93 results found
Nygart VA, Pommerencke LM, Haijen E, et al., 2022, Antidepressant effects of a psychedelic experience in a large prospective naturalistic sample., J Psychopharmacol, Vol: 36, Pages: 932-942
BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades, a number of studies have highlighted the potential of psychedelic therapy. However, questions remain to what extend these results translate to naturalistic samples, and how contextual factors and the acute psychedelic experience relate to improvements in affective symptoms following psychedelic experiences outside labs/clinics. The present study sought to address this knowledge gap. AIM: Here, we aimed to investigate changes in anxiety and depression scores before versus after psychedelic experiences in naturalistic contexts, and how various pharmacological, extrapharmacological and experience factors related to outcomes. METHOD: Individuals who planned to undergo a psychedelic experience were enrolled in this online survey study. Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and 2 and 4 weeks post-psychedelic experience, with self-rated Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR-16) as the primary outcome. To facilitate clinical translation, only participants with depressive symptoms at baseline were included. Sample sizes for the four time points were N = 302, N = 182, N = 155 and N = 109, respectively. RESULTS: Relative to baseline, reductions in depressive symptoms were observed at 2 and 4 weeks. A medicinal motive, previous psychedelic use, drug dose and the type of acute psychedelic experience (i.e. specifically, having an emotional breakthrough) were all significantly associated with changes in self-rated QIDS-SR-16. CONCLUSION: These results lend support to therapeutic potential of psychedelics and highlight the influence of pharmacological and non-pharmacological factors in determining response. Mindful of a potential sample and attrition bias, further controlled and observational longitudinal studies are needed to test the replicability of these findings.
Carhart-Harris RL, Wagner AC, Agrawal M, et al., 2021, Can pragmatic research, real-world data and digital technologies aid the development of psychedelic medicine?, JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY, Vol: 36, Pages: 6-11, ISSN: 0269-8811
Andersen KAA, Carhart-Harris R, Nutt DJ, et al., 2020, Therapeutic effects of classic serotonergic psychedelics: A systematic review of modern-era clinical studies, ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Vol: 143, Pages: 101-118, ISSN: 0001-690X
Stenbaek DS, Madsen MK, Ozenne B, et al., 2020, Brain serotonin 2A receptor binding predicts subjective temporal and mystical effects of psilocybin in healthy humans, JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY, Vol: 35, Pages: 459-468, ISSN: 0269-8811
Borissova A, Ferguson B, Wall MB, et al., 2020, Acute effects of MDMA on trust, cooperative behaviour and empathy: A double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment, JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY, Vol: 35, Pages: 547-555, ISSN: 0269-8811
Nutt D, Erritzoe D, Carhart-Harris R, 2020, Psychedelic Psychiatry's Brave New World, CELL, Vol: 181, Pages: 24-28, ISSN: 0092-8674
Erritzoe D, Ashok AH, Searle GE, et al., 2020, Serotonin release measured in the human brain: A PET study with [11C]CIMBI-36 and d-amphetamine challenge, Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol: 45, Pages: 804-810, ISSN: 0893-133X
Positron emission tomography (PET) enables non-invasive estimation of neurotransmitter fluctuations in the living human brain. While these methods have been applied to dopamine and some other transmitters, estimation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; Serotonin) release has proved to be challenging. Here we demonstrate the utility of the novel 5-HT2A receptor agonist radioligand, [11C]CIMBI-36, and a d-amphetamine challenge to evaluate synaptic 5-HT changes in the living human brain. Seventeen healthy male volunteers received [11C]CIMBI-36 PET scans before and 3 hours after an oral dose of d-amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg). Dynamic PET data were acquired over 90 minutes, and the total volume of distribution (VT) in the frontal cortex and the cerebellum derived from a kinetic analysis using MA1. The frontal cortex binding potential (BPNDfrontal) was calculated as (VTfrontal/VTcerebellum)-1. BPNDfrontal = 1- (BPNDfrontalpost-dose/ BPNDfrontalbaseline) was used as an index of 5-HT release. Statistical inference was tested by means of a paired Students t-test evaluating a reduction in post-amphetamine [11C]CIMBI-36 BPNDfrontal .Following d-amphetamine administration, [11C]CIMBI-36 BPNDfrontal was reduced by 14 ± 13 % (p = 0.002). Similar effects were observed in other cortical regions examined in an exploratory analysis.[11C]CIMBI-36 binding is sensitive to synaptic serotonin release in the human brain, and when combined with a d-amphetamine challenge, the evaluation of the human brain serotonin system in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as major depression and Parkinson’s disease is enabled.
Stenbaek D, Madsen MK, Ozenne B, et al., 2019, Modelling the acute temporal dynamics of psilocybin psychoactive effects; relation to brain serotonin 2a receptor levels, 32nd Congress of the European-College-of-Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP), Publisher: ELSEVIER, Pages: S558-S558, ISSN: 0924-977X
Erritzoe D, Godlewska BR, Rizzo G, et al., 2019, Brain serotonin release reduced among patients with severe depression: a pet study with [11c]cimbi-36 and d-amphetamine challenge, 32nd Congress of the European-College-of-Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP), Publisher: ELSEVIER, Pages: S258-S258, ISSN: 0924-977X
Timmermann Slater CB, Roseman L, Schartner M, et al., 2019, Neural correlates of the DMT experience as assessed with multivariate EEG, Scientific Reports, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2045-2322
Studying transitions in and out of the altered state of consciousness caused by intravenous (IV) N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT - a fast-acting tryptamine psychedelic) offers a safe and powerful means of advancing knowledge on the neurobiology of conscious states. Here we sought to investigate the effects of IV DMT on the power spectrum and signal diversity of human brain activity (6 female, 7 male) recorded via multivariate EEG, and plot relationships between subjective experience, brain activity and drug plasma concentrations across time. Compared with placebo, DMT markedly reduced oscillatory power in the alpha and beta bands and robustly increased spontaneous signal diversity. Time-referenced neurophenomenological analyses revealed close relationships between changes in various aspects of subjective experience and changes in brain activity. Importantly, the emergence of oscillatory activity within the delta and theta frequency bands was found to correlate with the peak of the experience - particularly its eyes-closed visual component. These findings highlight marked changes in oscillatory activity and signal diversity with DMT that parallel broad and specific components of the subjective experience, thus advancing our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of immersive states of consciousness.
Nestor LJ, Paterson LM, Murphy A, et al., 2019, Naltrexone differentially modulates the neural correlates of motor impulse control in abstinent alcohol-dependent and poly-substance dependent individuals, European Journal of Neuroscience, Vol: 50, Pages: 2311-2321, ISSN: 0953-816X
Identifying key neural substrates in addiction disorders for targeted drug development remains a major challenge for clinical neuroscience. One emerging target is the opioid system, where substance‐dependent populations demonstrate prefrontal opioid dysregulation that predicts impulsivity and relapse. This may suggest that disturbances to the prefrontal opioid system could confer a risk for relapse in addiction due to weakened “top‐down” control over impulsive behaviour. Naltrexone is currently licensed for alcohol dependence and is also used clinically for impulse control disorders. Using a go/no‐go (GNG) task we examined the effects of acute naltrexone on the neural correlates of successful motor impulse control in abstinent alcoholics (AUD), abstinent poly substance‐dependent (poly‐SUD) individuals, and controls during a randomized double blind placebo controlled fMRI study. In the absence of any differences on GNG task performance, the AUD group showed a significantly greater BOLD response compared to the control group in lateral and medial prefrontal regions during both placebo and naltrexone treatments; effects that were positively correlated with alcohol abstinence. There was also a dissociation in the positive modulating effects of naltrexone in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and anterior insula cortex (AIC) of the AUD and poly‐SUD groups respectively. Self‐reported trait impulsivity in the poly‐SUD group also predicted the effect of naltrexone in the AIC. These results suggest that acute naltrexone differentially amplifies neural responses within two distinct regions of a salience network during successful motor impulse control in abstinent AUD and poly‐SUD groups, which are predicted by trait impulsivity in the poly‐SUD group.
Timmermann C, Roseman L, Schartner M, et al., 2019, Neural correlates of the DMT experience as assessed via multivariate EEG, Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Studying transitions in and out of the altered state of consciousness caused by intravenous (IV) N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT – a fast-acting tryptamine psychedelic) offers a safe and powerful means of advancing knowledge on the neurobiology of conscious states. Here we sought to investigate the effects of IV DMT on the power spectrum and signal diversity of human brain activity (6 female, 7 male) recorded via multivariate EEG, and plot relationships between subjective experience, brain activity and drug plasma concentrations across time. Compared with placebo, DMT markedly reduced oscillatory power in the <jats:italic>alpha</jats:italic> and <jats:italic>beta</jats:italic> bands and robustly increased spontaneous signal diversity. Time-referenced analyses revealed close relationships between changes in various aspects of subjective experience and changes in brain activity. Importantly, the emergence of oscillatory activity within the delta and theta frequency bands was found to correlate with the peak of the experience, and particularly its eyes-closed visual component. These findings highlight marked changes in oscillatory activity and signal diversity with DMT that parallel broad and specific components of the relevant subjective experience and thus further our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of immersive states of consciousness.</jats:p>
Kuypers KPC, Ng L, Erritzoe D, et al., 2019, Microdosing psychedelics: More questions than answers? An overview and suggestions for future research, JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY, ISSN: 0269-8811
Erritzoe D, Godlewska BR, Rizzo G, et al., 2019, Reduced serotonin release in patients with major depression: a PET study with [11C]Cimbi-36 and d-amphetamine challenge, 29th International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow, Metabolism and Function / 14th International Conference on Quantification of Brain Function with PET (BRAIN and BRAIN Pet), Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, Pages: 548-549, ISSN: 0271-678X
Madsen MK, Fisher PM, Burmester D, et al., 2019, Psychedelic effects of psilocybin correlate with serotonin 2A receptor occupancy and plasma psilocin levels, NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY, Vol: 44, Pages: 1328-1334, ISSN: 0893-133X
Madsen MK, Fisher PM, Burmester D, et al., 2019, Psychedelic effects of psilocybin correlate with serotonin 2A receptor occupancy and plasma psilocin levels (vol 44, pg 1328, 2019), NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY, Vol: 44, Pages: 1336-1337, ISSN: 0893-133X
Erritzoe D, Smith J, Fisher PM, et al., 2019, Recreational use of psychedelics is associated with elevated personality trait openness: Exploration of associations with brain serotonin markers., J Psychopharmacol, Pages: 269881119827891-269881119827891
BACKGROUND:: Recent studies have suggested therapeutic benefits of psychedelics for a variety of mental health conditions. The understanding of how single psychedelic administrations can induce long-lasting effects are, in large, still lacking. However, recent studies in both healthy and clinical populations suggest a role for personality changes. AIM:: To test support for some of these plausible mechanisms we evaluated (cross-sectional) associations between recreational use of psychedelics and 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and (a) personality measures and (b) key markers of cerebral serotonergic signalling (serotonin transporter and serotonin-2A-receptor binding). METHODS:: In 10 psychedelic-preferring recreational users, 14 MDMA-preferring users and 21 non-using controls, personality was assessed using the 'big five' instrument Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Frontal serotonin transporter and serotonin-2A-receptor binding potentials were quantified using [11C]DASB and [18F]altanserin positron emission tomography, respectively. RESULTS:: Of the five NEO-PI-R traits, only openness to experience scores differed between the three groups; psychedelic-preferring recreational users showing higher openness to experience scores when compared with both MDMA-preferring users and controls. Openness to experience scores were positively associated with lifetime number of psychedelic exposures, and among all MDMA-preferring user/psychedelic-preferring recreational user individuals, frontal serotonin transporter binding - but not frontal serotonin-2A-receptor binding - was positively associated with openness to experience. CONCLUSION:: Our findings from this cross-sectional study support increasing evidence of a positive association between psychedelic experiences and openness to experience, and (a) expands this to the context of 'recreational' psychedelics use, and (b) links serotonergic neurotransmission to openness to experience. A modulation of perso
Madsen MK, Burmester D, Stenbaek DS, et al., 2019, Psilocybin occupancy of brain serotonin 2A receptors correlates with psilocin levels and subjective experience: a [11C]Cimbi-36 PET study in humans, 31st Congress of the European-College-of-Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP), Publisher: ELSEVIER, Pages: S304-S305, ISSN: 0924-977X
Erritzoe D, Roseman L, Nour MM, et al., 2018, Effects of psilocybin therapy on personality structure, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol: 138, Pages: 368-378, ISSN: 1600-0447
ObjectiveTo explore whether psilocybin with psychological support modulates personality parameters in patients suffering from treatment‐resistant depression (TRD).MethodTwenty patients with moderate or severe, unipolar, TRD received oral psilocybin (10 and 25 mg, one week apart) in a supportive setting. Personality was assessed at baseline and at 3‐month follow‐up using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO‐PI‐R), the subjective psilocybin experience with Altered State of Consciousness (ASC) scale, and depressive symptoms with QIDS‐SR16.ResultsNeuroticism scores significantly decreased while Extraversion increased following psilocybin therapy. These changes were in the direction of the normative NEO‐PI‐R data and were both predicted, in an exploratory analysis, by the degree of insightfulness experienced during the psilocybin session. Openness scores also significantly increased following psilocybin, whereas Conscientiousness showed trend‐level increases, and Agreeableness did not change.ConclusionOur observation of changes in personality measures after psilocybin therapy was mostly consistent with reports of personality change in relation to conventional antidepressant treatment, although the pronounced increases in Extraversion and Openness might constitute an effect more specific to psychedelic therapy. This needs further exploration in future controlled studies, as do the brain mechanisms of postpsychedelic personality change.
Near-death experiences (NDEs) are complex subjective experiences, which have been previously associated with the psychedelic experience and more specifically with the experience induced by the potent serotonergic, N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Potential similarities between both subjective states have been noted previously, including the subjective feeling of transcending one’s body and entering an alternative realm, perceiving and communicating with sentient ‘entities’ and themes related to death and dying. In this within-subjects placebo-controled study we aimed to test the similarities between the DMT state and NDEs, by administering DMT and placebo to 13 healthy participants, who then completed a validated and widely used measure of NDEs. Results revealed significant increases in phenomenological features associated with the NDE, following DMT administration compared to placebo. Also, we found significant relationships between the NDE scores and DMT-induced ego-dissolution and mystical-type experiences, as well as a significant association between NDE scores and baseline trait ‘absorption’ and delusional ideation measured at baseline. Furthermore, we found a significant overlap in nearly all of the NDE phenomenological features when comparing DMT-induced NDEs with a matched group of ‘actual’ NDE experiencers. These results reveal a striking similarity between these states that warrants further investigation.
Carhart-Harris RL, Roseman L, Haijen E, et al., 2018, Psychedelics and the essential importance of context, JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY, Vol: 32, Pages: 725-731, ISSN: 0269-8811
Szigeti B, Winstock AR, Erritzoe D, et al., 2018, Are ecstasy induced serotonergic alterations overestimated for the majority of users?, JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY, Vol: 32, Pages: 741-748, ISSN: 0269-8811
Carhart-Harris RL, Bolstridge M, Day CMJ, et al., 2017, Psilocybin with psychological support for treatment-resistant depression: six-month follow-up, Psychopharmacology, Vol: 235, Pages: 399-408, ISSN: 0033-3158
RATIONALE: Recent clinical trials are reporting marked improvements in mental health outcomes with psychedelic drug-assisted psychotherapy. OBJECTIVES: Here, we report on safety and efficacy outcomes for up to 6 months in an open-label trial of psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression. METHODS: Twenty patients (six females) with (mostly) severe, unipolar, treatment-resistant major depression received two oral doses of psilocybin (10 and 25 mg, 7 days apart) in a supportive setting. Depressive symptoms were assessed from 1 week to 6 months post-treatment, with the self-rated QIDS-SR16 as the primary outcome measure. RESULTS: Treatment was generally well tolerated. Relative to baseline, marked reductions in depressive symptoms were observed for the first 5 weeks post-treatment (Cohen's d = 2.2 at week 1 and 2.3 at week 5, both p < 0.001); nine and four patients met the criteria for response and remission at week 5. Results remained positive at 3 and 6 months (Cohen's d = 1.5 and 1.4, respectively, both p < 0.001). No patients sought conventional antidepressant treatment within 5 weeks of psilocybin. Reductions in depressive symptoms at 5 weeks were predicted by the quality of the acute psychedelic experience. CONCLUSIONS: Although limited conclusions can be drawn about treatment efficacy from open-label trials, tolerability was good, effect sizes large and symptom improvements appeared rapidly after just two psilocybin treatment sessions and remained significant 6 months post-treatment in a treatment-resistant cohort. Psilocybin represents a promising paradigm for unresponsive depression that warrants further research in double-blind randomised control trials.
Erritzoe D, Richards WA, 2017, Lessons to be learned from early psychedelic therapy in Denmark, NORDIC JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY, Vol: 71, Pages: 487-488, ISSN: 0803-9488
Erritzoe D, Nutt DJ, Carhart-Harris R, 2017, Concerns regarding conclusions made about LSD-treatments, HISTORY OF PSYCHIATRY, Vol: 28, Pages: 257-258, ISSN: 0957-154X
Recent work with noninvasive human brain imaging has started to investigate the effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on large-scale patterns of brain activity. MDMA, a potent monoamine-releaser with particularly pronounced serotonin- releasing properties, has unique subjective effects that include: marked positive mood, pleasant/unusual bodily sensations and pro-social, empathic feelings. However, the neurobiological basis for these effects is not properly understood, and the present analysis sought to address this knowledge gap. To do this, we administered MDMA-HCl (100 mg p.o.) and, separately, placebo (ascorbic acid) in a randomized, double-blind, repeated-measures design with twenty-five healthy volunteers undergoing fMRI scanning. We then employed a measure of global resting-state functional brain connectivity and follow-up seed-to-voxel analysis to the fMRI data we acquired. Results revealed decreased right insula/salience network functional connectivity under MDMA. Furthermore, these decreases in right insula/salience network connectivity correlated with baseline trait anxiety and acute experiences of altered bodily sensations under MDMA. The present findings highlight insular disintegration (ie, compromised salience network membership) as a neurobiological signature of the MDMA experience, and relate this brain effect to trait anxiety and acutely altered bodily sensations–both of which are known to be associated with insular functioning.
Kalk NJ, Guo Q, Owen D, et al., 2017, Decreased hippocampal translocator protein (18 kDa) expression in alcohol dependence: a [(11)C]PBR28 PET study, Translational Psychiatry, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2158-3188
Repeated withdrawal from alcohol is clinically associated with progressive cognitive impairment. Microglial activation occurring during pre-clinical models of alcohol withdrawal is associated with learning deficits. We investigated whether there was microglial activation in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients (ADP), using [(11)C]PBR28 positron emission tomography (PET), selective for the 18kDa translocator protein (TSPO) highly expressed in activated microglia and astrocytes. We investigated the relationship between microglial activation and cognitive performance. Twenty healthy control (HC) subjects (45±13; M:F 14:6) and nine ADP (45±6, M:F 9:0) were evaluated. Dynamic PET data were acquired for 90 min following an injection of 331±15 MBq [(11)C]PBR28. Regional volumes of distribution (VT) for regions of interest (ROIs) identified a priori were estimated using a two-tissue compartmental model with metabolite-corrected arterial plasma input function. ADP had an ~20% lower [(11)C]PBR28 VT, in the hippocampus (F(1,24) 5.694; P=0.025), but no difference in VT in other ROIs. Hippocampal [(11)C]PBR28 VT was positively correlated with verbal memory performance in a combined group of HC and ADP (r=0.720, P<0.001), an effect seen in HC alone (r=0.738; P=0.001) but not in ADP. We did not find evidence for increased microglial activation in ADP, as seen pre-clinically. Instead, our findings suggest lower glial density or an altered activation state with lower TSPO expression. The correlation between verbal memory and [(11)C]PBR28 VT, raises the possibility that abnormalities of glial function may contribute to cognitive impairment in ADP.
Limbrick-Oldfield E, Mick I, Cocks R, et al., 2017, Neural substrates of cue reactivity and craving in gambling disorder, Translational Psychiatry, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2158-3188
Cue reactivity is an established procedure in addictions research for examining the subjective experience and neural basis of craving. This experiment sought to quantify cue-related brain responses in Gambling Disorder using personally tailored cues in conjunction with subjective craving, as well as a comparison with appetitive non-gambling stimuli. Participants with Gambling Disorder (n=19) attending treatment and 19 controls viewed personally tailored blocks of gambling-related cues, as well as neutral cues and highly appetitive (food) images during a functional MRI scan performed ~2-3 hours after a usual meal. fMRI analysis examined cue-related brain activity, cue-related changes in connectivity, and associations with block-by-block craving ratings. Craving ratings in the participants with Gambling Disorder increased following gambling cues compared with non-gambling cues. fMRI analysis revealed group differences in left insula and anterior cingulate cortex, with the Gambling Disorder group showing greater reactivity to the gambling cues, but no differences to the food cues. In participants with Gambling Disorder, craving to gamble correlated positively with gambling cue-related activity in the bilateral insula and ventral striatum, and negatively with functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the medial PFC. Gambling cues, but not food cues, elicit increased brain responses in reward-related circuitry in individuals with Gambling Disorder (compared to controls), providing support for the incentive sensitisation theory of addiction. Activity in the insula co-varied with craving intensity, and may be a target for interventions.
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