128 results found
Godlee C, Holden DW, 2023, Transmembrane substrates of type three secretion system injectisomes., Microbiology (Reading), Vol: 169
The type three secretion system injectisome of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens injects virulence proteins, called effectors, into host cells. Effectors of mammalian pathogens carry out a range of functions enabling bacterial invasion, replication, immune suppression and transmission. The injectisome secretes two translocon proteins that insert into host cell membranes to form a translocon pore, through which effectors are delivered. A subset of effectors also integrate into infected cell membranes, enabling a unique range of biochemical functions. Both translocon proteins and transmembrane effectors avoid cytoplasmic aggregation and integration into the bacterial inner membrane. Translocated transmembrane effectors locate and integrate into the appropriate host membrane. In this review, we focus on transmembrane translocon proteins and effectors of bacterial pathogens of mammals. We discuss what is known about the mechanisms underlying their membrane integration, as well as the functions conferred by the position of injectisome effectors within membranes.
Godlee C, Cerny OE, Liu M, et al., 2022, The Salmonella transmembrane effector SteD hijacks AP1-mediated vesicular trafficking for delivery to antigen-loading MHCII compartments, PLOS PATHOGENS, Vol: 18, ISSN: 1553-7366
Cerny O, Godlee C, Tocci R, et al., 2021, CD97 stabilises the immunological synapse between dendritic cells and T cells and is targeted for degradation by the Salmonella effector SteD, PLoS Pathogens, Vol: 17, Pages: 1-28, ISSN: 1553-7366
The Salmonella enterica effector SteD depletes mature MHC class II (mMHCII) molecules from the surface of infected antigen-presenting cells through ubiquitination of the cytoplasmic tail of the mMHCII β chain. This requires the Nedd4 family HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase Wwp2 and a tumor-suppressing transmembrane protein adaptor Tmem127. Here, through a proteomic screen of dendritic cells, we found that SteD targets the plasma membrane protein CD97 for degradation by a similar mechanism. SteD enhanced ubiquitination of CD97 on K555 and mutation of this residue eliminated the effect of SteD on CD97 surface levels. We showed that CD97 localises to and stabilises the immunological synapse between dendritic cells and T cells. Removal of CD97 by SteD inhibited dendritic cell-T cell interactions and reduced T cell activation, independently of its effect on MHCII. Therefore, SteD suppresses T cell immunity by two distinct processes.
Matthews-Palmer T, Gonzalez-Rodriguez N, Calcraft T, et al., 2021, Structure of the cytoplasmic domain of SctV (SsaV) from the Salmonella SPI-2 injectisome and implications for a pH sensing mechanism, Journal of Structural Biology, Vol: 213, ISSN: 1047-8477
Bacterial type III secretion systems assemble the axial structures of both injectisomes and flagella. Injectisome type III secretion systems subsequently secrete effector proteins through their hollow needle into a host, requiring co-ordination. In the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SPI-2 injectisome, this switch is triggered by sensing the neutral pH of the host cytoplasm. Central to specificity switching is a nonameric SctV protein with an N-terminal transmembrane domain and a toroidal C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. A ‘gatekeeper’ complex interacts with the SctV cytoplasmic domain in a pH dependent manner, facilitating translocon secretion while repressing effector secretion through a poorly understood mechanism. To better understand the role of SctV in SPI-2 translocon-effector specificity switching, we purified full-length SctV and determined its toroidal cytoplasmic region’s structure using cryo-EM. Structural comparisons and molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the cytoplasmic torus is stabilized by its core subdomain 3, about which subdomains 2 and 4 hinge, varying the flexible outside cleft implicated in gatekeeper and substrate binding. In light of patterns of surface conservation, deprotonation, and structural motion, the location of previously identified critical residues suggest that gatekeeper binds a cleft buried between neighboring subdomain 4s. Simulations suggest that a local pH change from 5 to 7.2 stabilizes the subdomain 3 hinge and narrows the central aperture of the nonameric torus. Our results are consistent with a model of local pH sensing at SctV, where pH-dependent dynamics of SctV cytoplasmic domain affect binding of gatekeeper complex.
Heggie A, Cerny O, Holden DW, 2021, SteC and the intracellular Salmonella-induced F-actin meshwork, CELLULAR MICROBIOLOGY, Vol: 23, ISSN: 1462-5814
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 4
Alix E, Godlee C, Cerny O, et al., 2020, The tumor suppressor TMEM127 is a Nedd4-family E3 ligase adaptor required by Salmonella SteD to ubiquitinate and degrade MHC class II molecules, Cell Host and Microbe, Vol: 28, Pages: 54-68.e7, ISSN: 1931-3128
The Salmonella enterica effector SteD depletes mature MHC class II (mMHCII) molecules from the surface of infected antigen-presenting cells through ubiquitination of the cytoplasmic tail of the mMHCII β chain. Here, through a genome-wide mutant screen of human antigen-presenting cells, we show that the NEDD4 family HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP2 and a tumor-suppressing transmembrane protein of unknown biochemical function, TMEM127, are required for SteD-dependent ubiquitination of mMHCII. Although evidently not involved in normal regulation of mMHCII, TMEM127 was essential for SteD to suppress both mMHCII antigen presentation in mouse dendritic cells and MHCII-dependent CD4+ T cell activation. We found that TMEM127 contains a canonical PPxY motif, which was required for binding to WWP2. SteD bound to TMEM127 and enabled TMEM127 to interact with and induce ubiquitination of mature MHCII. Furthermore, SteD also underwent TMEM127- and WWP2-dependent ubiquitination, which both contributed to its degradation and augmented its activity on mMHCII.
Cerny O, Holden D, 2019, Salmonella SPI-2 type III secretion system-dependent inhibition of antigen presentation and T cell function, Immunology Letters, Vol: 215, Pages: 35-39, ISSN: 0165-2478
Salmonella enterica serovars infect a broad range of mammalian hosts, including humans, causing both gastrointestinal and systemic diseases. Effective immune responses to Salmonella infections depend largely on CD4+ T cell activation by dendritic cells (DCs). Bacteria are internalised by intestinal DCs and respond by translocating effectors of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) type III secretion system (T3SS) into host cells. In this review, we discuss processes that are hijacked by SPI-2 T3SS effectors and how this affects DC biology and the activation of T cell responses.
Godlee C, Cerny O, durkin C, et al., 2019, SrcA is a chaperone for the Salmonella SPI-2 type three secretion system effector SteD, Microbiology, Vol: 165, Pages: 15-25, ISSN: 1350-0872
Effector proteins of type three secretion systems (T3SS) often require cytosolic chaperones for their stabilization, to interact with the secretion machinery and to enable effector delivery into host cells. We found that deletion of srcA, previously shown to encode a chaperone for the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) T3SS effectors SseL and PipB2, prevented the reduction of mature Major Histocompatibility Complex class II (mMHCII) from the surface of antigen-presenting cells during Salmonella infection. This activity was shown previously to be caused by the SPI-2 T3SS effector SteD. Since srcA and steD are located in the same operon on the Salmonella chromosome, this suggested that the srcA phenotype might be due to an indirect effect on SteD. We found that SrcA is not translocated by the SPI-2 T3SS but interacts directly and forms a stable complex with SteD in bacteria with a 2 : 1 stoichiometry. We found that SrcA was not required for SPI-2 T3SS-dependent, neutral pH-induced secretion of either SseL or PipB2 but was essential for secretion of SteD. SrcA therefore functions as a chaperone for SteD, explaining its requirement for the reduction in surface levels of mMHCII.
Yu X, Grabe G, Liu M, et al., 2018, SsaV interacts with SsaL to control the translocon-to-effector switch in the Salmonella SPI-2 type three secretion system, mBio, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2150-7511
Nonflagellar type III secretion systems (nf T3SSs) form a cell surface needle-like structure and an associated translocon that deliver bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. This involves a tightly regulated hierarchy of protein secretion. A switch involving SctP and SctU stops secretion of the needle protein. The gatekeeper protein SctW is required for secretion of translocon proteins and controls a second switch to start effector secretion. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium encodes two T3SSs in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) and SPI-2. The acidic vacuole containing intracellular bacteria stimulates assembly of the SPI-2 T3SS and its translocon. Sensing the nearly neutral host cytosolic pH is required for effector translocation. Here, we investigated the involvement of SPI-2-encoded proteins SsaP (SctP), SsaU (SctU), SsaV (SctV), and SsaL (SctW) in regulation of secretion. We found that SsaP and SsaU are involved in the first but not the second secretion switch. A random-mutagenesis screen identified amino acids of SsaV that regulate translocon and effector secretion. Single substitutions in subdomain 4 of SsaV or InvA (SPI-1-encoded SctV) phenocopied mutations of their corresponding gatekeepers with respect to translocon and effector protein secretion and host cell interactions. SsaL interacted with SsaV in bacteria exposed to low ambient pH but not after the pH was raised to 7.2. We propose that SsaP and SsaU enable the apparatus to become competent for a secretion switch and facilitate the SsaL-SsaV interaction. This mediates secretion of translocon proteins until neutral pH is sensed, which causes their dissociation, resulting in arrest of translocon secretion and derepression of effector translocation.IMPORTANCE Salmonella Typhimurium is an intracellular pathogen that uses the SPI-2 type III secretion system to deliver virulence proteins across the vacuole membrane surrounding intracellular bacteria. This involves a tightly re
Holden DW, Errington J, 2018, Type II toxin-antitoxin systems and persister cells, mBio, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2150-7511
Jennings E, Thurston TLM, Holden DW, 2017, Salmonella SPI-2 Type III Secretion System Effectors: Molecular Mechanisms And Physiological Consequences, CELL HOST & MICROBE, Vol: 22, Pages: 217-231, ISSN: 1931-3128
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 186
Gunster RA, Matthews SA, Holden DW, et al., 2017, SseK1 and SseK3 Type III Secretion System Effectors Inhibit NF-kappa B Signaling and Necroptotic Cell Death in Salmonella-Infected Macrophages (vol 85, e00010-17, 2017), Infection and Immunity, Vol: 85, ISSN: 0019-9567
Gunster R, Matthews SA, Holden DW, et al., 2017, SseK1 and SseK3 T3SS effectors inhibit NF-kB signalling and necroptotic cell death in Salmonella-infected macrophages, Infection and Immunity, Vol: 85, ISSN: 1098-5522
Within host cells such as macrophages, Salmonella enterica translocates virulence (effector) proteins across its vacuolar membrane using the SPI-2 type III secretion system. Previously it has been shown that when expressed ectopically the effectors SseK1 and SseK3 inhibit TNFα-induced NF-κB activation. In this study we show that ectopically expressed SseK1, SseK2 and SseK3 suppressed TNFα-, but not TLR4-, or interleukin-induced NF-κB activation. Inhibition required a DXD motif, which in SseK1 and SseK3 is essential for protein Arginine-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-ylation. During macrophage infection, SseK1 and SseK3 inhibited NF-κB activity in an additive manner. SseK3-mediated inhibition of NF-κB activation did not require the only known host-binding partner of this effector, the E3-ubiquitin ligase TRIM32. SseK proteins also inhibited TNFα-induced cell death during macrophage infection. Despite SseK1 and SseK3 inhibiting TNFα-induced apoptosis upon ectopic expression in HeLa cells, the percentage of infected macrophages undergoing apoptosis was SseK-independent. Instead, SseK proteins inhibited necroptotic cell death during macrophage infection. SseK1 and SseK3 caused GlcNAcylation of different proteins in infected macrophages suggesting that these effectors have distinct substrate specificities. Indeed, SseK1 caused the GlcNAcylation of the death domain containing proteins FADD and TRADD, whereas SseK3 expression resulted in weak GlcNAcylation of TRADD but not FADD. Additional, as yet unidentified substrates are likely to explain the additive phenotype of a Salmonella strain lacking both SseK1 and SseK3.
Thurston T, Matthews S, Jennings E, et al., 2016, Growth inhibition of cytosolic Salmonella by caspase-1 and caspase-11 precedes host cell death, Nature Communications, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2041-1723
Sensing bacterial products in the cytosol of mammalian cells by NOD-like receptors leads to the activation of caspase-1 inflammasomes, and the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-18 and IL-1β. In addition, mouse caspase-11 (represented in humans by its orthologs, caspase-4 and caspase-5) detects cytosolic bacterial LPS directly. Activation of caspase-1 and caspase-11 initiates pyroptotic host cell death that releases potentially harmful bacteria from the nutrient-rich host cell cytosol into the extracellular environment. Here we use single cell analysis and time-lapse microscopy to identify a subpopulation of host cells, in which growth of cytosolic Salmonella Typhimurium is inhibited independently or prior to the onset of cell death. The enzymatic activities of caspase-1 and caspase-11 are required for growth inhibition in different cell types. Our results reveal that these proteases have important functions beyond the direct induction of pyroptosis and proinflammatory cytokine secretion in the control of growth and elimination of cytosolic bacteria.
Grabe GJ, Zhang Y, Przydacz M, et al., 2016, The Salmonella effector SpvD is a cysteine hydrolase with a serovar-specific polymorphism influencing catalytic activity, suppression of immune responses and bacterial virulence, Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol: 291, Pages: 25853-25863, ISSN: 1083-351X
Many bacterial pathogens secrete virulence (effector) proteins that interfere with immune signaling in their host. SpvD is a Salmonella enterica effector protein that we previously demonstrated to negatively regulate the NF-κB signaling pathway and promote virulence of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium in mice. To shed light on the mechanistic basis for these observations, we determined the crystal structure of SpvD and show that it adopts a papain-like fold with a characteristic cysteine-histidine-aspartate catalytic triad comprising C73, H162, and D182. SpvD possessed an in vitro deconjugative activity on aminoluciferin-linked peptide and protein substrates in vitro. A C73A mutation abolished SpvD activity, demonstrating that an intact catalytic triad is required for its function. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that SpvD is a cysteine protease. The amino acid sequence of SpvD is highly conserved across different S. enterica serovars, but residue 161, located close to the catalytic triad, is variable, with serovar Typhimurium SpvD having an arginine and serovar Enteritidis a glycine at this position. This variation affected hydrolytic activity of the enzyme on artificial substrates and can be explained by substrate accessibility to the active site. Interestingly, the SpvDG161 variant more potently inhibited NF-κB mediated immune responses in cells in vitro and increased virulence of serovar Typhimurium in mice. In summary, our results explain the biochemical basis for the effect of virulence protein SpvD and demonstrate that a single amino acid polymorphism can affect the overall virulence of a bacterial pathogen in its host.
Pruneda JN, Durkin CH, Geurink PP, et al., 2016, The molecular basis for ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like specificities in bacterial effector proteases, Molecular Cell, Vol: 63, Pages: 261-276, ISSN: 1097-2765
Pathogenic bacteria rely on secreted effector proteins to manipulate host signaling pathways, often in creative ways. CE clan proteases, specific hydrolases for ubiquitin-like modifications (SUMO and NEDD8) in eukaryotes, reportedly serve as bacterial effector proteins with deSUMOylase, deubiquitinase, or, even, acetyltransferase activities. Here, we characterize bacterial CE protease activities, revealing K63-linkage-specific deubiquitinases in human pathogens, such as Salmonella, Escherichia, and Shigella, as well as ubiquitin/ubiquitin-like cross-reactive enzymes in Chlamydia, Rickettsia, and Xanthomonas. Five crystal structures, including ubiquitin/ubiquitin-like complexes, explain substrate specificities and redefine relationships across the CE clan. Importantly, this work identifies novel family members and provides key discoveries among previously reported effectors, such as the unexpected deubiquitinase activity in Xanthomonas XopD, contributed by an unstructured ubiquitin binding region. Furthermore, accessory domains regulate properties such as subcellular localization, as exemplified by a ubiquitin-binding domain in Salmonella Typhimurium SseL. Our work both highlights and explains the functional adaptations observed among diverse CE clan proteins.
Yu XJ, Liu M, Holden D, 2016, Salmonella Effectors SseF and SseG Interact with Mammalian Protein ACBD3 (GCP60) To Anchor Salmonella-Containing Vacuoles at the Golgi Network, mBio, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2161-2129
Following infection of mammalian cells, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) replicates within membrane-bound compartments known as Salmonella-containing vacuoles (SCVs). The Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 type III secretion system (SPI-2 T3SS) translocates approximately 30 different effectors across the vacuolar membrane. SseF and SseG are two such effectors that are required for SCVs to localize close to the Golgi network in infected epithelial cells. In a yeast two-hybrid assay, SseG and an N-terminal variant of SseF interacted directly with mammalian ACBD3, a multifunctional cytosolic Golgi network-associated protein. Knockdown of ACBD3 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced epithelial cell Golgi network association of wild-type bacteria, phenocopying the effect of null mutations of sseG or sseF. Binding of SseF to ACBD3 in infected cells required the presence of SseG. A single-amino-acid mutant of SseG and a double-amino-acid mutant of SseF were obtained that did not interact with ACBD3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When either of these was produced together with the corresponding wild-type effector by Salmonella in infected cells, they enabled SCV-Golgi network association and interacted with ACBD3. However, these properties were lost and bacteria displayed an intracellular replication defect when cells were infected with Salmonella carrying both mutant genes. Knockdown of ACBD3 resulted in a replication defect of wild-type bacteria but did not further attenuate the growth defect of a ΔsseFG mutant strain. We propose a model in which interaction between SseF and SseG enables both proteins to bind ACBD3, thereby anchoring SCVs at the Golgi network and facilitating bacterial replication.
O'Neill AM, Thurston TL, Holden DW, 2016, Erratum for O'Neill et al., Cytosolic Replication of Group A Streptococcus in Human Macrophages., mBio, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2161-2129
Rolhion N, Furniss R, Grabe G, et al., 2016, Inhibition of nuclear transport of NF-kB p65 by the Salmonella type III secretion system effector SpvD, Plos Pathogens, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-26, ISSN: 1553-7374
Salmonella enterica replicates in macrophages through the action of effector proteins translocated across the vacuolar membrane by a type III secretion system (T3SS). Here we show that the SPI-2 T3SS effector SpvD suppresses proinflammatory immune responses. SpvD prevented activation of an NF-ĸB-dependent promoter and caused nuclear accumulation of importin-α, which is required for nuclear import of p65. SpvD interacted specifically with the exportin Xpo2, which mediates nuclear-cytoplasmic recycling of importins. We propose that interaction between SpvD and Xpo2 disrupts the normal recycling of importin-α from the nucleus, leading to a defect in nuclear translocation of p65 and inhibition of activation of NF-ĸB regulated promoters. SpvD down-regulated pro-inflammatory responses and contributed to systemic growth of bacteria in mice. This work shows that a bacterial pathogen can manipulate host cell immune responses by interfering with the nuclear transport machinery.
Santos AJM, Durkin C, Helaine S, et al., 2016, Clustered intracellular Salmonella Typhimurium Blocks Host Cell Cytokinesis, Infection and Immunity, Vol: 84, Pages: 2149-2158, ISSN: 1098-5522
Several bacterial pathogens and viruses interfere with the cell cycle of their host cells to enhance virulence. This is especially apparent in bacteria that colonise the gut epithelium, where inhibition of the cell cycle of infected cells enhances the intestinal colonisation. We found that intracellular Salmonella enterica Typhimurium induced the binucleation of a large proportion of epithelial cells by 14 hours post invasion, which was dependent on an intact Salmonella pathogenicity island-2 (SPI-2) type 3 secretion system. The SPI-2 effectors SseF and SseG were required to induce binucleation. SseF and SseG are known to maintain microcolonies of Salmonella-containing vacuoles close to the microtubule organising centre of infected epithelial cells. During host cell division these clustered microcolonies prevented the correct localisation of members of the chromosomal passenger complex and mitotic kinesin-like protein 1, and consequently prevented cytokinesis. Tetraploidy, arising from a cytokinesis defect, is known to have a deleterious effect on subsequent cell divisions, either resulting in chromosomal instabilities or cell cycle arrest. In infected mice, proliferation of small intestinal epithelial cells was compromised in an SseF/SseG-dependent manner, suggesting that cytokinesis failure caused by S. Typhimurium delays epithelial cell turnover in the intestine.
O'Neill A, Thurston T, Holden D, 2016, Cytosolic Replication of Group A Streptococcus in Human Macrophages, mBio, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2161-2129
As key components of innate immune defense, macrophages are essential in controlling bacterial pathogens, includinggroup A Streptococcus (GAS). Despite this, only a limited number of studies have analyzed the recovery of GAS from withinhuman neutrophils and macrophages. Here, we determined the intracellular fate of GAS in human macrophages by using severalquantitative approaches. In both U937 and primary human macrophages, the appearance over time of long GAS chains revealedthat despite GAS-mediated cytotoxicity, replication occurred in viable, propidium iodide-negative macrophages. Whereas themajor virulence factor M1 did not contribute to bacterial growth, a GAS mutant strain deficient in streptolysin O (SLO) was impairedfor intracellular replication. SLO promoted bacterial escape from the GAS-containing vacuole (GCV) into the macrophagecytosol. Up to half of the cytosolic GAS colocalized with ubiquitin and p62, suggesting that the bacteria were targeted bythe autophagy machinery. Despite this, live imaging of U937 macrophages revealed proficient replication of GAS after GCV rupture,indicating that escape from the GCV is important for growth of GAS in macrophages. Our results reveal that GAS can replicatewithin viable human macrophages, with SLO promoting GCV escape and cytosolic growth, despite the recruitment of autophagyreceptors to bacteria.
Helaine S, holden DW, sampson SL, et al., 2016, Elucidating population-wide mycobacterial replication dynamics at the single-cell level, Microbiology, Vol: 162, Pages: 966-978, ISSN: 1350-0872
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections result in a spectrum of clinical outcomes, and frequently the infection persists in a latent, clinically asymptomatic state. The within-host bacterial population is likely to be heterogeneous, and it is thought that persistent mycobacteria arise from a small population of viable, but non-replicating (VBNR) cells. These are likely to be antibiotic tolerant and necessitate prolonged treatment. Little is known about these persistent mycobacteria, since they are very difficult to isolate. To address this, we have successfully developed a replication reporter system for use in M. tuberculosis. This approach, termed fluorescence dilution, exploits 2 fluorescent reporters; a constitutive reporter allows the tracking of bacteria, while an inducible reporter enables the measurement of bacterial replication. The application of fluorescent single-cell analysis to characterise intracellular M. tuberculosis identified a distinct subpopulation of non-growing mycobacteria in murine macrophages. The presence of VBNR and actively replicating mycobacteria was observed within the same macrophage after 48 hours of infection. Furthermore, our results suggest that macrophage uptake resulted in enrichment of non- or slowly replicating bacteria (as revealed by DCS treatment); this population is likely to be highly enriched for persisters, based on its drug tolerant phenotype. These results demonstrate the successful application of the novel dual fluorescent reporter system both in vitro and in macrophage infection models to provide a window into mycobacterial population heterogeneity.
Pratap CB, Scanu T, Spaapen RM, et al., 2016, Salmonella manipulation of host signalling pathways promotes cellular transformation and cancer of infected tissues, International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol: 45, Pages: 145-145, ISSN: 1201-9712
Domingues L, Ismail A, Charro N, et al., 2016, The Salmonella effector SteA binds phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate for subcellular targeting within host cells, Cellular Microbiology, Vol: 18, Pages: 949-969, ISSN: 1462-5822
Many bacterial pathogens use specialized secretion systems to deliver virulence effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The function of these effectors depends on their localization within infected cells, but the mechanisms determining subcellular targeting of each effector are mostly elusive. Here, we show that the Salmonella type III secretion effector SteA binds specifically to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P]. Ectopically expressed SteA localized at the plasma membrane (PM) of eukaryotic cells. However, SteA was displaced from the PM of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in mutants unable to synthesize the local pool of PI(4)P and from the PM of HeLa cells after localized depletion of PI(4)P. Moreover, in infected cells, bacterially translocated or ectopically expressed SteA localized at the membrane of the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) and to Salmonella-induced tubules; using the PI(4)P-binding domain of the Legionella type IV secretion effector SidC as probe, we found PI(4)P at the SCV membrane and associated tubules throughout Salmonella infection of HeLa cells. Both binding of SteA to PI(4)P and the subcellular localization of ectopically expressed or bacterially translocated SteA were dependent on a lysine residue near the N-terminus of the protein. Overall, this indicates that binding of SteA to PI(4)P is necessary for its localization within host cells.
Scanu T, Spaapen RM, Bakker JM, et al., 2015, Salmonella Manipulation of Host Signaling Pathways Provokes Cellular Transformation Associated with Gallbladder Carcinoma, CELL HOST & MICROBE, Vol: 17, Pages: 763-774, ISSN: 1931-3128
- Citations: 134
Almeida MT, Mesquita FS, Cruz R, et al., 2015, Src-dependent Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Non-muscle Myosin Heavy Chain-IIA Restricts Listeria monocytogenes Cellular Infection, JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, Vol: 290, Pages: 8383-8395
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 11
Holden DW, Philpott DJ, 2015, Editorial overview: Host-microbe interactions: bacteria, CURRENT OPINION IN MICROBIOLOGY, Vol: 23, Pages: V-VIII, ISSN: 1369-5274
McEwan DG, Richter B, Claudi B, et al., 2015, PLEKHM1 Regulates Salmonella-Containing Vacuole Biogenesis and Infection, CELL HOST & MICROBE, Vol: 17, Pages: 58-71, ISSN: 1931-3128
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 61
Holden DW, 2015, Persisters unmasked, SCIENCE, Vol: 347, Pages: 30-32, ISSN: 0036-8075
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 23
Thurston TLM, holden DW, 2015, interactions between salmonella and the autophagy system, Autophagy, infection, and the immune response, Editors: jackson, swanson, Publisher: Wiley Blackwell, ISBN: 978-1-118-67764-3
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