pregnancy may increase risk of preterm birth and stillbirth; and a possible relationship between long-term traff
Mudway IS, Dundas I, Wood HE, et al., 2019, Impact of London's low emission zone on air quality and children's respiratory health, The Lancet Public Health, Vol: 4, Pages: e28-e40, ISSN: 2468-2667
BACKGROUND: Low emission zones (LEZ) are an increasingly common, but unevaluated, intervention aimed at improving urban air quality and public health. We investigated the impact of London's LEZ on air quality and children's respiratory health.METHODS: We did a sequential annual cross-sectional study of 2164 children aged 8-9 years attending primary schools between 2009-10 and 2013-14 in central London, UK, following the introduction of London's LEZ in February, 2008. We examined the association between modelled pollutant exposures of nitrogen oxides (including nitrogen dioxide [NO2]) and particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2·5 μm (PM2·5) and less than 10 μm (PM10) and lung function: postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1, primary outcome), forced vital capacity (FVC), and respiratory or allergic symptoms. We assigned annual exposures by each child's home and school address, as well as spatially resolved estimates for the 3 h (0600-0900 h), 24 h, and 7 days before each child's assessment, to isolate long-term from short-term effects.FINDINGS: The percentage of children living at addresses exceeding the EU limit value for annual NO2 (40 μg/m3) fell from 99% (444/450) in 2009 to 34% (150/441) in 2013. Over this period, we identified a reduction in NO2 at both roadside (median -1·35 μg/m3 per year; 95% CI -2·09 to -0·61; p=0·0004) and background locations (-0·97; -1·56 to -0·38; p=0·0013), but not for PM10. The effect on PM2·5 was equivocal. We found no association between postbronchodilator FEV1 and annual residential pollutant attributions. By contrast, FVC was inversely correlated with annual NO2 (-0·0023 L/μg per m3; -0·0044 to -0·0002; p=0·033) and PM10 (-0·0090 L/μg per m3; -0·0175 to -0·0005; p=0·038).INTERPRETATION: Within London's LEZ, a smaller lung volume in children was associated
Walton H, Dajnak D, Kitwiroon N, et al., 2018, The Co-Impacts of Climate Change Policies on Air Quality - Impacts on Health, Publisher: Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN: 1078-0475
Bakolis I, Hammoud R, Stewart R, et al., 2018, Mental Health Consequences of Air Pollution: Retrospective Population Based Cohort Survey, Publisher: Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN: 1078-0475
Fecht D, Williams ML, Beevers SD, et al., 2018, Impact of Climate Change Policies on Environmental Inequalities in Great Britain, Publisher: Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN: 1078-0475
Carey IM, Anderson HR, Atkinson RW, et al., 2018, Are noise and air pollution related to the incidence of dementia? A cohort study in London, England, BMJ Open, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2044-6055
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the incidence of dementia is related to residential levels of air and noise pollution in London. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using primary care data. SETTING: 75 Greater London practices. PARTICIPANTS: 130 978 adults aged 50-79 years registered with their general practices on 1 January 2005, with no recorded history of dementia or care home residence. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: A first recorded diagnosis of dementia and, where specified, subgroups of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia during 2005-2013. The average annual concentrations during 2004 of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter </=2.5 microm (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) were estimated at 20x20 m resolution from dispersion models. Traffic intensity, distance from major road and night-time noise levels (Lnight) were estimated at the postcode level. All exposure measures were linked anonymously to clinical data via residential postcode. HRs from Cox models were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, smoking and body mass index, with further adjustments explored for area deprivation and comorbidity. RESULTS: 2181 subjects (1.7%) received an incident diagnosis of dementia (39% mentioning Alzheimer's disease, 29% vascular dementia). There was a positive exposure response relationship between dementia and all measures of air pollution except O3, which was not readily explained by further adjustment. Adults living in areas with the highest fifth of NO2 concentration (>41.5 microg/m(3)) versus the lowest fifth (<31.9 microg/m(3)) were at a higher risk of dementia (HR=1.40, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.74). Increases in dementia risk were also observed with PM2.5, PM2.5 specifically from primary traffic sources only and Lnight, but only NO2 and PM2.5 remained statistically significant in multipollutant models. Associations were more consistent for Alzheimer's disease than vascular dementia. CONCLUSIONS: We have found evidence of a
Williams ML, Beevers S, Kitwiroon N, et al., 2018, Public health air pollution impacts of pathway options to meet the 2050 UK Climate Change Act target: a modelling study, Public Health Research, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-124, ISSN: 2050-4381
BackgroundThe UK’s Climate Change Act 2008 (CCA; Great Britain. Climate Change Act 2008. Chapter 27. London: The Stationery Office; 2008) requires a reduction of 80% in carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions by 2050 on a 1990 base. This project quantified the impact of air pollution on health from four scenarios involving particulate matter of ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). Two scenarios met the CCA target: one with limited nuclear power build (nuclear replacement option; NRPO) and one with no policy constraint on nuclear (low greenhouse gas). Another scenario envisaged no further climate actions beyond those already agreed (‘baseline’) and the fourth kept 2011 concentrations constant to 2050 (‘2011’).MethodsThe UK Integrated MARKAL–EFOM System (UKTM) energy system model was used to develop the scenarios and produce projections of fuel use; these were used to produce air pollutant emission inventories for Great Britain (GB) for each scenario. The inventories were then used to run the Community Multiscale Air Quality model ‘air pollution model’ to generate air pollutant concentration maps across GB, which then, combined with relationships between concentrations and health outcomes, were used to calculate the impact on health from the air pollution emitted in each scenario. This is a significant improvement on previous health impact studies of climate policies, which have relied on emissions changes. Inequalities in exposure in different socioeconomic groups were also calculated, as was the economic impact of the pollution emissions.ResultsConcentrations of NO2 declined significantly because of a high degree of electrification of the GB road transport fleet, although the NRPO scenario shows large increases in oxides of nitrogen emissions from combined heat and power (CHP) sources. Concentrations of PM2.5 show a modest decrease by 2050, which would have been larger if it had n
Williams ML, Lott MC, Kitwiroon N, et al., 2018, The Lancet Countdown on health benefits from the UK Climate Change Act, a modelling study for Great Britain, Vol: 2, Pages: e202-e213, ISSN: 2542-5196
Background Climate change poses a dangerous and immediate threat to the health of populations in the UK and worldwide. We aimed to model different scenarios to assess the health co-benefits that result from mitigation actions. Methods In this modelling study, we combined a detailed techno-economic energy systems model (UK TIMES), air pollutant emission inventories, a sophisticated air pollution model (Community Multi-scale Air Quality), and previously published associations between concentrations and health outcomes. We used four scenarios and focused on the air pollution implications from fine particulate matter (PM2·5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone. The four scenarios were baseline, which assumed no further climate actions beyond those already achieved and did not meet the UK's Climate Change Act (at least an 80% reduction in carbon dioxide equivalent emissions by 2050 compared with 1990) target; nuclear power, which met the Climate Change Act target with a limited increase in nuclear power; low-greenhouse gas, which met the Climate Change Act target without any policy constraint on nuclear build; and a constant scenario that held 2011 air pollutant concentrations constant until 2050. We predicted the health and economic impacts from air pollution for the scenarios until 2050, and the inequalities in exposure across different socioeconomic groups. Findings NO2 concentrations declined leading to 4 892 000 life-years saved for the nuclear power scenario and 7 178 000 life-years saved for the low-greenhouse gas scenario from 2011 to 2154. However, the associations that we used might overestimate the effects of NO2 itself. PM2·5 concentrations in Great Britain are predicted to decrease between 42% and 44% by 2050 compared with 2011 in the scenarios that met the Climate Change Act targets, especially those from road traffic and off-road machinery. These reductions in PM2·5 are tempered by a 2035 peak (and subsequent decline) in biomass (wood bu
Smith RB, Fecht D, Gulliver J, et al., 2017, Impact of London's road traffic air and noise pollution on birth weight: retrospective population based cohort study, BMJ, Vol: 359, ISSN: 1756-1833
Objective To investigate the relation between exposure to both air and noise pollution from road traffic and birth weight outcomes.Design Retrospective population based cohort study.Setting Greater London and surrounding counties up to the M25 motorway (2317 km2), UK, from 2006 to 2010.Participants 540 365 singleton term live births.Main outcome measures Term low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA) at term, and term birth weight.Results Average air pollutant exposures across pregnancy were 41 μg/m3 nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 73 μg/m3 nitrogen oxides (NOx), 14 μg/m3 particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5), 23 μg/m3 particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10), and 32 μg/m3 ozone (O3). Average daytime (LAeq,16hr) and night-time (Lnight) road traffic A-weighted noise levels were 58 dB and 53 dB respectively. Interquartile range increases in NO2, NOx, PM2.5, PM10, and source specific PM2.5 from traffic exhaust (PM2.5 traffic exhaust) and traffic non-exhaust (brake or tyre wear and resuspension) (PM2.5 traffic non-exhaust) were associated with 2% to 6% increased odds of term LBW, and 1% to 3% increased odds of term SGA. Air pollutant associations were robust to adjustment for road traffic noise. Trends of decreasing birth weight across increasing road traffic noise categories were observed, but were strongly attenuated when adjusted for primary traffic related air pollutants. Only PM2.5 traffic exhaust and PM2.5 were consistently associated with increased risk of term LBW after adjustment for each of the other air pollutants. It was estimated that 3% of term LBW cases in London are directly attributable to residential exposure to PM2.5>13.8 μg/m3during pregnancy.Conclusions The findings suggest that air pollution from road traffic in London is adversely affecting fetal growth. The results suggest little evidence for an independent exposure-response effect of traffic related noise on b
Castres P, Dajnak D, Lott M, et al., 2017, Most London hospitals and clinics exceed air pollution limits, BMJ, Vol: 357, Pages: 1-2, ISSN: 0959-8138
Dajnak D, Stewart G, Beevers S, 2017, Policies for london nitrogen dioxide (NO<inf>2</inf>)compliance, Pages: 218-222
Over one tenth of the UK population live in London and since London’s air pollution concentrations are predicted to exceed legal NO2 limits until at least 2030 (DEFRA, 2015), London requires a bold combination of policies to tackle its air pollution problems. Road transport is the most significant source of NOX emissions in London with diesel vehicles the greatest contributor (TfL and GLA, 2013/2016). The current air pollution challenge, primarily caused by a shift from petrol to diesel vehicles over the last 15 years, needs to be recognised and reversed. Our study in partnership with Policy Exchange (PX), the Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR) and Greenpeace (GP) builds on the Greater London Authority (GLA) implementation of the Ultra Low Emission Zone (ULEZ) in 2020 (TfL, 2014). Our ambitious air quality strategy proposes a comprehensive package of measures focusing on road transport policies such as phasing out diesel cars in inner London, moving toward more sustainable road transport alternatives, restricting the most polluting vehicles entering London, cleaning up taxi and bus fleets, promoting electric vehicles and car clubs. The proposed policies (the scenario) result in large reductions in NOX emissions (45%) across London, relative to the projected outcome of the ULEZ (TfL, 2014) from the previous administration (the baseline). Our modelling results suggest significant improvement bringing nearly the whole of London into compliance with legal NO2 limits by 2025 and decreasing NO2 concentration levels below 20 μgm-3 from 16% in the baseline to nearly 36% in the scenario. This is important since there are still health impacts below the 40 μgm-3 limit value. However, some key hotspots of pollution, on major roads, still remain non-compliant and will need additional localised targeted actions. These air quality improvements are projected to have a pronounced positive effect upon health outcomes in the capital. Life expectancy for all London
Bino M, Lefebvre W, Walton H, et al., 2017, Sensitivity analyses regarding NO2 exposure assessment and health impacts at a European scale, 18th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes
Currently, no adequate methodology exists to assess the NO2 health impacts at an EU-wide level. To a large extent this is attributed to the level of detail required in the NO2 concentration assessment at EU-level due to the strong spatial gradients for NO2 around roads. In this contribution we present a sensitivity analysis of the major sources of uncertainty in such an EU-wide health impact assessment for NO2. We do this by means of a number of bottom-up NO2 assessment maps contributed through the FAIRMODE composite mapping platform. We investigate the impact of the spatial resolution of the NO2 assessment, the available dose response curves and a number of ancillary datasets such as gridded population. We find that the largest source of uncertainty is found in the divergence between the different CRF’s available, in particular the choice of a ‘cut-off’ or ‘threshold’. For some cities, such as London, the difference is relatively small. However, the difference for smaller cities, such as Klagenfurt can go up to a factor of 6. Spatial resolution of the air quality maps and population maps is an important factor and depending on the concentration response function, the sensitivity is stronger. This work has been performed in the framework of the DG-ENV service contract 070201/2015/SER/717473/C.3, the conclusions of which contributed to the development of an EU-wide high resolution NO2 exposure assessment methodology.
Walton RT, Mudway IS, Dundas I, et al., 2016, Air pollution, ethnicity and telomere length in east London schoolchildren: An observational study, Environ Int, Vol: 96, Pages: 41-47, ISSN: 1873-6750
BACKGROUND: Short telomeres are associated with chronic disease and early mortality. Recent studies in adults suggest an association between telomere length and exposure to particulate matter, and that ethnicity may modify the relationship. However associations in children are unknown. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between air pollution and telomere length in an ethnically diverse group of children exposed to high levels of traffic derived pollutants, particularly diesel exhaust, and to environmental tobacco smoke. METHODS: Oral DNA from 333 children (8-9years) participating in a study on air quality and respiratory health in 23 inner city London schools was analysed for relative telomere length using monochrome multiplex qPCR. Annual, weekly and daily exposures to nitrogen oxides and particulate matter were obtained from urban dispersion models (2008-10) and tobacco smoke by urinary cotinine. Ethnicity was assessed by self-report and continental ancestry by analysis of 28 random genomic markers. We used linear mixed effects models to examine associations with telomere length. RESULTS: Telomere length increased with increasing annual exposure to NOx (model coefficient 0.003, [0.001, 0.005], p<0.001), NO2 (0.009 [0.004, 0.015], p<0.001), PM2.5 (0.041, [0.020, 0.063], p<0.001) and PM10 (0.096, [0.044, 0.149], p<0.001). There was no association with environmental tobacco smoke. Telomere length was increased in children reporting black ethnicity (22% [95% CI 10%, 36%], p<0.001) CONCLUSIONS: Pollution exposure is associated with longer telomeres in children and genetic ancestry is an important determinant of telomere length. Further studies should investigate both short and long-term associations between pollutant exposure and telomeres in childhood and assess underlying mechanisms.
Walton H, Dajnak D, Beevers S, et al., 2016, Assessing the health burden of long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide and mortality in London, Publisher: Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN: 1078-0475
Carley IM, Anderson HR, Atkinson RW, et al., 2016, Traffic pollution and the incidence of cardiorespiratory outcomes in an adult cohort in London, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol: 73, Pages: 849-856, ISSN: 1351-0711
Fecht D, Hansell A, Morley D, et al., 2016, Spatial and temporal associations of road traffic noise and air pollution in London: Implications for epidemiological studies, Environment International, Vol: 88, Pages: 235-242, ISSN: 0160-4120
Road traffic gives rise to noise and air pollution exposures, both of which are associated with adverse health effects especially for cardiovascular disease, but mechanisms may differ. Understanding the variability in correlations between these pollutants is essential to understand better their separate and joint effects on human health.We explored associations between modelled noise and air pollutants using different spatial units and area characteristics in London in 2003–2010.We modelled annual average exposures to road traffic noise (LAeq,24 h, Lden, LAeq,16 h, Lnight) for ~ 190,000 postcode centroids in London using the UK Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CRTN) method. We used a dispersion model (KCLurban) to model nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone, total and the traffic-only component of particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm and ≤ 10 μm. We analysed noise and air pollution correlations at the postcode level (~ 50 people), postcodes stratified by London Boroughs (~ 240,000 people), neighbourhoods (Lower layer Super Output Areas) (~ 1600 people), 1 km grid squares, air pollution tertiles, 50 m, 100 m and 200 m in distance from major roads and by deprivation tertiles.Across all London postcodes, we observed overall moderate correlations between modelled noise and air pollution that were stable over time (Spearman's rho range: | 0.34–0.55 |). Correlations, however, varied considerably depending on the spatial unit: largest ranges were seen in neighbourhoods and 1 km grid squares (both Spearman's rho range: | 0.01–0.87 |) and was less for Boroughs (Spearman's rho range: | 0.21–0.78 |). There was little difference in correlations between exposure tertiles, distance from road or deprivation tertiles.Associations between noise and air pollution at the relevant geographical unit of analysis need to be carefully considered in any epidemiological analysis, in particular in complex urban areas. Low correlations near roads, however, sugges
Halonen JI, Blangiardo M, Toledano MB, et al., 2016, Long-term exposure to traffic pollution and hospital admissions in London, Environmental pollution, Vol: 208, Pages: 48-57, ISSN: 1873-6424
Halonen JI, Blangiardo M, Toledano MB, et al., 2016, Is long-term exposure to traffic pollution associated with mortality? A small-area study in London, Environmental Pollution, Vol: 208, Pages: 25-32, ISSN: 0269-7491
Tonne C, Halonen JI, Beevers S, et al., 2016, Long-term traffic air and noise pollution in relation to mortality and hospital readmission among myocardial infarction survivors, International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, Vol: 219, Pages: 72-78, ISSN: 1092-5732
Beevers SD, Carslaw DC, Dajnak D, et al., 2016, Traffic management strategies for emissions reduction: recent experience in London, Energy and Emission Control Technologies, Vol: 4, Pages: 27-39
Air pollution strategies in London over the last 12 years have centered upon the congestion charging scheme, and at the same time, the fitting of particle traps to London buses, the low emissions zone (LEZ), and the Mayor’s Air Quality Strategy (MAQS). The 2003 congestion charging scheme achieved much of the scheme’s aims, but the demand to travel and the need for road space eroded the initial benefits. While fitting particle traps on buses was predicted to reduce particulate matter (PM) exhaust emissions, the introduction of phases 1 and 2 of the LEZ and MAQS strategies were both predicted to have modest emission impacts. Reliance on new Euro-standard vehicles to reduce emissions, and as a way of designing LEZs, has been problematic, with oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from diesel vehicles reducing less than predicted. Consequently, the UK has not met annual NO2 European Union (EU) limit values, necessitating a time extension application. A mismatch between PM10 ambient trends and emissions has also been reported, with the long-term performance of PM particle filters remaining an important question. Assessing London’s traffic management schemes has relied upon emission inventories and dispersion models, and to date, there has been no confirmation of the effects of the schemes using ambient data, a challenging and important area of research. However, measurements of ambient NOx, NO2, ozone, PM species, and roadside vehicle emissions have all contributed to the improvement of road traffic emission inventories in London, and it remains important to undertake ambient monitoring to assess future schemes. Looking forward, the real-world emissions performance of Euro 6/VI vehicles, selective catalytic reduction, and the ultra-low emissions zone in London will play a critical role in meeting EU limit values for ambient NO2, and in light of the increasing health evidence of urban air pollution, policy makers should aim to red
Gulliver J, Morley D, Vienneau D, et al., 2015, Development of an open-source road traffic noise model for exposure assessment, Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol: 74, Pages: 183-193, ISSN: 1364-8152
This paper describes the development of a model for assessing TRAffic Noise EXposure (TRANEX) in anopen-source geographic information system. Instead of using proprietary software we developed ourown model for two main reasons: 1) so that the treatment of source geometry, traffic information (flows/speeds/spatially varying diurnal traffic profiles) and receptors matched as closely as possible to that ofthe air pollution modelling being undertaken in the TRAFFIC project, and 2) to optimize model performancefor practical reasons of needing to implement a noise model with detailed source geometry, overa large geographical area, to produce noise estimates at up to several million address locations, withlimited computing resources. To evaluate TRANEX, noise estimates were compared with noise measurementsmade in the British cities of Leicester and Norwich. High correlation was seen betweenmodelled and measured LAeq,1hr (Norwich: r ¼ 0.85, p ¼ .000; Leicester: r ¼ 0.95, p ¼ .000) with averagemodel errors of 3.1 dB. TRANEX was used to estimate noise exposures (LAeq,1hr, LAeq,16hr, Lnight) for theresident population of London (2003e2010). Results suggest that 1.03 million (12%) people are exposedto daytime road traffic noise levels 65 dB(A) and 1.63 million (19%) people are exposed to night-timeroad traffic noise levels 55 dB(A). Differences in noise levels between 2010 and 2003 were on averagerelatively small: 0.25 dB (standard deviation: 0.89) and 0.26 dB (standard deviation: 0.87) for LAeq,16hrand Lnight.
Barone-Adesi F, Dent JE, Dajnak D, et al., 2015, Long-term exposure to primary traffic pollutants and lung function in children: cross-sectional study and meta-analysis, PLoS One, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 1932-6203
BackgroundThere is widespread concern about the possible health effects of traffic-related air pollution. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a convenient marker of primary pollution. We investigated the associations between lung function and current residential exposure to a range of air pollutants (particularly NO2, NO, NOx and particulate matter) in London children. Moreover, we placed the results for NO2 in context with a meta-analysis of published estimates of the association.Methods and FindingsAssociations between primary traffic pollutants and lung function were investigated in 4884 children aged 9–10 years who participated in the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE). A systematic literature search identified 13 studies eligible for inclusion in a meta-analysis. We combined results from the meta-analysis with the distribution of the values of FEV1 in CHASE to estimate the prevalence of children with abnormal lung function (FEV1<80% of predicted value) expected under different scenarios of NO2 exposure. In CHASE, there were non-significant inverse associations between all pollutants except ozone and both FEV1 and FVC. In the meta-analysis, a 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2 was associated with an 8 ml lower FEV1 (95% CI: -14 to -1 ml; p: 0.016). The observed effect was not modified by a reported asthma diagnosis. On the basis of these results, a 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2 level would translate into a 7% (95% CI: 4% to 12%) increase of the prevalence of children with abnormal lung function.ConclusionsExposure to traffic pollution may cause a small overall reduction in lung function and increase the prevalence of children with clinically relevant declines in lung function.
Dajnak D, Clark KD, Lockwood FC, et al., 2003, The prediction of mercury retention in ash from pulverised combustion of coal and sewage sludge, FUEL, Vol: 82, Pages: 1901-1909, ISSN: 0016-2361
Abdel-Rahman M, Connolly A, Costen P, et al., 2003, Application of the 'waste to water' concept to Sharm El Sheikh through a CFD simulation, Conference on Desalination Strategies in South Mediterranean Countries, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 125-132, ISSN: 0011-9164
Dajnak D, Lockwood FC, 2000, Use of thermal energy from waste for seawater desalination, Desalination, Vol: 130, Pages: 137-146, ISSN: 0011-9164
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