Imperial College London

Mr Daniel Richard Leff

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Surgery & Cancer

Reader in Breast Surgery



+44 (0)20 3312 1947d.leff




Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother Wing (QEQM)St Mary's Campus






BibTex format

author = {Chidambaram, S and Erridge, S and Leff, D and Purkayastha, S},
doi = {10.1016/j.jss.2018.09.042},
journal = {Journal of Surgical Research},
pages = {217--223},
title = {A randomized controlled trial of skills transfer: from touch surgery to laparoscopic cholecystectomy},
url = {},
volume = {234},
year = {2019}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - BackgroundSurgical training has traditionally involved teaching trainees in the operating room. However, intraoperative training is time-intensive and exposes patients to greater risks. Touch Surgery (TS) is an application that uses animation to provide simulation training via cognitive task analysis as an adjunct to intraoperative training.MethodsForty students were recruited and randomly allocated to either a control or intervention group. Each group received the same preparation before intervention, including a 10-min introduction to laparoscopic equipment and a 15-min educational tutorial on laparoscopic cholecystectomies. The participants then received training via either TS (intervention) or written information (control). Their performance was compared using a validated scoring tool on a porcine laparoscopic cholecystectomy model. Significance was defined as P < 0.050.ResultsIn total, n = 22 and n = 18 participants were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups, respectively. There was no significant difference between age (P = 0.320), year of medical school (P = 0.322), handedness (P = 1.000), or gender (P = 0.360) of the groups. The overall mean performance score was higher for intervention (mean ± SD = 41.9 ± 22.5) than control (mean ± SD = 24.7 ± 19.6; P = 0.016). There was no significant difference between scores for each intraoperative segment between the intervention and control group (P > 0.050).ConclusionsThis study demonstrates that TS is effective for providing cognitive training in laparoscopic cholecystectomies to medical students. It is likely that this effect will be seen across modules and other platforms that use cognitive task analysis alongside high-fidelity animation. Further work is necessary to extend this to other surgical procedures for evaluating its longitudinal effectiveness.
AU - Chidambaram,S
AU - Erridge,S
AU - Leff,D
AU - Purkayastha,S
DO - 10.1016/j.jss.2018.09.042
EP - 223
PY - 2019///
SN - 0022-4804
SP - 217
TI - A randomized controlled trial of skills transfer: from touch surgery to laparoscopic cholecystectomy
T2 - Journal of Surgical Research
UR -
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 234
ER -