322 results found
Fuertes E, Jarvis D, 2021, The complex interplay between greenness and air pollution in respiratory health, Thorax, Vol: 76, Pages: 856-857, ISSN: 0040-6376
Archangelidi O, Sathiyajit S, Consonni D, et al., 2021, Cleaning products and respiratory health outcomes in occupational cleaners: a systematic review and meta-analysis, OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE, Vol: 78, Pages: 604-617, ISSN: 1351-0711
Wielscher M, Amaral AFS, van der Plaat D, et al., 2021, Genetic correlation and causal relationships between cardio-metabolic traits and lung function impairment., Genome medicine, Vol: 13, Pages: 104-104, ISSN: 1756-994X
<h4>Background</h4>Associations of low lung function with features of poor cardio-metabolic health have been reported. It is, however, unclear whether these co-morbidities reflect causal associations, shared genetic heritability or are confounded by environmental factors.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed three analyses: (1) cardio-metabolic health to lung function association tests in Northern Finland Birth cohort 1966, (2) cross-trait linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC) to compare genetic backgrounds and (3) Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis to assess the causal effect of cardio-metabolic traits and disease on lung function, and vice versa (bidirectional MR). Genetic associations were obtained from the UK Biobank data or published large-scale genome-wide association studies (N > 82,000).<h4>Results</h4>We observed a negative genetic correlation between lung function and cardio-metabolic traits and diseases. In Mendelian Randomisation analysis (MR), we found associations between type 2 diabetes (T2D) instruments and forced vital capacity (FVC) as well as FEV1/FVC. Body mass index (BMI) instruments were associated to all lung function traits and C-reactive protein (CRP) instruments to FVC. These genetic associations provide evidence for a causal effect of cardio-metabolic traits on lung function. Multivariable MR suggested independence of these causal effects from other tested cardio-metabolic traits and diseases. Analysis of lung function specific SNPs revealed a potential causal effect of FEV1/FVC on blood pressure.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The present study overcomes many limitations of observational studies by using Mendelian Randomisation. We provide evidence for an independent causal effect of T2D, CRP and BMI on lung function with some of the T2D effect on lung function being attributed to inflammatory mechanisms. Furthermore, this analysis suggests a potential causal effect of FEV1/FVC on blood pressure.
Grosso A, Cerveri I, Cazzoletti L, et al., 2021, Inhaled corticosteroids and risk of osteoporosis in late-middle age subjects: a multicenter European cohort study., Minerva Med
BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids have been widely used for the regular treatment of asthma and COPD over the past few decades. To date, studies investigating the effects of ICS on bone in populations including asthma and COPD patients, show conflicting results. The skeletal effects of ICS remain poorly understood. We assessed the association between ICS exposure and self-reported osteoporosis diagnosis in a European cohort study. METHODS: The analysis was carried out by using clinical and questionnaire data available for subjects participating in the ECRHS III (European Community Respiratory Health Survey) with age >55 years. RESULTS: Among the 3004 enrolled subjects, 245 were ICS users with an exposure ≥12 months. Osteoporosis was reported by 16 subjects in the ICS group (6.5%) and by 167 in the not exposed group (6.1%). The adjusted risk of osteoporosis in ICS users (≥12 months) was not greater in exposed subjects when compared with the unexposed ones (OR=1.02, 95CI%: 0.51, 2.03). The same result was observed even when considering in the analysis a longer exposure to the ICS use (≥ 36.5 months, the median ICS exposure for all subjects). History of COPD, use of oral corticosteroids, Body Mass Index, smoking and physical activity did not show any evidence of an association with osteoporosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study did not show any significant association between long- term ICS use and self-reported diagnosis of osteoporosis in subjects aged >55 years. To explore the real effect of ICS on bone status, further studies are needed, especially in the long-term ICS exposure.
Lam HCY, Jarvis D, 2021, Seasonal variation in total and pollen-specific immunoglobulin E levels in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey, CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGY, Vol: 51, Pages: 1085-1088, ISSN: 0954-7894
Probst-Hensch N, Jeong A, Stolz D, et al., 2021, Causal effects of body mass index on airflow obstruction and forced mid-expiratory flow: a mendelian randomization study taking interactions and age-specific instruments into consideration toward a life course perspective, Frontiers in Public Health, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 2296-2565
Obesity has complex links to respiratory health. Mendelian randomization (MR) enables assessment of causality of body mass index (BMI) effects on airflow obstruction and mid-expiratory flow. In the adult SAPALDIA cohort, recruiting 9,651 population-representative samples aged 18–60 years at baseline (female 51%), BMI and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) as well as forced mid-expiratory flow (FEF25–75%) were measured three times over 20 follow-up years. The causal effects of BMI in childhood and adulthood on FEV1/FVC and FEF25–75% were assessed in predictive (BMI averaged over 1st and 2nd, lung function (LF) averaged over 2nd and 3rd follow-up; N = 2,850) and long-term cross-sectional models (BMI and LF averaged over all follow-ups; N = 2,728) by Mendelian Randomization analyses with the use of weighted BMI allele score as an instrument variable and two-stage least squares (2SLS) method. Three different BMI allele scores were applied to specifically capture the part of BMI in adulthood that likely reflects tracking of genetically determined BMI in childhood. The main causal effects were derived from models containing BMI (instrumented by BMI genetic score), age, sex, height, and packyears smoked as covariates. BMI interactions were instrumented by the product of the instrument (BMI genetic score) and the relevant concomitant variable. Causal effects of BMI on FEV1/FVC and FEF25–75% were observed in both the predictive and long-term cross-sectional models. The causal BMI- LF effects were negative and attenuated with increasing age, and stronger if instrumented by gene scores associated with childhood BMI. This non-standard MR approach interrogating causal effects of multiplicative interaction suggests that the genetically rooted part of BMI patterns in childhood may be of particular relevance for the level of small airway function and airflow obstruction later in life. The methodological re
Nerpin E, Ferreira DS, Weyler J, et al., 2021, Bronchodilator response and lung function decline: Associations with exhaled nitric oxide with regard to sex and smoking status, The World Allergy Organization Journal, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1939-4551
Background: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a marker of type-2 inflammation used both to support diagnosis of asthma and follow up asthma patients. The associations of FeNO with lung function decline and bronchodilator (BD) response have been studied only scarcely in large populations. Objectives: To study the association between FeNO and a) retrospective lung function decline over 20 years, and b) lung function response to BD among asthmatic subjects compared with non-asthmatic subjects and with regards to current smoking and sex. Methods: Longitudinal analyses of previous lung function decline and FeNO level at follow-up and cross-sectional analyses of BD response and FeNO levels in 4257 participants (651 asthmatics) from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Results: Among asthmatic subjects, higher percentage declines of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC were associated with higher FeNO levels (p = 0.001 for both) at follow-up. These correlations were found mainly among non-smoking individuals (p = 0.001) and females (p = 0.001) in stratified analyses.Percentage increase in FEV1 after BD was positively associated with FeNO levels in non-asthmatic subjects. Further, after stratified for sex and smoking separately, a positive association was seen between FEV1 and FeNO levels in non-smokers and women, regardless of asthma status. Conclusions: We found a relationship between elevated FeNO and larger FEV1 decline over 20 years among subjects with asthma who were non-smokers or women. The association between elevated FeNO levels and larger BD response was found in both non-asthmatic and asthmatic subjects, mainly in women and non-smoking subjects.
Marcon A, Locatelli F, Dharmage SC, et al., 2021, The coexistence of asthma and COPD: risk factors, clinical history and lung function trajectories., Eur Respir J
RATIONALE: Patients with concomitant features of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a heavy disease burden. OBJECTIVES: Using data collected prospectively in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey, we compared the risk factors, clinical history, and lung function trajectories from early adulthood to the late sixties of middle aged subjects having asthma+COPD (n=179), past (n=263) or current (n=808) asthma alone, COPD alone (n=111), or none of these (n=3477). METHODS: Interview data and prebronchodilator FEV1 and FVC were obtained during three clinical examinations in 1991-1993, 1999-2002, and 2010-2013. Disease status was classified in 2010-2013, when the subjects were aged 40-68, according to the presence of fixed airflow obstruction (postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC below the lower limit of normal), a lifetime history of asthma, and cumulative exposure to tobacco or occupational inhalants. Previous lung function trajectories, clinical characteristics, and risk factors of these phenotypes were estimated. MAIN RESULTS: Subjects with asthma+COPD reported maternal smoking (28.2%) and respiratory infections in childhood (19.1%) more frequently than subjects with COPD alone (20.9 and 14.0%, respectively). Subjects with asthma+COPD had an impairment of lung function at age 20 that tracked over adulthood, and more than half of them had asthma onset in childhood. Subjects with COPD alone had the highest lifelong exposure to tobacco smoking and occupational inhalants, and they showed accelerated lung function decline during adult life. CONCLUSIONS: The coexistence between asthma and COPD seems to have its origins earlier in life compared to COPD alone. These findings suggest that prevention of this severe condition, which is typical at older ages, should start in childhood.
Accordini S, Calciano L, Johannessen A, et al., 2021, Prenatal and prepubertal exposures to tobacco smoke in men may cause lower lung function in future offspring: a three-generation study using a causal modelling approach., Eur Respir J
Mechanistic research suggests that lifestyle and environmental factors impact respiratory health across generations by epigenetic changes transmitted through male germ cells. Evidence from studies on humans is very limited.We investigated multi-generation causal associations to estimate the causal effects of tobacco smoking on lung function within the paternal line. We analysed data from 383 adult offspring (age: 18-47; female: 52.0%) and their 274 fathers, who had participated in the ECRHS/RHINESSA generation study and had provided valid measures of pre-bronchodilator lung function. Two counterfactual-based, multi-level mediation models were developed with: paternal grandmothers' smoking in pregnancy and fathers' smoking initiation in prepuberty as exposures; fathers' FEV1 and FVC, or FEV1/FVC z-scores as potential mediators (proxies of unobserved biological mechanisms that are true mediators); offspring's FEV1 and FVC, or FEV1/FVC z-scores as outcomes. All effects were summarised as differences in expected z-scores related to fathers' and grandmothers' smoking history.Fathers' smoking initiation in prepuberty had a negative direct effect on both offspring's FEV1 (-0.36; 95% confidence interval: -0.63, -0.10) and FVC (-0.50; -0.80, -0.20) compared to fathers' never smoking. Paternal grandmothers' smoking in pregnancy had a negative direct effect on fathers' FEV1/FVC (-0.57; -1.09, -0.05) and a negative indirect effect on offspring's FEV1/FVC (-0.12; -0.21, -0.03) compared to grandmothers' not smoking before fathers' birth nor during fathers' childhood.Fathers' smoking in prepuberty and paternal grandmothers' smoking in pregnancy may cause lower lung function in offspring. Our results support the concept that lifestyle-related exposures during these susceptibility periods influence the health of future generations.
Tan DJ, Bui DS, Dai X, et al., 2021, Does the use of inhaled corticosteroids in asthma benefit lung function in the long-term? A systematic review and meta-analysis, EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY REVIEW, Vol: 30, ISSN: 0905-9180
Whittaker H, Bloom C, Morgan A, et al., 2021, Accelerated FEV1 decline and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in a primary care population of COPD patients, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 57, ISSN: 0903-1936
Accelerated lung function decline has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a general population, but little is known about this association in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated the association between accelerated lung function decline and CVD outcomes and mortality in a primary care COPD population.COPD patients without a history of CVD were identified in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD-GOLD) primary care dataset (n=36 282). Accelerated FEV1 decline was defined using the fastest quartile of the COPD population's decline. Cox regression assessed the association between baseline accelerated FEV1 decline and a composite CVD outcome over follow-up (myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, and CVD mortality). The model was adjusted for age, gender, smoking status, BMI, history of asthma, hypertension, diabetes, statin use, mMRC dyspnoea, exacerbation frequency, and baseline FEV1 percent predicted.6110 (16.8%) COPD patients had a CVD event during follow-up; median length of follow-up was 3.6 years [IQR 1.7–6.1]). Median rate of FEV1 decline was –19.4 mL·year−1 (IQR, –40.5 to 1.9); 9095 (25%) patients had accelerated FEV1 decline (>–40.5 mL·year−1), 27 287 (75%) did not (≤ –40.5 mL·year−1). Risk of CVD and mortality was similar between patients with and without accelerated FEV1 decline (HRadj 0.98 [95%CI, 0.90–1.06]). Corresponding risk estimates were 0.99 (95%CI 0.83–1.20) for heart failure, 0.89 (95%CI 0.70–1.12) for myocardial infarction, 1.01 (95%CI 0.82–1.23) for stroke, 0.97 (95%CI 0.81–1.15) for atrial fibrillation, 1.02 (95%CI 0.87–1.19) for coronary artery disease, and 0.94 (95%CI 0.71–1.25) for CVD mortality. Rather, risk of CVD was associated with mMRC score ≥2 and ≥2 exacerbations in the year prior.CVD out
Lam H, Jarvis D, Fuertes E, 2021, Interactive effects of allergens and air pollution on respiratory health: A systematic review, Science of the Total Environment, Vol: 757, ISSN: 0048-9697
BackgroundStudies have demonstrated an adverse role of outdoor allergens on respiratory symptoms. It is unknown whether this effect is independent or synergistic of outdoor air pollutants.MethodsWe systematically reviewed all epidemiological studies that examined interaction effects between counts of outdoor airborne allergens (pollen, fungal spores) and air pollutants, on any respiratory health outcome in children and adults. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus databases. Each study was summarized qualitatively and assessed for quality and risk of bias (International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews, registration number CRD42020162571).ResultsThirty-five studies were identified (15 timeseries, eight case-crossovers, 11 panels and one cohort study), of which 12 reported a significant statistical interaction between an allergen and air pollutant. Eight interactions were related to asthma outcomes, including one on lung function measures and wheeze, three to medical consultations for pollinosis and one to allergic symptoms (nasal, ocular or bronchial). There was no consensus as to which allergen or air pollutant is more likely to interact. No study investigated whether interactions are stronger in atopic individuals.ConclusionDespite strong evidence from small experimental studies in humans, only a third of studies identified significant allergen-pollutant interactions using common epidemiological study designs. Exposure misclassification, failure to examine subgroups at risk, inadequate statistical power or absence of population-level effects are possible explanations.
Lytras T, Beckmeyer-Borowko A, Kogevinas M, et al., 2021, Cumulative Occupational Exposures and Lung-Function Decline in Two Large General-Population Cohorts, ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN THORACIC SOCIETY, Vol: 18, Pages: 238-246, ISSN: 1546-3222
Fuertes E, Marcon A, Potts L, et al., 2021, Health Impact assessment to predict the impact of tobacco price increases on COPD burden in Italy, England and Sweden, Scientific Reports, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2045-2322
Raising tobacco prices effectively reduces smoking, the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using the Health Impact Assessment tool “DYNAMO-HIA”, this study quantified the reduction in COPD burden that would occur in Italy, England and Sweden over 40 years if tobacco prices were increased by 5%, 10% and 20% over current local prices, with larger increases considered in secondary analyses. A dynamic Markov-based multi-state simulation modelling approach estimated the effect of changes in smoking prevalence states and probabilities of transitioning between smoking states on future smoking prevalence, COPD burden and life expectancy in each country. Data inputs included demographics, smoking prevalences and behaviour and COPD burden from national data resources, large observational cohorts and datasets within DYNAMO-HIA. In the 20% price increase scenario, the cumulative number of COPD incident cases saved over 40 years was 479,059 and 479,302 in Italy and England (populous countries with higher smoking prevalences) and 83,694 in Sweden (smaller country with lower smoking prevalence). Gains in overall life expectancy ranged from 0.25 to 0.45 years for a 20 year-old. Increasing tobacco prices would reduce COPD burden and increase life expectancy through smoking behavior changes, with modest but important public health benefits observed in all three countries.
Russell MA, Dharmage S, Fuertes E, et al., 2021, The effect of physical activity on asthma incidence over 10 years: population-based study, ERJ Open Research, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2312-0541
Lam C, Turner P, Hemming D, et al., 2021, Seasonality of food-related anaphylaxis admissions and associations with temperature and pollen levels, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, Vol: 9, Pages: 518-520.e2, ISSN: 2213-2198
Whittaker H, Pimenta J, Jarvis D, et al., 2020, Characteristics associated with accelerated lung function decline in a primary care population with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, International Journal of COPD, Vol: 2020, Pages: 3079-3091, ISSN: 1176-9106
Background: Estimates for lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have differed by study setting and have not been described in a UK primary care population.Purpose: To describe rates of FEV1 and FVC decline in COPD and investigate characteristics associated with accelerated decline.Patients and Methods: Current/ex-smoking COPD patients (35 years+) who had at least 2 FEV1 or FVC measurements ≥ 6 months apart were included using Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Patients were followed up for a maximum of 13 years. Accelerated rate of lung function decline was defined as the fastest quartile of decline using mixed linear regression, and association with baseline characteristics was investigated using logistic regression.Results: A total of 72,683 and 50,649 COPD patients had at least 2 FEV1 or FVC measurements, respectively. Median rates of FEV1 and FVC changes or decline were − 18.1mL/year (IQR: − 31.6 to − 6.0) and − 22.7mL/year (IQR: − 39.9 to − 6.7), respectively. Older age, high socioeconomic status, being underweight, high mMRC dyspnoea and frequent AECOPD or severe AECOPD were associated with an accelerated rate of FEV1 and FVC decline. Current smoking, mild airflow obstruction and inhaled corticosteroid treatment were additionally associated with accelerated FEV1 decline whilst women, sputum production and severe airflow obstruction were associated with accelerated FVC decline.Conclusion: Rate of FEV1 and FVC decline was similar and showed similar heterogeneity. Whilst FEV1 and FVC shared associations with baseline characteristics, a few differences highlighted the importance of both lung function measures in COPD progression. We identified important characteristics that should be monitored for disease progression.
Douglas P, Fecht D, Jarvis D, 2020, Characterising populations living close to intensive farming and composting facilities in England, Frontiers of Environmental Science and Engineering, Vol: 15, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2095-2201
Bioaerosol exposure has been linked to adverse respiratory conditions. Intensive farming and composting facilities are important anthropogenic sources of bioaerosols. We aimed to characterise populations living close to intensive farming and composting facilities. We also infer whether the public are becoming more concerned about anthropogenic bioaerosol emissions, using reports of air pollution related incidents attributed to facilities. We mapped the location of 1,257 intensive farming and 310 composting facilities in England in relation to the resident population and its characteristics (sex and age), area characteristics (deprivation proxy and rural/urban classification) and school locations stratified by pre-defined distance bands from these bioaerosol sources. We also calculated the average number of air pollution related incidents per year per facility. We found that more than 16% of the population and 15% of schools are located within 4,828 m of an intensive farming facility or 4,000 m of a composting facility; few people (0.01 %) live very close to these sites and tend to be older people. Close to composting facilities, populations are more likely to be urban and more deprived. The number of incidents were attributed to a small proportion of facilities; population characteristics around these facilities were similar. Results indicate that populations living near composting facilities (particularly>250 to ⩽ 4,000 m) are mostly located in urban areas (80%–88% of the population), which supports the need for more community health studies to be conducted. Results could also be used to inform risk management strategies at facilities with higher numbers of incidents.
Accordini S, Marchetti P, Marcon A, et al., 2020, Trends of asthma incidence over 80 years in Europe: preliminary results from the Ageing Lungs in European Cohorts (ALEC) study, Publisher: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD, ISSN: 0903-1936
Alif S, Benke G, Kromhout H, et al., 2020, Occupational Exposures and Incidence of ASTHMA Over Two Decades in the ECRHS, Publisher: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD, ISSN: 0903-1936
Allinson J, Afzal S, Colak Y, et al., 2020, Collating data from major European population studies - The CADSET (Chronic airway disease early stratification) clinical research collaboration, Publisher: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD, ISSN: 0903-1936
Peralta GP, Granell R, Bedard A, et al., 2020, The mediating role of C-reactive protein (CRP) and insulin resistance in the association of mid-childhood fat mass and airflow limitation at 15 years, Publisher: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD, ISSN: 0903-1936
van der Plaat DA, Minelli C, Jarvis DL, et al., 2020, Polycystic ovary syndrome and lung function: a Mendelian randomization study, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol: 223, Pages: 455-457, ISSN: 0002-9378
Bédard A, Carsin A-E, Fuertes E, et al., 2020, Physical activity and lung function - cause or consequence?, PLoS One, Vol: 15, ISSN: 1932-6203
Concerns exist that the positive association of physical activity with better lung function, which has been suggested in previous longitudinal studies in smokers, is due to reverse causation. To investigate this, we applied structural equation modeling (SEM), an exploratory approach, and marginal structural modeling (MSM), an approach from the causal inference framework that corrects for reverse causation and time-dependent confounding and estimates causal effects, on data from participants in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS, a multicentre European cohort study initiated in 1991–1993 with ECRHS I, and with two follow-ups: ECRHS II in 1999–2003, and ECRHS III in 2010–2014). 753 subjects who reported current smoking at ECRHS II, with repeated data on lung function at ECRHS I, II and III, physical activity at ECRHS II and III, and potential confounders at ECRHS I and II, were included in the analyses. SEM showed positive associations between physical activity and lung function in both directions. MSM suggested a protective causal effect of physical activity on lung function (overall difference in mean β (95% CI), comparing active versus non-active individuals: 58 mL (21–95) for forced expiratory volume in one second and 83 mL (36–130) for forced vital capacity). Our results suggest bi-directional causation and support a true protective effect of physical activity on lung function in smokers, after accounting for reverse causation and time-dependent confounding.
Emilsson OI, Sundbom F, Ljunggren M, et al., 2020, Association between lung function decline and obstructive sleep apnoea: the ALEC study, Sleep and Breathing: international journal of the science and practice of sleep medicine, Vol: 25, Pages: 587-596, ISSN: 1520-9512
PurposeTo study changes in lung function among individuals with a risk of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), and if asthma affected this relationship.MethodsWe used data from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II and III, a multicentre general population study. Participants answered questionnaires and performed spirometry at baseline and 10-year follow-up (n = 4,329 attended both visits). Subjects with high risk for OSA were identified from the multivariable apnoea prediction (MAP) index, calculated from BMI, age, gender, and OSA symptoms at follow-up. Asthma was defined as having doctor’s diagnosed asthma at follow-up. Primary outcomes were changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) from baseline to follow-up.ResultsAmong 5108 participants at follow-up, 991 (19%) had a high risk of OSA based on the MAP index. Participants with high OSA risk more often had wheeze, cough, chest tightness, and breathlessness at follow-up than those with low OSA risk. Lung function declined more rapidly in subjects with high OSA risk (low vs high OSA risk [mean ± SD]: FEV1 = − 41.3 ± 24.3 ml/year vs − 50.8 ± 30.1 ml/year; FVC = − 30.5 ± 31.2 ml/year vs − 45.2 ± 36.3 ml/year). Lung function decline was primarily associated with higher BMI and OSA symptoms. OSA symptoms had a stronger association with lung function decline among asthmatics, compared to non-asthmatics.ConclusionIn the general population, a high probability of obstructive sleep apnoea was related to faster lung function decline in the previous decade. This was driven by a higher BMI and more OSA symptoms among these subjects. The association between OSA symptoms and lung function decline was stronger among asthmatics.
Lenoir A, Fuertes E, Gómez Real F, et al., 2020, Lung function changes over eight years and testosterone markers in both sexes: UK Biobank, ERJ Open Research, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2312-0541
Higher levels of testosterone have been associated with better lung function in cross-sectional population-based studies. The role of testosterone on lung function in women, and on lung function decline in men or women is unclear. We studied 5,114 men and 5,467 women in UK Biobank with high-quality spirometry at baseline (2006-10) and 8.4 years later. We studied cross-sectional associations of total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), free androgen index (FAI) and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) with FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC using linear regression and associations of baseline markers with lung function decline using linear mixed effects regression. Men with higher levels of TT had higher FEV1 (27.56 ml per interquartile range (IQR) increase TT, 95%CI 5.43 to 49.68) and FVC (48.06 ml, 95%CI 22.07 to 74.06) at baseline. Higher cFT levels were associated with higher FEV1 and FVC among physically active men only. In women, higher FAI and cFT levels were associated with lower lung function at baseline, and higher levels of TT, cFT and FAI were associated with slightly attenuated FEV1 and FVC decline. Higher levels of SHBG were associated with better lung function in both sexes but slightly accelerated decline in men.In this population-based sample, higher levels of TT were associated with better lung function in men and higher levels of cFT with better lung function in physically active men. A small attenuation of lung function decline with higher levels of TT, cFT and FAI was seen in women only.
Fuertes E, Markevych I, Thomas R, et al., 2020, Residential greenspace and lung function up to 24 years of age: the ALSPAC birth cohort, Environment International, Vol: 140, ISSN: 0160-4120
BackgroundResiding in greener areas is increasingly linked to beneficial health outcomes, but little is known about its effect on respiratory health.ObjectiveWe examined associations between residential greenness and nearby green spaces with lung function up to 24 years in the UK Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort.MethodsLung function was measured by spirometry at eight, 15 and 24 years of age. Greenness levels within circular buffers (100–1000 m) around the birth, eight-, 15- and 24-year home addresses were calculated using the satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and averaged (lifetime greenness). The presence and proportion of green spaces (urban green spaces, forests and agricultural land) within a 300 m buffer was determined. First, associations between repeated greenness and green space variables and repeated lung function parameters were assessed using generalized estimation equations (N = 7094, 47.9% male). Second, associations between lifetime average greenness and lifetime average proportion of green spaces with lung function at 24-years were assessed using linear regression models (N = 1763, 39.6% male). All models were adjusted for individual and environmental covariates.ResultsUsing repeated greenspace and lung function data at eight, 15 and 24 years, greenness in a 100 m buffer was associated with higher FEV1 and FVC (11.4 ml [2.6, 20.3] and 12.2 ml [1.8, 22.7], respectively, per interquartile range increase), as was the presence of urban green spaces in a 300 m buffer (20.3 ml [−0.1, 40.7] and 23.1 ml [-0.3, 46.5] for FEV1 and FVC, respectively). These associations were independent of air pollution, urbanicity and socio-economic status. Lifetime average greenness within a 100 m buffer and proportion of agricultural land within a 300 m buffer were associated with better lung function at 24 years but adjusting for asthma attenuated these associations.DiscussionThis study provides suggest
Weber P, Menezes AMB, Gonçalves H, et al., 2020, Characterisation of pulmonary function trajectories: results from a Brazilian cohort., ERJ Open Research, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2312-0541
Background: Pulmonary function (PF) trajectories are determined by different exposures throughout the life course. The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics related to PF trajectories from 15 to 22 years in a Brazilian cohort. Methods: A birth cohort study (1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort) was conducted with spirometry at 15, 18 and 22 years. PF trajectories were built based on z-score of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and their ratio using a group-based trajectory model. Associations with exposures reported from perinatal to 22 years were described. Results: Three trajectories, low (LT), average (AT) and high (HT) were identified in 2917 individuals. Wealthiest individuals belonged to the HT of FEV1 (p=0.023). Lower maternal pregestational body mass index (BMI) (22.4±0.2; p<0.001 and 22.1±0.14; p<0.001) and lower birth weight (3164.8±25.4; p=0.029 and 3132.3±19.4; p=0.005) were related to the LT of FEV1 and FVC. Mother's smoking exposure during pregnancy (37.7%; p=0.002), active smoking at ages 18 and 22 years (20.1% and 25.8%; p<0.001) and family history of asthma (44.8%; p<0.001) were related to the LT of FEV1/FVC. Wheezing, asthma and hospitalisations due to respiratory diseases in childhood were related to the LT of both FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. Higher BMIs were related to the HT of FEV1 and FVC at all ages. Conclusions: PF trajectories were mainly related to income, pregestational BMI, birth weight, hospitalisation due to respiratory diseases in childhood, participant's BMI, report of wheezing, medical diagnosis and family history of asthma, gestational exposure to tobacco and current smoking status in adolescence and young adult age.
Triebner K, Johannessen A, Svanes C, et al., 2020, Describing the status of reproductive ageing simply and precisely: A reproductive ageing score based on three questions and validated with hormone levels, PLoS One, Vol: 15, ISSN: 1932-6203
ObjectiveMost women live to experience menopause and will spend 4–8 years transitioning from fertile age to full menstrual stop. Biologically, reproductive ageing is a continuous process, but by convention, it is defined categorically as pre-, peri- and postmenopause; categories that are sometimes supported by measurements of sex hormones in blood samples. We aimed to develop and validate a new tool, a reproductive ageing score (RAS), that could give a simple and yet precise description of the status of reproductive ageing, without hormone measurements, to be used by health professionals and researchers.MethodsQuestionnaire data on age, menstrual regularity and menstrual frequency was provided by the large multicentre population-based RHINE cohort. A continuous reproductive ageing score was developed from these variables, using techniques of fuzzy mathematics, to generate a decimal number ranging from 0.00 (nonmenopausal) to 1.00 (postmenopausal). The RAS was then validated with sex hormone measurements (follicle stimulating hormone and 17β-estradiol) and interview-data provided by the large population-based ECRHS cohort, using receiver-operating characteristics (ROC).ResultsThe RAS, developed from questionnaire data of the RHINE cohort, defined with high precision and accuracy the menopausal status as confirmed by interview and hormone data in the ECRHS cohort. The area under the ROC curve was 0.91 (95% Confidence interval (CI): 0.90–0.93) to distinguish nonmenopausal women from peri- and postmenopausal women, and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.83–0.88) to distinguish postmenopausal women from nonmenopausal and perimenopausal women.
Amaral A, Imboden M, Wielscher M, et al., 2020, Role of DNA methylation in the association of lung function with body mass index: A two-step epigenetic Mendelian randomisation study, BMC Pulmonary Medicine, Vol: 20, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 1471-2466
BackgroundLow lung function has been associated with increased body mass index (BMI). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the effect of BMI on lung function is mediated by DNA methylation.MethodsWe used individual data from 285,495 participants in four population-based cohorts: the European Community Respiratory Health Survey, the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, the Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Disease in Adults, and the UK Biobank. We carried out Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses in two steps using a two-sample approach with SNPs as instrumental variables (IVs) in each step. In step 1 MR, we estimated the causal effect of BMI on peripheral blood DNA methylation (measured at genome-wide level) using 95 BMI-associated SNPs as IVs. In step 2 MR, we estimated the causal effect of DNA methylation on FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC using two SNPs acting as methQTLs occurring close (in cis) to CpGs identified in the first step. These analyses were conducted after exclusion of weak IVs (F statistic < 10) and MR estimates were derived using the Wald ratio, with standard error from the delta method. Individuals whose data were used in step 1 were not included in step 2.ResultsIn step 1, we found that BMI might have a small causal effect on DNA methylation levels (less than 1% change in methylation per 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI) at two CpGs (cg09046979 and cg12580248). In step 2, we found no evidence of a causal effect of DNA methylation at cg09046979 on lung function. We could not estimate the causal effect of DNA methylation at cg12580248 on lung function as we could not find publicly available data on the association of this CpG with SNPs.ConclusionsTo our knowledge, this is the first paper to report the use of a two-step MR approach to assess the role of DNA methylation in mediating the effect of a non-genetic factor on lung function. Our findings do not support a mediating effect of DNA methylation in the association of lung function
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