65 results found
Nurhayati N, Kusuma D, Tarigan A, et al., 2022, Exposure to outdoor tobacco advertisements near home is associated with smoking among youth in Indonesia, Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention (APJCP), Vol: 23, Pages: 2179-2183, ISSN: 1513-7368
Background: The prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults is persistently high, and among youth is increasing in Indonesia. Objective: This study aims to examine the association between youth smoking behavior and outdoor tobacco adverts near home in Indonesia. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 3,557 students in North Sumatera during September-November 2020. The main independent variables include seeing tobacco advertisements near home, near school, on social media. The outcome variables included ever smoked and smoked in the last ten days. Results: We found significant associations between exposure to outdoor tobacco adverts near home and youth smoking. High school students who reported seeing tobacco adverts near home were 1.42 times more likely to smoke and 2.29 times more likely to smoke in the last ten days. Moreover, students at private schools (a proxy for higher income) exposed to tobacco adverts near home were 1.56 times more likely to smoke and 2.93 times more likely to smoke in the last ten days. Conclusion: Exposure to outdoor tobacco advertisements near home is associated with smoking among youth in Indonesia. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts are needed, including through a ban of outdoor tobacco adverts.
Armocida B, Monasta L, Sawyer S, et al., 2022, Burden of non-communicable diseases among adolescents aged 10–24 years in the EU, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2019, The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, Vol: 6, Pages: 367-383, ISSN: 2352-4642
BackgroundDisability and mortality burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have risen worldwide; however, the NCD burden among adolescents remains poorly described in the EU.MethodsEstimates were retrieved from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019. Causes of NCDs were analysed at three different levels of the GBD 2019 hierarchy, for which mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were extracted. Estimates, with the 95% uncertainty intervals (UI), were retrieved for EU Member States from 1990 to 2019, three age subgroups (10–14 years, 15–19 years, and 20–24 years), and by sex. Spearman's correlation was conducted between DALY rates for NCDs and the Socio-demographic Index (SDI) of each EU Member State.FindingsIn 2019, NCDs accounted for 86·4% (95% uncertainty interval 83·5–88·8) of all YLDs and 38·8% (37·4–39·8) of total deaths in adolescents aged 10–24 years. For NCDs in this age group, neoplasms were the leading causes of both mortality (4·01 [95% uncertainty interval 3·62–4·25] per 100 000 population) and YLLs (281·78 [254·25–298·92] per 100 000 population), whereas mental disorders were the leading cause for YLDs (2039·36 [1432·56–2773·47] per 100 000 population) and DALYs (2040·59 [1433·96–2774·62] per 100 000 population) in all EU Member States, and in all studied age groups. In 2019, among adolescents aged 10–24 years, males had a higher mortality rate per 100 000 population due to NCDs than females (11·66 [11·04–12·28] vs 7·89 [7·53–8·23]), whereas females presented a higher DALY rate per 100 000 population due to NCDs (8003·25 [5812·78–10&thi
AlJishi H, Kusuma D, AlQurashi A, et al., 2022, Compliance with tobacco control policy and visibility of cigarette retailers around educational facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Frontiers in Public Health, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2296-2565
Background: In Saudi Arabia, cardiovascular diseases are among the top causes of death and disability, and smoking is one of the leading risk factors, particularly among males.Objective: Our study aims to evaluate the compliance with the anti-smoking law among cigarette retailers and examine the visibility of cigarette retailers around educational facilities in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia.Methods: We conducted a mapping survey and geospatial analysis of cigarette retailers around educational facilities from February to March 2020 (before the COVID-19 restriction) in Al-Olaya municipality in Riyadh city as a pilot study. We found 249 retailers, of which 152 sold cigarettes. Data analyses in ArcMap 10.6 compared the visibility within 250 and 500 meters from educational facilities.Results: We found many retailers were not compliant with the tobacco control regulation: 57.1% of minimarkets sell cigarettes, 15.8% of cigarette retailers display the products openly, and 12.5% of cigarette retailers sold cigarettes by the stick. Moreover, 71% of the total cigarette retailers were within 500 m from schools, and 62% of all schools had at least one cigarette retailer within 500 m buffer (5-min walking or 2–3-min driving distance).Conclusion: There is non-compliance with the anti-smoking law among cigarette retailers and high visibility of cigarette retailers around educational facilities in Saudi Arabia. Monitoring is needed for the effective implementation of tobacco control policies.
Kusuma D, Atanasova P, Pineda E, et al., 2022, Food environment and diabetes mellitus in South Asia: A geospatial analysis of health outcome data, PLoS Medicine, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1549-1277
BACKGROUND: The global epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) renders its prevention a major public health priority. A key risk factor of diabetes is obesity and poor diets. Food environments have been found to influence people's diets and obesity, positing they may play a role in the prevalence of diabetes. Yet, there is scant evidence on the role they may play in the context of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We examined the associations of food environments on T2DM among adults and its heterogeneity by income and sex. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We linked individual health outcome data of 12,167 individuals from a network of health surveillance sites (the South Asia Biobank) to the density and proximity of food outlets geolocated around their homes from environment mapping survey data collected between 2018 and 2020 in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. Density was defined as share of food outlets within 300 m from study participant's home, and proximity was defined as having at least 1 outlet within 100 m from home. The outcome variables include fasting blood glucose level, high blood glucose, and self-reported diagnosed diabetes. Control variables included demographics, socioeconomic status (SES), health status, healthcare utilization, and physical activities. Data were analyzed in ArcMap 10.3 and STATA 15.1. A higher share of fast-food restaurants (FFR) was associated with a 9.21 mg/dl blood glucose increase (95% CI: 0.17, 18.24; p < 0.05). Having at least 1 FFR in the proximity was associated with 2.14 mg/dl blood glucose increase (CI: 0.55, 3.72; p < 0.01). A 1% increase in the share of FFR near an individual's home was associated with 8% increase in the probability of being clinically diagnosed as a diabetic (average marginal effects (AMEs): 0.08; CI: 0.02, 0.14; p < 0.05). Having at least 1 FFR near home was associated with 16% (odds ratio [OR]: 1.16; CI: 1.01, 1.33; p < 0.05) and 19% (OR: 1.19; CI: 1.03, 1.38; p < 0.05) increases in the odd
Djutaharta T, Wiyono NH, Monica Y, et al., 2022, Cigarette consumption and nutrient intake in Indonesia: study of cigarette-consuming households., Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, Vol: 23, Pages: 1325-1330, ISSN: 2476-762X
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the impact of cigarette consumption on household's nutrition adequacy (NA). This study also examines the opportunity cost of cigarette expenditure to children's nutritional adequacy. METHODS: We used an Indonesian cross-sectional household level nationwide data of 2018 National Socio-Economic Survey (SUSENAS). Using multivariate Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression, we estimated the impact of cigarette consumption on household's NA as defined by household protein and energy intakes. With the same specification, we further ran a segregated OLS regression by household quintile expenditure. While the opportunity cost of cigarette consumption to children's nutrition adequacy defined the estimated forgone nutrition due to cigarette consumption by following the Ministry of Health (MOH) definition of Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for children aged 4 - 6. RESULTS: Cigarette consumption decreases household's protein and energy intakes. We found statistically significant correlation between household's cigarette consumption and household's per capita protein intake while no statistically significant correlation on energy intake. Furthermore, the segregated estimate is significant for both protein and energy intakes among 60% lowest household quintile expenditure groups. The lower the quintile expenditure, the higher the decline in household NA due to cigarette consumption. With the average cigarette expenditure of IDR12,956 per household per day, giving up daily cigarette spending could meet children's energy intake by 27% - 85,4% of RDA and protein intake by 180.12% - 300.48% of RDA. CONCLUSION: Household cigarette consumption has negative impact on household's daily energy and protein intakes. The poorest group is most vulnerable to nutrition inadequacy due to cigarette consumption. Giving up household's cigarette expenditure daily could result in a substantial nutrition gain for children at their critical growth stages.
Dewi DMSK, Puspikawati SI, Astutik E, et al., 2022, Density of cigarette retailers near facilities for children and adolescents in urban and rural areas in Indonesia: a geospatial analysis, Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, Vol: 34, Pages: 384-391, ISSN: 1010-5395
The lack of regulation banning cigarette retailers near facilities for children and adolescents has made cigarettes easily accessible to youth in Indonesia. This study aimed to investigate the density of cigarette retailer near children and adolescent facilities in urban and rural areas in the country. We mapped all cigarette retailers and facilities for children and adolescents in Surabaya city (urban) and Banyuwangi district (rural) in East Java province. All types of facilities for children and adolescents and retailers visible from the streets in the study areas were mapped. We conducted geospatial analysis of the density of retailers to the facilities for children and adolescents in QGIS 2.8 and STATA 14. We found that the density of cigarette retailers was 81% higher in the areas within 100 m from the facilities for children and adolescents, compared with the areas within 100 to 250 m from facilities. We also found that the density of cigarette retailers within 100 m from facilities was 2.35 times higher in the rural setting, compared with the urban setting. Controlling cigarette retailers through zoning and licensing is urgently needed in Indonesia.
Wulan WR, Kusuma D, Nurjanah N, et al., 2022, Is exposure to social media advertising and promotion associated with e-cigarette use? evidence from Indonesia., Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, Vol: 23, Pages: 1257-1262, ISSN: 2476-762X
BACKGROUND: E-cigarette use is a growing public health concern globally, including in Indonesia. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to assess whether exposure to advertising and promotion in social media is associated with e-cigarette use in Indonesia, an upper-middle-income country. METHODS: We conducted mixed-method research including quantitative and qualitative methods. For the quantitative methods, we did an online survey in the five largest cities in the country with 1,239 participants during September-October 2020. For the qualitative method, we conducted an in-person focused group discussion during November 2020 (while complying to the COVID-19 protocols). RESULTS: We found high rates of e-cigarette ever use (29%) and current use (13%) among study participants. There was high exposure to e-cigarette advertising and promotion in social media, with a majority of participants (84%) reported ever seeing e-cigarette adverts or promotions on Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, and others. Both high rates of e-cigarette use and exposure to social media advertising are associated. Participants reported ever seeing adverts and promotions were 2.91 times and 2.82 times more likely ever to use and currently use e-cigarettes, respectively, after controlling for socioeconomic factors, region, and cigarette smoking status. CONCLUSION: Exposure to social media advertising and promotion is associated with e-cigarette use in Indonesia.
Atanasova P, Kusuma D, Pineda E, et al., 2022, The impact of the consumer and neighbourhood food environment on dietary intake and obesity-related outcomes: A systematic review of causal impact studies, Social Science & Medicine, Vol: 299, Pages: 114879-114879, ISSN: 0277-9536
Drobniewski F, Kusuma D, Broda A, et al., 2022, COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in diverse groups in the UK — is the driver economic or cultural in student populations, Vaccines, Vol: 10, Pages: 501-501, ISSN: 2076-393X
Studies have identified a greater reluctance for members of the Black, Asian, and minority ethnic communities to be vaccinated against COVID-19 despite a higher probability of greater harm from COVID-19. We conducted an anonymised questionnaire-based study of students (recruiting primarily before first reports of embolic events) at two London universities to identify whether economic or educational levels were primarily responsible for this reluctance: a postgraduate core group (PGCC) n = 860, and a pilot study of undergraduate medical and nursing students (n = 103). Asian and Black students were 2.0 and 3.2 times (PGCC) less likely to accept the COVID vaccine than White British students. Similar findings were noted in the pilot study students. As the students were studying for Master’s or PhD degrees and voluntarily paying high fees, educational and economic reasons were unlikely to be the underlying cause, and wider cultural reservations were more likely. Politicians exerted a strong negative influence, suggesting that campaigns should omit politicians.
Kusuma D, Atanasova P, Anjana RM, et al., 2022, Food environment and diabetes mellitus in South Asia: a geospatial analysis of health outcome data, PLoS Medicine, ISSN: 1549-1277
Background: The global epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) renders its prevention a major public health priority. A key risk factor of diabetes is obesity and poor diets. Food environments have been found to influence people’s diets and obesity positing they may play a role in the prevalence of diabetes. Yet there is scant evidence on the role they may play in the context of low- and middle-income countries. We examined the associations of food environments on T2DM among adults, and its heterogeneity by income and sex. Methods and Findings: We linked individual health outcome data of 12,167 individuals from a network of health surveillance sites (the South Asia Biobank) to the density and proximity of food outlets geolocated around their homes from environment mapping survey data collected between 2018-2020 in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. Density was defined as share of food outlets within 300m from study participant’s home: proximity was defined as having at least one outlet within 100m from home. The outcome variables include fasting blood glucose level, high blood glucose, and self-reported diagnosed diabetes. Control variables included demographics, socio-economic status, health status, healthcare utilization, and physical activities. Data were analysed in ArcMap 10.3 and STATA 15.1. A higher share of fast food restaurants (FFR) was associated with a 9.21 mg/dl blood glucose increase (95% CI: 0.17, 18.24; p <0.05). Having at least one FFR in the proximity was associated with 2.14 mg/dl blood glucose increase (CI: 0.55, 3.72; p <0.01). A one percent increase in the share of FFR near an individual’s home was associated with 8% increase in the probability of being clinically diagnosed as a diabetic (average marginal effects (AME): 0.08; CI: 0.02, 0.14; p<0.05. Having at least one FFR near home was associated with 16% (OR: 1.16; CI: 1.01, 1.33; p<0.05) and 19% (OR: 1.19; CI: 1.03, 1.38; p<0.05) increases in the odds of higher bl
Kusuma D, 2022, Global, regional, and national burden of diseases and injuries for adults 70 years and older: systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease 2019 Study, BMJ: British Medical Journal, Vol: 376, Pages: e068208-e068208, ISSN: 0959-535X
Objectives To use data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019 (GBD 2019) to estimate mortality and disability trends for the population aged ≥70 and evaluate patterns in causes of death, disability, and risk factors.Design Systematic analysis.Setting Participants were aged ≥70 from 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019.Main outcomes measures Years of life lost, years lived with disability, disability adjusted life years, life expectancy at age 70 (LE-70), healthy life expectancy at age 70 (HALE-70), proportion of years in ill health at age 70 (PYIH-70), risk factors, and data coverage index were estimated based on standardised GBD methods.Results Globally the population of older adults has increased since 1990 and all cause death rates have decreased for men and women. However, mortality rates due to falls increased between 1990 and 2019. The probability of death among people aged 70-90 decreased, mainly because of reductions in non-communicable diseases. Globally disability burden was largely driven by functional decline, vision and hearing loss, and symptoms of pain. LE-70 and HALE-70 showed continuous increases since 1990 globally, with certain regional disparities. Globally higher LE-70 resulted in higher HALE-70 and slightly increased PYIH-70. Sociodemographic and healthcare access and quality indices were positively correlated with HALE-70 and LE-70. For high exposure risk factors, data coverage was moderate, while limited data were available for various dietary, environmental or occupational, and metabolic risks.Conclusions Life expectancy at age 70 has continued to rise globally, mostly because of decreases in chronic diseases. Adults aged ≥70 living in high income countries and regions with better healthcare access and quality were found to experience the highest life expectancy and healthy life expectancy. Disability burden, however, remained constant, suggesting the need to enhance public health and intervent
Sebayang SK, Dewi DMSK, Puspikawati SI, et al., 2022, Spatial analysis of outdoor tobacco advertisement around children and adolescents in Indonesia, Global Public Health, Vol: 17, Pages: 420-430, ISSN: 1744-1692
There is a major gap of action by the Indonesian government to control tobacco advertisement. This study aimed to compare outdoor tobacco advertisements (OTAs) in locations with and without OTA bans in relation to their proximity to children and adolescents. Global positioning system coordinates of all OTAs visible from the streets in Banyuwangi and Surabaya in East Java province were collected and analysed to determine their density at 0–100, >100–300 and >300–500 m from facilities used by children and adolescents. Hotspot analysis was conducted to identify places with exceptionally high densities of OTAs. The number and density of OTAs in Surabaya, where there was no policy for controlling OTAs, were greater than those in Banyuwangi, where OTAs were partially banned. Regardless of the existence of a ban, OTAs were 2.6–3.4 times denser in areas closer to facilities used by children and adolescents than further apart. The OTA point hotspots approximated the hotspots of tobacco retailers and facilities used by children and adolescents in both locations. A partial ban may only have a small impact. A total advertising ban, including at point of sale, should be encouraged for both locations for optimal protection of children and adolescents.
Cousin E, Duncan BB, Stein C, et al., 2022, Diabetes mortality and trends before 25 years of age: an analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, Vol: 10, Pages: 177-192, ISSN: 2213-8587
BackgroundDiabetes, particularly type 1 diabetes, at younger ages can be a largely preventable cause of death with the correct health care and services. We aimed to evaluate diabetes mortality and trends at ages younger than 25 years globally using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019.MethodsWe used estimates of GBD 2019 to calculate international diabetes mortality at ages younger than 25 years in 1990 and 2019. Data sources for causes of death were obtained from vital registration systems, verbal autopsies, and other surveillance systems for 1990–2019. We estimated death rates for each location using the GBD Cause of Death Ensemble model. We analysed the association of age-standardised death rates per 100 000 population with the Socio-demographic Index (SDI) and a measure of universal health coverage (UHC) and described the variability within SDI quintiles. We present estimates with their 95% uncertainty intervals.FindingsIn 2019, 16 300 (95% uncertainty interval 14 200 to 18 900) global deaths due to diabetes (type 1 and 2 combined) occurred in people younger than 25 years and 73·7% (68·3 to 77·4) were classified as due to type 1 diabetes. The age-standardised death rate was 0·50 (0·44 to 0·58) per 100 000 population, and 15 900 (97·5%) of these deaths occurred in low to high-middle SDI countries. The rate was 0·13 (0·12 to 0·14) per 100 000 population in the high SDI quintile, 0·60 (0·51 to 0·70) per 100 000 population in the low-middle SDI quintile, and 0·71 (0·60 to 0·86) per 100 000 population in the low SDI quintile. Within SDI quintiles, we observed large variability in rates across countries, in part explained by the extent of UHC (r2=0·62). From 1990 to 2019, age-standardised death rates decreased globally by 17·0% (−
Ayuningtyas D, Hapsari D, Rachmalina R, et al., 2022, Geographic and socioeconomic disparity in child undernutrition across 514 sistricts in Indonesia, Nutrients, Vol: 14, Pages: 843-843, ISSN: 2072-6643
Background: Globally, in 2020, 45 million children were estimated to be wasted, and 149 million children under five years of age were estimated to be stunted. Undernutrition makes children in particular much more vulnerable to disease and death. Our study aims to examine geographic and socioeconomic disparities in child undernutrition across 514 districts in Indonesia. Methods: Employing both geospatial and quantitative analyses (descriptive statistics and Ordinary Least Squares regressions), we analyzed the disparities in the prevalence of underweight, severe underweight, wasting, severe wasting, stunting, and severe stunting among districts. Child undernutrition data were from Indonesia Basic Health Survey (Riskesdas) 2018, which included a sample of 93,620 children under five years. Socioeconomic data were from the World Bank. Results: We found a relatively large geographic and socioeconomic disparity in child undernutrition in Indonesia. By region, districts in the Papua region (including Maluku and Nusa Tenggara) had a significantly higher prevalence of underweight and wasting than those in the Java region (including Bali). Districts in Papua had 44%, 121%, 38%, and 57% higher prevalence of underweight, severe underweight, wasting, and severe wasting, respectively. Similarly, the poorest districts had a significantly higher prevalence of underweight, wasting, and stunting than the wealthiest districts. The poorest districts had 30%, 83%, 16%, 21%, and 74% higher prevalence of underweight, severe underweight, wasting, stunting, and severe stunting, respectively. These results were similar among rural districts. Conclusion: There is a significant disparity in child undernutrition across districts in Indonesia. The government needs to prioritize the reduction of child undernutrition, especially in rural areas, districts outside of Java and Bali, and the poorest and least educated areas.
Graetz N, Woyczynski L, Wilson KF, et al., 2021, Mapping routine measles vaccination in low- and middle-income countries, NATURE, ISSN: 0028-0836
Kasri R, Ahsan A, Wiyono NH, et al., 2021, New evidence of illicit cigarette consumption and government revenue loss in Indonesia, Tobacco Induced Diseases, Vol: 19, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 1617-9625
Introduction:Illicit cigarettes because of their affordability could increase smoking prevalence, especially among young people. They also cause a large revenue loss for the government. This study aims to estimate illicit cigarette consumption and government revenue loss in Indonesia, a country with a very high smoking prevalence, especially among males.Methods:We estimated illicit cigarette trade in terms of volume and revenue loss. Illicit trade was estimated as the discrepancy between legal cigarette sales and domestic consumption recorded by national representative surveys. Data sources included Basic Health Research Survey, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, National Socioeconomic Survey, and data from Ministry of Finance.Results:We found that illicit cigarette consumption fluctuated from 19 billion sticks in 2007 to 14 billion sticks in 2013, and sharply increased to 59 billion sticks in 2018. Relative to cigarette consumption, illicit cigarettes were the lowest at 5% in 2013 and highest at 19% of consumption in 2018 (assuming 0% underreporting). The estimated government revenue loss ranged from IDR 24.2 to 42.0 trillion (US$ 1668 to 2897 million), which corresponds to 15.8% to 27.5% of cigarette excise revenue in 2018.Conclusions:In Indonesia, illicit cigarette consumption was found to be high and increasing, which contributed to a large government revenue loss (almost onethird of tobacco excise tax revenue). To reduce illegal cigarette production and smuggling, the government should increase resources to enforce the regulation on the excise tax system including stronger penalties, especially related to illicit cigarette production.
Ward JL, Azzopardi PS, Francis KL, et al., 2021, Global, regional, and national mortality among young people aged 10–24 years, 1950–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet, Vol: 398, Pages: 1593-1618, ISSN: 0140-6736
BackgroundDocumentation of patterns and long-term trends in mortality in young people, which reflect huge changes in demographic and social determinants of adolescent health, enables identification of global investment priorities for this age group. We aimed to analyse data on the number of deaths, years of life lost, and mortality rates by sex and age group in people aged 10–24 years in 204 countries and territories from 1950 to 2019 by use of estimates from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019.MethodsWe report trends in estimated total numbers of deaths and mortality rate per 100 000 population in young people aged 10–24 years by age group (10–14 years, 15–19 years, and 20–24 years) and sex in 204 countries and territories between 1950 and 2019 for all causes, and between 1980 and 2019 by cause of death. We analyse variation in outcomes by region, age group, and sex, and compare annual rate of change in mortality in young people aged 10–24 years with that in children aged 0–9 years from 1990 to 2019. We then analyse the association between mortality in people aged 10–24 years and socioeconomic development using the GBD Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite measure based on average national educational attainment in people older than 15 years, total fertility rate in people younger than 25 years, and income per capita. We assess the association between SDI and all-cause mortality in 2019, and analyse the ratio of observed to expected mortality by SDI using the most recent available data release (2017).FindingsIn 2019 there were 1·49 million deaths (95% uncertainty interval 1·39–1·59) worldwide in people aged 10–24 years, of which 61% occurred in males. 32·7% of all adolescent deaths were due to transport injuries, unintentional injuries, or interpersonal violence and conflict; 32·1% were due to communicable, nutritional, or mater
Yunarman S, Munandar A, Ahsan A, et al., 2021, Opportunities and challenges of tobacco control policy at district level in Indonesia: a qualitative analysis., Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, Vol: 22, Pages: 3055-3060, ISSN: 2476-762X
INTRODUCTION: Comprehensive tobacco control policies are lacking in Indonesia where smoking prevalence in males is among the highest in the world. This study aims to explore the knowledge, attitude, opportunities and challenges to tobacco control among local stakeholders. METHODS: This is a qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Four study areas included Bengkulu Province, Bengkulu City, Seluma District, and Kaur District. Eighteen participants interviewed were from policymakers, legislators, and civil societies during November-December 2020. Thematic data analysis was used. RESULTS: While knowledge and support of the existing Smoke Free Policy (SFP) were high, that of other policies such as outdoor tobacco advertising (OTA) ban and tobacco product display ban were low. Among others, one opportunity was there is already SFP regulation in each study area, to which such bans can be added. Among others, three major challenges were: (a) lack of enforcement of the existing SFP, (b) lack of national regulation to ban OTA and product display, and (c) counter actions by the tobacco industry. CONCLUSION: The opportunities and challenges identified could be lessons learnt for more comprehensive tobacco control especially by local governments in Indonesia and other countries with similar settings.
Micah AE, Cogswell IE, Cunningham B, et al., 2021, Tracking development assistance for health and for COVID-19: a review of development assistance, government, out-of-pocket, and other private spending on health for 204 countries and territories, 1990–2050, The Lancet, Vol: 398, Pages: 1317-1343, ISSN: 0140-6736
BackgroundThe rapid spread of COVID-19 renewed the focus on how health systems across the globe are financed, especially during public health emergencies. Development assistance is an important source of health financing in many low-income countries, yet little is known about how much of this funding was disbursed for COVID-19. We aimed to put development assistance for health for COVID-19 in the context of broader trends in global health financing, and to estimate total health spending from 1995 to 2050 and development assistance for COVID-19 in 2020.MethodsWe estimated domestic health spending and development assistance for health to generate total health-sector spending estimates for 204 countries and territories. We leveraged data from the WHO Global Health Expenditure Database to produce estimates of domestic health spending. To generate estimates for development assistance for health, we relied on project-level disbursement data from the major international development agencies' online databases and annual financial statements and reports for information on income sources. To adjust our estimates for 2020 to include disbursements related to COVID-19, we extracted project data on commitments and disbursements from a broader set of databases (because not all of the data sources used to estimate the historical series extend to 2020), including the UN Office of Humanitarian Assistance Financial Tracking Service and the International Aid Transparency Initiative. We reported all the historic and future spending estimates in inflation-adjusted 2020 US$, 2020 US$ per capita, purchasing-power parity-adjusted US$ per capita, and as a proportion of gross domestic product. We used various models to generate future health spending to 2050.FindingsIn 2019, health spending globally reached $8·8 trillion (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 8·7–8·8) or $1132 (1119–1143) per person. Spending on health varied within and across income groups and geogra
Kinyoki D, Osgood-Zimmerman AE, Bhattacharjee NV, et al., 2021, Anemia prevalence in women of reproductive age in low- and middle-income countries between 2000 and 2018, Nature Medicine, Vol: 27, Pages: 1761-1782, ISSN: 1078-8956
Anemia is a globally widespread condition in women and is associated with reduced economic productivity and increased mortality worldwide. Here we map annual 2000–2018 geospatial estimates of anemia prevalence in women of reproductive age (15–49 years) across 82 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), stratify anemia by severity and aggregate results to policy-relevant administrative and national levels. Additionally, we provide subnational disparity analyses to provide a comprehensive overview of anemia prevalence inequalities within these countries and predict progress toward the World Health Organization’s Global Nutrition Target (WHO GNT) to reduce anemia by half by 2030. Our results demonstrate widespread moderate improvements in overall anemia prevalence but identify only three LMICs with a high probability of achieving the WHO GNT by 2030 at a national scale, and no LMIC is expected to achieve the target in all their subnational administrative units. Our maps show where large within-country disparities occur, as well as areas likely to fall short of the WHO GNT, offering precision public health tools so that adequate resource allocation and subsequent interventions can be targeted to the most vulnerable populations.
Feigin VL, Stark BA, Johnson CO, et al., 2021, Global, regional, and national burden of stroke and its risk factors, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet Neurology, Vol: 20, Pages: 795-820, ISSN: 1474-4422
BackgroundRegularly updated data on stroke and its pathological types, including data on their incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability, risk factors, and epidemiological trends, are important for evidence-based stroke care planning and resource allocation. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) aims to provide a standardised and comprehensive measurement of these metrics at global, regional, and national levels.MethodsWe applied GBD 2019 analytical tools to calculate stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and the population attributable fraction (PAF) of DALYs (with corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals [UIs]) associated with 19 risk factors, for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. These estimates were provided for ischaemic stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage, and all strokes combined, and stratified by sex, age group, and World Bank country income level.FindingsIn 2019, there were 12·2 million (95% UI 11·0–13·6) incident cases of stroke, 101 million (93·2–111) prevalent cases of stroke, 143 million (133–153) DALYs due to stroke, and 6·55 million (6·00–7·02) deaths from stroke. Globally, stroke remained the second-leading cause of death (11·6% [10·8–12·2] of total deaths) and the third-leading cause of death and disability combined (5·7% [5·1–6·2] of total DALYs) in 2019. From 1990 to 2019, the absolute number of incident strokes increased by 70·0% (67·0–73·0), prevalent strokes increased by 85·0% (83·0–88·0), deaths from stroke increased by 43·0% (31·0–55·0), and DALYs due to stroke increased by 32·0% (22·0–42·0). During the same period, age-standardised rates of stroke incidence decreased by 17·0% (15·0&
Paulson KR, Kamath AM, Alam T, et al., 2021, Global, regional, and national progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 for neonatal and child health: all-cause and cause-specific mortality findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet, Vol: 398, Pages: 870-905, ISSN: 0140-6736
BackgroundSustainable Development Goal 3.2 has targeted elimination of preventable child mortality, reduction of neonatal death to less than 12 per 1000 livebirths, and reduction of death of children younger than 5 years to less than 25 per 1000 livebirths, for each country by 2030. To understand current rates, recent trends, and potential trajectories of child mortality for the next decade, we present the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 findings for all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality in children younger than 5 years of age, with multiple scenarios for child mortality in 2030 that include the consideration of potential effects of COVID-19, and a novel framework for quantifying optimal child survival.MethodsWe completed all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality analyses from 204 countries and territories for detailed age groups separately, with aggregated mortality probabilities per 1000 livebirths computed for neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and under-5 mortality rate (U5MR). Scenarios for 2030 represent different potential trajectories, notably including potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the potential impact of improvements preferentially targeting neonatal survival. Optimal child survival metrics were developed by age, sex, and cause of death across all GBD location-years. The first metric is a global optimum and is based on the lowest observed mortality, and the second is a survival potential frontier that is based on stochastic frontier analysis of observed mortality and Healthcare Access and Quality Index.FindingsGlobal U5MR decreased from 71·2 deaths per 1000 livebirths (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 68·3–74·0) in 2000 to 37·1 (33·2–41·7) in 2019 while global NMR correspondingly declined more slowly from 28·0 deaths per 1000 live births (26·8–29·5) in 2000 to 17·9 (16·3–19·8) in 2019.
Kendrick PJ, Reitsma MB, Abbasi-Kangevari M, et al., 2021, Spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns in prevalence of chewing tobacco use in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet Public Health, Vol: 6, Pages: e482-e499, ISSN: 2468-2667
BackgroundChewing tobacco and other types of smokeless tobacco use have had less attention from the global health community than smoked tobacco use. However, the practice is popular in many parts of the world and has been linked to several adverse health outcomes. Understanding trends in prevalence with age, over time, and by location and sex is important for policy setting and in relation to monitoring and assessing commitment to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.MethodsWe estimated prevalence of chewing tobacco use as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019 using a modelling strategy that used information on multiple types of smokeless tobacco products. We generated a time series of prevalence of chewing tobacco use among individuals aged 15 years and older from 1990 to 2019 in 204 countries and territories, including age-sex specific estimates. We also compared these trends to those of smoked tobacco over the same time period.FindingsIn 2019, 273·9 million (95% uncertainty interval 258·5 to 290·9) people aged 15 years and older used chewing tobacco, and the global age-standardised prevalence of chewing tobacco use was 4·72% (4·46 to 5·01). 228·2 million (213·6 to 244·7; 83·29% [82·15 to 84·42]) chewing tobacco users lived in the south Asia region. Prevalence among young people aged 15–19 years was over 10% in seven locations in 2019. Although global age-standardised prevalence of smoking tobacco use decreased significantly between 1990 and 2019 (annualised rate of change: –1·21% [–1·26 to –1·16]), similar progress was not observed for chewing tobacco (0·46% [0·13 to 0·79]). Among the 12 highest prevalence countries (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Madagascar, Marshall Islands, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Palau, Sri Lanka, and Yemen), only Yemen had a significant
Cromwell EA, Osborne JCP, Unnasch TR, et al., 2021, Predicting the environmental suitability for onchocerciasis in Africa as an aid to elimination planning., PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol: 15, Pages: 1-23, ISSN: 1935-2727
Recent evidence suggests that, in some foci, elimination of onchocerciasis from Africa may be feasible with mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin. To achieve continental elimination of transmission, mapping surveys will need to be conducted across all implementation units (IUs) for which endemicity status is currently unknown. Using boosted regression tree models with optimised hyperparameter selection, we estimated environmental suitability for onchocerciasis at the 5 × 5-km resolution across Africa. In order to classify IUs that include locations that are environmentally suitable, we used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to identify an optimal threshold for suitability concordant with locations where onchocerciasis has been previously detected. This threshold value was then used to classify IUs (more suitable or less suitable) based on the location within the IU with the largest mean prediction. Mean estimates of environmental suitability suggest large areas across West and Central Africa, as well as focal areas of East Africa, are suitable for onchocerciasis transmission, consistent with the presence of current control and elimination of transmission efforts. The ROC analysis identified a mean environmental suitability index of 0·71 as a threshold to classify based on the location with the largest mean prediction within the IU. Of the IUs considered for mapping surveys, 50·2% exceed this threshold for suitability in at least one 5 × 5-km location. The formidable scale of data collection required to map onchocerciasis endemicity across the African continent presents an opportunity to use spatial data to identify areas likely to be suitable for onchocerciasis transmission. National onchocerciasis elimination programmes may wish to consider prioritising these IUs for mapping surveys as human resources, laboratory capacity, and programmatic schedules may constrain survey implementation, and possibly delaying MDA initia
Yuliati R, Sarwono BK, Ahsan A, et al., 2021, Effect of message approach and image size on pictorial health warning effectiveness on cigarette pack in Indonesia: a mixed factorial experiment, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol: 18, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 1660-4601
Background: Cigarette consumption remains high and increasing in Indonesia. The government implemented a pictorial health warnings requirement of 40% cover of the pack (front and back) using fear appeal messages. Objective: Our study aims to assess the effectiveness of cigarette pictorial health warnings by message and size. Methods: We conducted a mixed factorial experiment online study using three messaging approaches (fear vs. guilt vs. financial loss) and two picture sizes (40% vs. 75%) among 209 smoking participants. Sociodemographic variables included gender, education, income, employment status, and marital status. Data analysis used a mixed model ANOVA to see the main effect and interaction effect on dependent variables. For subgroup analysis, we used t-test and one-way ANOVA. All analyzes were in SPSS 22. Results: We found significant differences in the three message types, in which fear and guilt have higher effectiveness than financial loss. By subgroup, the guilt message was more compelling among female smokers and married smokers. The financial loss message was effective among lower-income smokers. We found no difference in pictorial health warning effectiveness by image size, potentially because participants could zoom in/out the cigarette pack image on the screen. Conclusions: Our finding supports more diverse message types in pictorial health warnings in Indonesia and other countries.
Reitsma MB, Kendrick PJ, Ababneh E, et al., 2021, Spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns in prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet, Vol: 397, Pages: 2337-2360, ISSN: 0140-6736
BackgroundEnding the global tobacco epidemic is a defining challenge in global health. Timely and comprehensive estimates of the prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden are needed to guide tobacco control efforts nationally and globally.MethodsWe estimated the prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden for 204 countries and territories, by age and sex, from 1990 to 2019 as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study. We modelled multiple smoking-related indicators from 3625 nationally representative surveys. We completed systematic reviews and did Bayesian meta-regressions for 36 causally linked health outcomes to estimate non-linear dose-response risk curves for current and former smokers. We used a direct estimation approach to estimate attributable burden, providing more comprehensive estimates of the health effects of smoking than previously available.FindingsGlobally in 2019, 1·14 billion (95% uncertainty interval 1·13–1·16) individuals were current smokers, who consumed 7·41 trillion (7·11–7·74) cigarette-equivalents of tobacco in 2019. Although prevalence of smoking had decreased significantly since 1990 among both males (27·5% [26·5–28·5] reduction) and females (37·7% [35·4–39·9] reduction) aged 15 years and older, population growth has led to a significant increase in the total number of smokers from 0·99 billion (0·98–1·00) in 1990. Globally in 2019, smoking tobacco use accounted for 7·69 million (7·16–8·20) deaths and 200 million (185–214) disability-adjusted life-years, and was the leading risk factor for death among males (20·2% [19·3–21·1] of male deaths). 6·68 million [86·9%] of 7·69 million deaths attributable to smoking tobacco use were among current smokers.Int
Song P, Gupta A, Goon IY, et al., 2021, Data resource profile: Understanding the patterns and determinants of health in South Asians—the South Asia Biobank, International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol: 50, Pages: 717-718e, ISSN: 0300-5771
Kusuma D, 2021, Lessons from primary health care in the United Kingdom, Jurnal Administrasi Kesehatan Indonesia, Vol: 9, Pages: 4-8, ISSN: 2303-3592
The health system in Indonesia is facing the persistent burden of maternal mortality and infectious diseases (including COVID-19) and an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases. Thus, health system reform and innovations at all levels are needed, including through lessons learned from other countries. There are at least five lessons from primary health care in the United Kingdom: easy access, digital and online services, continuity of care, managing chronic conditions, and referral and counter-referral system. There are lessons that policymakers and stakeholders at the national and local (city/district) level could potentially learn from. Despite the differences between the UK and Indonesia (e.g. country income level, national health systems), these lessons could be adapted or piloted in some settings.
AlQurashi AA, Kusuma D, AlJishi H, et al., 2021, Density of fast food outlets around educational facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: geospatial analysis, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol: 18, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 1660-4601
Background: Childhood obesity remains a public health issue globally. The latest estimate from the World Health Organization showed that over 340 million children and adolescents aged 5–19 were overweight or obese in 2016. Objective: Our study aimed to assess the density of fast food outlets around educational facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: We employed geospatial and quantitative analyses using data on fast food outlets (from surveys conducted between November 2019 and May 2020) and educational facilities in Riyadh city. Data analyses conducted using ArcMap 10.6 and Stata 15 compared the density within 500 m and 500–1000 m from the facilities. Results: We found a high density of fast food outlets around educational facilities. Nearly 80% of fast food were within twelve-minute walking or five-minute driving distances from schools, and nearly 70% of all educational facilities had at least one fast food outlet within the buffer. We also found the densities were high within both the areas closer and the areas farther away from educational facilities. In addition, the density was significantly higher around private schools compared to government schools, and the density around girls-only schools and both-gender schools was higher than that around boys-only schools. Conclusion: There is a high density of fast food outlets around educational facilities in Saudi Arabia. Effective policies are needed to help reduce potential exposure to fast food among young people in Saudi Arabia and other countries with similar settings.
Sartorius B, VanderHeide JD, Yang M, et al., 2021, Subnational mapping of HIV incidence and mortality among individuals aged 15–49 years in sub-Saharan Africa, 2000–18: a modelling study, The Lancet HIV, Vol: 8, Pages: e363-e375, ISSN: 2352-3018
BackgroundHigh-resolution estimates of HIV burden across space and time provide an important tool for tracking and monitoring the progress of prevention and control efforts and assist with improving the precision and efficiency of targeting efforts. We aimed to assess HIV incidence and HIV mortality for all second-level administrative units across sub-Saharan Africa.MethodsIn this modelling study, we developed a framework that used the geographically specific HIV prevalence data collected in seroprevalence surveys and antenatal care clinics to train a model that estimates HIV incidence and mortality among individuals aged 15–49 years. We used a model-based geostatistical framework to estimate HIV prevalence at the second administrative level in 44 countries in sub-Saharan Africa for 2000–18 and sought data on the number of individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) by second-level administrative unit. We then modified the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) to use these HIV prevalence and treatment estimates to estimate HIV incidence and mortality by second-level administrative unit.FindingsThe estimates suggest substantial variation in HIV incidence and mortality rates both between and within countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with 15 countries having a ten-times or greater difference in estimated HIV incidence between the second-level administrative units with the lowest and highest estimated incidence levels. Across all 44 countries in 2018, HIV incidence ranged from 2·8 (95% uncertainty interval 2·1–3·8) in Mauritania to 1585·9 (1369·4–1824·8) cases per 100 000 people in Lesotho and HIV mortality ranged from 0·8 (0·7–0·9) in Mauritania to 676·5 (513·6–888·0) deaths per 100 000 people in Lesotho. Variation in both incidence and mortality was substantially greater at the subnational level than at the national level and the highest estimated ra
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