108 results found
Mahmud M, Johnson M, Owen D, 2023, Translocator Protein PET Imaging in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: A Reliable Test-Retest Study Using Asymmetry Index, Frontiers in Neuroimaging, ISSN: 2813-1193
Szubert AJ, Pollock KM, Cheeseman HM, et al., 2023, COVAC1 phase 2a expanded safety and immunogenicity study of a self-amplifying RNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2., EClinicalMedicine, Vol: 56, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2589-5370
BACKGROUND: Lipid nanoparticle (LNP) encapsulated self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) is well tolerated and immunogenic in SARS-CoV-2 seronegative and seropositive individuals aged 18-75. METHODS: A phase 2a expanded safety and immunogenicity study of a saRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate LNP-nCoVsaRNA, was conducted at participating centres in the UK between 10th August 2020 and 30th July 2021. Participants received 1 μg then 10 μg of LNP-nCoVsaRNA, ∼14 weeks apart. Solicited adverse events (AEs) were collected for one week post-each vaccine, and unsolicited AEs throughout. Binding and neutralisating anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody raised in participant sera was measured by means of an anti-Spike (S) IgG ELISA, and SARS-CoV-2 pseudoneutralisation assay. (The trial is registered: ISRCTN17072692, EudraCT 2020-001646-20). FINDINGS: 216 healthy individuals (median age 51 years) received 1.0 μg followed by 10.0 μg of the vaccine. 28/216 participants were either known to have previous SARS-CoV2 infection and/or were positive for anti-Spike (S) IgG at baseline. Reactogenicity was as expected based on the reactions following licensed COVID-19 vaccines, and there were no serious AEs related to vaccination. 80% of baseline SARS-CoV-2 naïve individuals (147/183) seroconverted two weeks post second immunization, irrespective of age (18-75); 56% (102/183) had detectable neutralising antibodies. Almost all (28/31) SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals had increased S IgG binding antibodies following their first 1.0 μg dose with a ≥0.5log10 increase in 71% (22/31). INTERPRETATION: Encapsulated saRNA was well tolerated and immunogenic in adults aged 18-75 years. Seroconversion rates in antigen naïve were higher than those reported in our dose-ranging study. Further work is required to determine if this difference is related to a longer dosing interval (14 vs. 4 weeks) or dosing with 1.0 μg followed by 10.0 μg. Boosting of S IgG an
Roussakis A, Gennaro M, Gordon MF, et al., 2023, A PET-CT study on neuroinflammation in Huntington’s patients participating in a randomised trial with laquinimod, Brain Communications, ISSN: 2632-1297
Robbins AJ, Che Bakri NA, Toke-Bjolgerud E, et al., 2022, The effect of TRV027 on coagulation in COVID 19: A pilot randomized, placebo-controlled controlled trial, British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN: 0306-5251
COVID-19 causes significant thrombosis and coagulopathy, with elevated D-dimer a predictor of adverse outcome. The precise mechanism of this coagulopathy remains unclear, one hypothesis is that loss of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 activity during viral endocytosis leads to pro-inflammatory angiotensin II accumulation, loss of angiotensin-1-7 and subsequent vascular endothelial activation. We undertook a double blind randomised, placebo controlled experimental medicine study to assess the effect of TRV027, a synthetic angiotensin-1-7 analogue on D-dimer in 30 patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (REC ref. 20/HRA/3414), Clinical Trial No. NCT04419610.The study showed a similar rate of adverse events in TRV027 and control groups. There was a numerical decrease in D-dimer in the TRV027 group and increase in D-dimer in the placebo group, however, this did not reach statistical significance (p=0.15). A Bayesian analysis demonstrated there was a 92% probability that this change represented a true drug effect.
Coales I, Tsartsalis S, Nurun F, et al., 2022, Alzheimer’s disease related transcriptional sex differences in myeloid cells, Journal of Neuroinflammation, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1742-2094
Sex differences have been identified in many diseases associated with dysregulated immune responses, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), for which approximately two-thirds of patients are women. An accumulating body of research indicates that microglia may play a causal role in the pathogenesis of this disease. We hypothesised that sex differences in the transcriptome of human myeloid cells may contribute to the sex difference observed in AD prevalence. To explore this, we assessed bulk and single-nuclear RNA sequencing data sets generated from four human derived myeloid cell populations: post-mortem microglial nuclei, peripheral monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and induced pluripotent stem cell derived microglial-like cells (MGLs). We found that expression of AD risk genes, gene signatures associated with the inflammatory response in AD, and genes related to proinflammatory immune responses were enriched in microglial nuclei isolated from aged female donors without ante-mortem neurological disease, relative to those from males. In addition, these inflammation-associated gene sets were found to be enriched in peripheral monocytes isolated from postmenopausal women and in MDMs obtained from premenopausal individuals relative to age-matched males. Expression of these gene sets did not differ in MDMs derived from women whose blood was sampled across the menstrual cycle or in MGLs cultured with 17β-oestradiol. This suggests that the observed gene set enrichments in myeloid cells from women were not being driven by acute hormonal influences. Together, these data support the hypothesis that the increased prevalence of AD in women may be partly explained by a myeloid cell phenotype biased towards expression of biological processes relevant to AD.
Knowles S, Middleton R, Cooze B, et al., 2022, The demographics, clinical course and pathology of late-onset MS, 38th Congress of the European-Committee-for-Treatment-and-Research-in-Multiple-Sclerosis, Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, Pages: 54-54, ISSN: 1352-4585
Cooze B, Farkas I, Leung Y, et al., 2022, Neuronal loss in the thalamus and pons correlates with disease severity: Interim analysis of a large digital pathology study, 38th Congress of the European-Committee-for-Treatment-and-Research-in-Multiple-Sclerosis, Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, Pages: 494-494, ISSN: 1352-4585
Owen D, 2022, Human pharmacokinetics of XBD173 and etifoxine distinguish their potential for pharmacodynamic effects mediated by TSPO, British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Vol: 88, Pages: 4230-4236, ISSN: 0306-5251
XBD173 and etifoxine are translocator protein (TSPO) ligands that modulate inflammatory responses in preclinical models. Limited human pharmacokinetic data is available for either molecule, and the binding affinity of etifoxine for human TSPO is unknown. To allow for design of human challenge experiments, we derived pharmacokinetic data for orally administered etifoxine (50 mg 3 times daily) and XBD173 (90 mg once daily) and determined the binding affinity of etifoxine for TSPO. For XBD173, maximum plasma concentration and free fraction measurements predicted a maximal free concentration of 1.0 nM, which is similar to XBD173 binding affinity. For etifoxine, maximum plasma concentration and free fraction measurements predicted a maximal free concentration of 0.31 nM, substantially lower than the Ki for etifoxine in human brain derived here (7.8 μM, 95% CI 4.5–14.6 μM). We conclude that oral XBD173 dosing at 90 mg once daily will achieve pharmacologically relevant TSPO occupancy. However, the occupancy is too low for TSPO mediated effects after oral dosing of etifoxine at 50 mg 3 times daily.
Owen D, Phillips A, O'Connor D, et al., 2022, Human pharmacokinetics of XBD173 and etifoxine distinguish their potential for pharmacodynamic effects mediated by TSPO, British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN: 0306-5251
<jats:p id="p1">XBD173 and etifoxine are TSPO ligands that modulate inflammatoryresponses in preclinical models. Limited human pharmacokinetic data isavailable for either molecule, and the binding affinity of etifoxine forhuman TSPO is unknown. To allow for design of human challengeexperiments, we derived pharmacokinetic data for orally administeredetifoxine (50mg TDS) and XBD173 (90mg OD) and determined the bindingaffinity of etifoxine for TSPO. For XBD173, Cmax and free fractionmeasurements predicted a maximal free concentration of 1.1 nM, which issimilar to XBD173 binding affinity. For etifoxine, Cmax and freefraction measurements predicted a maximal free concentration of 0.31 nM,substantially lower than the Ki for etifoxine in human brain derivedhere (7.8uM, 95% CI 4.5-14.6uM). We conclude that oral XBD173 dosing at90mg OD will achieve pharmacologically relevant TSPO occupancy. However,the occupancy is too low for TSPO mediated effects after oral dosing ofetifoxine at 50mg TDS.</jats:p>
Pollock KM, Cheeseman HM, Szubert AJ, et al., 2022, Safety and immunogenicity of a self-amplifying RNA vaccine against COVID-19: COVAC1, a phase I, dose-ranging trial, EClinicalMedicine, Vol: 44, ISSN: 2589-5370
Background: Lipid nanoparticle (LNP) encapsulated self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) is a novel technology formulated as a low dose vaccine against COVID-19. Methods: A phase I first-in-human dose-ranging trial of a saRNA COVID-19 vaccine candidate LNP-nCoVsaRNA, was conducted at Imperial Clinical Research Facility, and participating centres in London, UK, between 19th June to 28th October 2020. Participants received two intramuscular (IM) injections of LNP-nCoVsaRNA at six different dose levels, 0.1-10.0μg, given four weeks apart. An open-label dose escalation was followed by a dose evaluation. Solicited adverse events (AEs) were collected for one week from enrolment, with follow-up at regular intervals (1-8 weeks). The binding and neutralisation capacity of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody raised in participant sera was measured by means of an anti-Spike (S) IgG ELISA, immunoblot, SARS-CoV-2 pseudoneutralisation and wild type neutralisation assays. (The trial is registered: ISRCTN17072692, EudraCT 2020-001646-20). Findings: 192 healthy individuals with no history or serological evidence of COVID-19, aged 18-45 years were enrolled. The vaccine was well tolerated with no serious adverse events related to vaccination. Seroconversion at week six whether measured by ELISA or immunoblot was related to dose (both p<0.001), ranging from 8% (3/39; 0.1μg) to 61% (14/23; 10.0μg) in ELISA and 46% (18/39; 0.3μg) to 87% (20/23; 5.0μg and 10.0μg) in a post-hoc immunoblot assay. Geometric mean (GM) anti-S IgG concentrations ranged from 74 (95% CI, 45-119) at 0.1μg to 1023 (468-2236) ng/mL at 5.0μg (p<0.001) and was not higher at 10.0μg. Neutralisation of SARS-CoV-2 by participant sera was measurable in 15% (6/39; 0.1μg) to 48% (11/23; 5.0μg) depending on dose level received. Interpretation: Encapsulated saRNA is safe for clinical development, is immunogenic at low dose levels but failed to induce 100% seroconversion. Modifications to optimis
Amor S, Nutma E, Owen D, 2021, Imaging immune responses in neuroinflammatory diseases, CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 206, Pages: 248-250, ISSN: 0009-9104
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- Citations: 2
Smith AM, Davey K, Tsartsalis S, et al., 2021, Diverse human astrocyte and microglial transcriptional responses to Alzheimer's pathology, ACTA NEUROPATHOLOGICA, Vol: 143, Pages: 75-91, ISSN: 0001-6322
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- Citations: 17
Nutma E, Gebro E, Marzin MC, et al., 2021, Activated microglia do not increase 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) expression in the multiple sclerosis brain, GLIA, Vol: 69, Pages: 2447-2458, ISSN: 0894-1491
To monitor innate immune responses in the CNS, the 18 kDa Translocator protein (TSPO) is a frequently used target for PET imaging. The frequent assumption that increased TSPO expression in the human CNS reflects pro-inflammatory activation of microglia has been extrapolated from rodent studies. However, TSPO expression does not increase in activated human microglia in vitro. Studies of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions reveal that TSPO is not restricted to pro-inflammatory microglia/macrophages, but also present in homeostatic or reparative microglia. Here, we investigated quantitative relationships between TSPO expression and microglia/macrophage phenotypes in white matter and lesions of brains with MS pathology. In white matter from brains with no disease pathology, normal appearing white matter (NAWM), active MS lesions and chronic active lesion rims, over 95% of TSPO+ cells are microglia/macrophages. Homeostatic microglial markers in NAWM and control tissue are lost/reduced in active lesions and chronic active lesion rims, reflecting cell activation. Nevertheless, pixel analysis of TSPO+ cells (n = 12,225) revealed that TSPO expression per cell is no higher in active lesions and chronic active lesion rims (where myeloid cells are activated) relative to NAWM and control. This data suggests that whilst almost all the TSPO signal in active lesions, chronic active lesion rims, NAWM and control is associated with microglia/macrophages, their TSPO expression predominantly reflects cell density and not activation phenotype. This finding has implications for the interpretation of TSPO PET signal in MS and other CNS diseases, and further demonstrates the limitation of extrapolating TSPO biology from rodents to humans.
Ramakrishnan NK, Hird M, Thompson S, et al., 2021, Preclinical evaluation of (S)-[18F]GE387, a novel 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) PET radioligand with low binding sensitivity to human polymorphism rs6971, European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Vol: 49, Pages: 125-136, ISSN: 0340-6997
PURPOSE: Positron emission tomography (PET) studies with radioligands for 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) have been instrumental in increasing our understanding of the complex role neuroinflammation plays in disorders affecting the brain. However, (R)-[11C]PK11195, the first and most widely used TSPO radioligand has limitations, while the next-generation TSPO radioligands have suffered from high interindividual variability in binding due to a genetic polymorphism in the TSPO gene (rs6971). Herein, we present the biological evaluation of the two enantiomers of [18F]GE387, which we have previously shown to have low sensitivity to this polymorphism. METHODS: Dynamic PET scans were conducted in male Wistar rats and female rhesus macaques to investigate the in vivo behaviour of (S)-[18F]GE387 and (R)-[18F]GE387. The specific binding of (S)-[18F]GE387 to TSPO was investigated by pre-treatment with (R)-PK11195. (S)-[18F]GE387 was further evaluated in a rat model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. Sensitivity to polymorphism of (S)-GE387 was evaluated in genotyped human brain tissue. RESULTS: (S)-[18F]GE387 and (R)-[18F]GE387 entered the brain in both rats and rhesus macaques. (R)-PK11195 blocked the uptake of (S)-[18F]GE387 in healthy olfactory bulb and peripheral tissues constitutively expressing TSPO. A 2.7-fold higher uptake of (S)-[18F]GE387 was found in the inflamed striatum of LPS-treated rodents. In genotyped human brain tissue, (S)-GE387 was shown to bind similarly in low affinity binders (LABs) and high affinity binders (HABs) with a LAB to HAB ratio of 1.8. CONCLUSION: We established that (S)-[18F]GE387 has favourable kinetics in healthy rats and non-human primates and that it can distinguish inflamed from normal brain regions in the LPS model of neuroinflammation. Crucially, we have reconfirmed its low sensitivity to the TSPO polymorphism on genotyped human brain tissue. Based on these factors, we conclude that (S)-[18F]GE387 warrants furt
Feleke R, Reynolds RH, Smith AM, et al., 2021, Cross-platform transcriptional profiling identifies common and distinct molecular pathologies in Lewy body diseases, Acta Neuropathologica, Vol: 142, Pages: 449-474, ISSN: 0001-6322
Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are three clinically, genetically and neuropathologically overlapping neurodegenerative diseases collectively known as the Lewy body diseases (LBDs). A variety of molecular mechanisms have been implicated in PD pathogenesis, but the mechanisms underlying PDD and DLB remain largely unknown, a knowledge gap that presents an impediment to the discovery of disease-modifying therapies. Transcriptomic profiling can contribute to addressing this gap, but remains limited in the LBDs. Here, we applied paired bulk-tissue and single-nucleus RNA-sequencing to anterior cingulate cortex samples derived from 28 individuals, including healthy controls, PD, PDD and DLB cases (n = 7 per group), to transcriptomically profile the LBDs. Using this approach, we (i) found transcriptional alterations in multiple cell types across the LBDs; (ii) discovered evidence for widespread dysregulation of RNA splicing, particularly in PDD and DLB; (iii) identified potential splicing factors, with links to other dementia-related neurodegenerative diseases, coordinating this dysregulation; and (iv) identified transcriptomic commonalities and distinctions between the LBDs that inform understanding of the relationships between these three clinical disorders. Together, these findings have important implications for the design of RNA-targeted therapies for these diseases and highlight a potential molecular "window" of therapeutic opportunity between the initial onset of PD and subsequent development of Lewy body dementia.
Marques TR, Veronese M, Owen DR, et al., 2021, Specific and non-specific binding of a tracer for the translocator-specific protein in schizophrenia: an [11C]-PBR28 blocking study, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND MOLECULAR IMAGING, Vol: 48, Pages: 3530-3539, ISSN: 1619-7070
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- Citations: 1
Voysey M, Clemens SAC, Madhi SA, et al., 2021, Single-dose administration and the influence of the timing of the booster dose on immunogenicity and efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine: a pooled analysis of four randomised trials, The Lancet, Vol: 397, Pages: 881-891, ISSN: 0140-6736
BackgroundThe ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine has been approved for emergency use by the UK regulatory authority, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, with a regimen of two standard doses given with an interval of 4–12 weeks. The planned roll-out in the UK will involve vaccinating people in high-risk categories with their first dose immediately, and delivering the second dose 12 weeks later. Here, we provide both a further prespecified pooled analysis of trials of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and exploratory analyses of the impact on immunogenicity and efficacy of extending the interval between priming and booster doses. In addition, we show the immunogenicity and protection afforded by the first dose, before a booster dose has been offered.MethodsWe present data from three single-blind randomised controlled trials—one phase 1/2 study in the UK (COV001), one phase 2/3 study in the UK (COV002), and a phase 3 study in Brazil (COV003)—and one double-blind phase 1/2 study in South Africa (COV005). As previously described, individuals 18 years and older were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive two standard doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (5 × 1010 viral particles) or a control vaccine or saline placebo. In the UK trial, a subset of participants received a lower dose (2·2 × 1010 viral particles) of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 for the first dose. The primary outcome was virologically confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 disease, defined as a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)-positive swab combined with at least one qualifying symptom (fever ≥37·8°C, cough, shortness of breath, or anosmia or ageusia) more than 14 days after the second dose. Secondary efficacy analyses included cases occuring at least 22 days after the first dose. Antibody responses measured by immunoassay and by pseudovirus neutralisation were exploratory outcomes. All cases of COVID-19 with a NAAT-positive swab were adjudicated for inclusion in the analysis by a masked
Nutma E, Ceyzeriat K, Amor S, et al., 2021, Cellular sources of TSPO expression in healthy and diseased brain, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND MOLECULAR IMAGING, Vol: 49, Pages: 146-163, ISSN: 1619-7070
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- Citations: 41
Voysey M, Clemens SAC, Madhi SA, et al., 2021, Safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222) against SARS-CoV-2: an interim analysis of four randomised controlled trials in Brazil, South Africa, and the UK, The Lancet, Vol: 397, Pages: 99-111, ISSN: 0140-6736
BACKGROUND: A safe and efficacious vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), if deployed with high coverage, could contribute to the control of the COVID-19 pandemic. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine in a pooled interim analysis of four trials. METHODS: This analysis includes data from four ongoing blinded, randomised, controlled trials done across the UK, Brazil, and South Africa. Participants aged 18 years and older were randomly assigned (1:1) to ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine or control (meningococcal group A, C, W, and Y conjugate vaccine or saline). Participants in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group received two doses containing 5 × 1010 viral particles (standard dose; SD/SD cohort); a subset in the UK trial received a half dose as their first dose (low dose) and a standard dose as their second dose (LD/SD cohort). The primary efficacy analysis included symptomatic COVID-19 in seronegative participants with a nucleic acid amplification test-positive swab more than 14 days after a second dose of vaccine. Participants were analysed according to treatment received, with data cutoff on Nov 4, 2020. Vaccine efficacy was calculated as 1 - relative risk derived from a robust Poisson regression model adjusted for age. Studies are registered at ISRCTN89951424 and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04324606, NCT04400838, and NCT04444674. FINDINGS: Between April 23 and Nov 4, 2020, 23 848 participants were enrolled and 11 636 participants (7548 in the UK, 4088 in Brazil) were included in the interim primary efficacy analysis. In participants who received two standard doses, vaccine efficacy was 62·1% (95% CI 41·0-75·7; 27 [0·6%] of 4440 in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group vs71 [1·6%] of 4455 in the control group) and in participants who received a low dose followed by a standard dose, efficacy was 90·0% (67·4-97·0; three [0·2%] of 1367 vs 30 [2·2%] of 1374; pin
Kreisl WC, Kim M-J, Coughlin JM, et al., 2020, PET imaging of neuroinflammation in neurological disorders, LANCET NEUROLOGY, Vol: 19, Pages: 940-950, ISSN: 1474-4422
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- Citations: 59
Nicholas R, Brooks D, Owen D, 2020, 18F-GE180, a radioligand for the TSPO protein: not ready for clinical trials in multiple sclerosis, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND MOLECULAR IMAGING, Vol: 47, Pages: 2242-2243, ISSN: 1619-7070
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- Citations: 2
Nicholas R, Brooks D, Owen D, 2020, Letter to the Editor re: Confirmation of Specific Binding of the 18-kDa Translocator Protein (TSPO) Radioligand [F-18]GE-180: a Blocking Study Using XBD173 in Multiple Sclerosis Normal Appearing White and Grey Matter In Response, MOLECULAR IMAGING AND BIOLOGY, Vol: 22, Pages: 13-14, ISSN: 1536-1632
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- Citations: 3
Nutma E, Stephenson JA, Gorter RP, et al., 2019, A quantitative neuropathological assessment of translocator protein expression in multiple sclerosis, Brain, Vol: 142, Pages: 3440-3455, ISSN: 1460-2156
The 18kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is increasingly used to study brain and spinal cord inflammation in degenerative diseases of the CNS such as multiple sclerosis. The enhanced TSPO PET signal that arises during disease is widely-considered to reflect activated pathogenicmicroglia, although quantitative neuropathological data to support this interpretation has not been available. With the increasing interest in the role of chronic microglial activation in multiple sclerosis, characterising the cellular neuropathology associated with TSPO expression is of clear importance for understanding the cellular and pathological processes on which TSPO PET imaging is reporting.Here we have studied the cellular expression of TSPO and specific binding of two TSPO targeting radioligands ([3H]PK11195 and [3H]PBR28) in tissue sections from 42 multiple sclerosis cases and 12 age-matched controls. Markers of homeostatic and reactive microglia, astrocytes, and lymphocytes were used to investigate the phenotypes of cells expressing TSPO. There was an approximate 20-fold increase in cells double positive for TSPO and human leukocyte antigen -DR in active lesions and in the rim of chronic active lesion, relative to normal appearing white matter. TSPO was uniformly expressed across myeloid cells irrespective of their phenotype, rather than being preferentially associated with pro-inflammatory microglia or macrophages. TSPO+astrocytes were increased up to 7-fold compared to normal appearing white matter across all lesion sub-types and accounted for 25% of the TSPO+ cells in these lesions. To relate TSPO protein expression to ligand binding, specific binding of the TSPO ligands [3H]PK11195 and [3H]PBR28was determined in the same lesions. TSPO radioligand binding was increased up to seven times for [3H]PBR28 and up to two times for [3H]PK11195 in active lesions and the centre of chronic ac
Sridharan S, Raffel J, Nandoskar A, et al., 2019, Confirmation of specific binding of the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) radioligand [18F]GE-180: a blocking study using XBD173 in multiple sclerosis normal appearing white and grey matter, Molecular Imaging and Biology, Vol: 21, Pages: 935-944, ISSN: 1536-1632
Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) ligands exhibit different levels of non-displaceable binding in vivo. In the case of ligands for the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), the component of non-displaceable binding for the most widely used radiotracer, [11C]-(R)-PK11195, is relatively high compared to that for newer TSPO ligands. Non-displaceable binding is not often quantified in humans in vivo, partially due to a lack of available ligands that are known to be safe with which to displace binding to the target receptor. Recently, however, a technique has been developed to quantify the non-displaceable binding of TSPO tracers in vivo, by blocking the receptor with the TSPO ligand XBD173 and comparing the total volume of distribution ( ) pre and post-blockade. Here, we used an occupancy plot to quantify the non-displaceable binding ( ) of the TSPO PET tracers [18F]GE-180 and [11C]PBR28 in cohorts of people with multiple sclerosis (MS). We also compared plots of subjects carrying both high and mixed binding affinity polymorphisms of TSPO to estimate while potentially avoiding the need for receptor blockade.Procedures: Twelve people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and high (HAB) or mixed (MAB) affinity binding for TSPO underwent baseline MRI and 90-minute dynamic [18F]GE-180 PET (n=6; 3 HAB and 3 MAB) or [11C]PBR28 PET (n=6; 3 HAB, 3 MAB). Either one week later ([18F]GE-180) or the same afternoon ([11C]PBR28), participants had repeat PET following a 90mg dose of XBD173. PET images were co-registered with T1 MR volumetric images and regions of interest (ROIs) were defined using the 83-region Hammers atlas. Arterial blood sampling was used to generate plasma input functions for the two-tissue compartment model to quantify . The non-displaceable fraction of the total volume of distribution ( ) was calculated using two independent methods: the occupancy plot (by modelling the differences in signal post XBD173), and the polymorphism plot (by modelling the differences in
Smith AM, Khozoie C, Fancy N, et al., 2019, Single nucleus RNA sequencing of post-mortem multiple sclerosis cortical grey matter, 35th Congress of the European-Committee-for-Treatment-and-Research-in-Multiple-Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) / 24th Annual Conference of Rehabilitation in MS, Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, Pages: 233-233, ISSN: 1352-4585
Fancy NN, Srivastava P, Matthews PM, et al., 2019, A bioinformatics approach to understand the regulation of TSPO gene expression in myeloid cells, 35th Congress of the European-Committee-for-Treatment-and-Research-in-Multiple-Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) / 24th Annual Conference of Rehabilitation in MS, Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, Pages: 222-222, ISSN: 1352-4585
Weinert M, Cowley SA, Alavian KN, et al., 2019, Exploring the mitochondrial TSPO protein as a possible immunometabolic modulatory target for treatment of multiple sclerosis, 35th Congress of the European-Committee-for-Treatment-and-Research-in-Multiple-Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) / 24th Annual Conference of Rehabilitation in MS, Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, Pages: 515-515, ISSN: 1352-4585
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Field SM, Burstow NJ, Owen DR, et al., 2019, Using team-based revision to prepare medical students for the prescribing safety assessment, Advances in Medical Education and Practice, Vol: 2019, Pages: 501-506, ISSN: 1179-7258
BackgroundThe Prescribing Safety Assessment (PSA) is an online assessment of safe and effective prescribing, taken by final-year UK medical students. To prepare students for the PSA, we used a modified form of team-based learning, team-based revision (TBR), in which students consolidate previously learned prescribing knowledge and skills across a broad range of topics. We evaluated students’ response to TBR and their perceptions of team working. MethodsEight TBR sessions based on the PSA blueprint were conducted over two days by three faculty members for final year medical students. During TBR sessions, students worked in small groups answering individual multiple-choice questions, followed by group multiple-choice questions. They subsequently answered open-ended questions in their groups, with answers written on a drug chart to increase authenticity. Students completed surveys using Likert-type items to determine views on TBR and their confidence in prescribing. ResultsThe majority of respondents agreed that the sessions were useful for preparation both for the PSA (82%) and Foundation Year 1 (78%). 92% agreed that using drug-charts aided learning. Prescribing confidence increased significantly after TBR (median pre-TBR: 2, post-TBR: 5, p<0.0001). TBR significantly improved attitudes towards ‘team experience’ (p<0.001), ‘team impact on quality of learning’ (p<0.01) and ‘team impact on clinical reasoning ability’ (p <0.001). ConclusionsTeam-based revision is a resource-efficient addition to undergraduate prescribing teaching and can help with preparation for the PSA. A short course of TBR was effective in influencing students’ attitudes towards teamwork.
Galloway DA, Phillips AEM, Owen DRJ, et al., 2019, Phagocytosis in the Brain: Homeostasis and Disease (vol 10, 790, 2019), FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1664-3224
Sam SA, Fung CY, Wilson R, et al., 2019, Using prescribing very short answer questions to identify sources of medication errors: a prospective study in two UK medical schools, BMJ Open, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-5, ISSN: 2044-6055
Objective To assess the utility and ability of the novel prescribing very short answer (VSA) question format to identify the sources of undergraduate prescribing errors when compared with the conventional single best answer (SBA) question format and assess the acceptability of machine marking prescribing VSAs.Design A prospective study involving analysis of data generated from a pilot two-part prescribing assessment.Setting Two UK medical schools.Participants 364 final year medical students took part. Participation was voluntary. There were no other inclusion or exclusion criteria.Outcomes (1) Time taken to mark and verify VSA questions (acceptability), (2) differences between VSA and SBA scores, (3) performance in VSA and (4) SBA format across different subject areas and types of prescribing error made in the VSA format.Results 18 200 prescribing VSA questions were marked and verified in 91 min. The median percentage score for the VSA test was significantly lower than the SBA test (28% vs 64%, p<0.0001). Significantly more prescribing errors were detected in the VSA format than the SBA format across all domains, notably in prescribing insulin (96.4% vs 50.3%, p<0.0001), fluids (95.6% vs 55%, p<0.0001) and analgesia (85.7% vs 51%, p<0.0001). Of the incorrect VSA responses, 33.1% were due to the medication prescribed, 6.0% due to the dose, 1.4% due to the route and 4.8% due to the frequency.Conclusions Prescribing VSA questions represent an efficient tool for providing detailed insight into the sources of significant prescribing errors, which are not identified by SBA questions. This makes the prescribing VSA a valuable formative assessment tool to enhance students’ skills in safe prescribing and to potentially reduce prescribing errors.
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