Imperial College London

ProfessorDudleyPennell

Faculty of MedicineNational Heart & Lung Institute

Professor of Cardiology
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7351 8810d.pennell

 
 
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Location

 

CMR UnitRoyal BromptonRoyal Brompton Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

933 results found

Vassiliou V, Pavlou M, Malley T, Halliday B, Tsampasian V, Raphael C, Tse G, Vieira M, Auger D, Everett R, Chin C, Alpendurada F, Pepper J, Pennell D, Newby D, Jabbour A, Dweck M, Prasad Set al., 2021, A novel cardiovascular magnetic resonance risk score for predicting mortality following surgical aortic valve replacement, Scientific Reports, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2045-2322

The increasing prevalence of patients with aortic stenosis worldwide highlights a clinical need for improved and accurate prediction of clinical outcomes following surgery. We investigated patient demographic and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) characteristics to formulate a dedicated risk score estimating long-term survival following surgery. We recruited consecutive patients undergoing CMR with gadolinium administration prior to surgical aortic valve replacement from 2003 to 2016 in two UK centres. The outcome was overall mortality. A total of 250 patients were included (68 ± 12 years, male 185 (60%), with pre-operative mean aortic valve area 0.93 ± 0.32cm2, LVEF 62 ± 17%) and followed for 6.0 ± 3.3 years. Sixty-one deaths occurred, with 10-year mortality of 23.6%. Multivariable analysis showed that increasing age (HR 1.04, P = 0.005), use of antiplatelet therapy (HR 0.54, P = 0.027), presence of infarction or midwall late gadolinium enhancement (HR 1.52 and HR 2.14 respectively, combined P = 0.12), higher indexed left ventricular stroke volume (HR 0.98, P = 0.043) and higher left atrial ejection fraction (HR 0.98, P = 0.083) associated with mortality and developed a risk score with good discrimination. This is the first dedicated risk prediction score for patients with aortic stenosis undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement providing an individualised estimate for overall mortality. This model can help clinicians individualising medical and surgical care.

Journal article

Petersen SE, Friedrich MG, Leiner T, Elias MD, Ferreira VM, Fenski M, Flamm SD, Fogel M, Garg R, Halushka MK, Hays AG, Kawel-Boehm N, Kramer CM, Nagel E, Ntusi NAB, Ostenfeld E, Pennell DJ, Raisi-Estabragh Z, Reeder SB, Rochitte CE, Starekova J, Suchá D, Tao Q, Schulz-Menger J, Bluemke DAet al., 2021, Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance for Patients With COVID-19., JACC Cardiovasc Imaging

COVID-19 is associated with myocardial injury caused by ischemia, inflammation, or myocarditis. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is the noninvasive reference standard for cardiac function, structure, and tissue composition. CMR is a potentially valuable diagnostic tool in patients with COVID-19 presenting with myocardial injury and evidence of cardiac dysfunction. Although COVID-19-related myocarditis is likely infrequent, COVID-19-related cardiovascular histopathology findings have been reported in up to 48% of patients, raising the concern for long-term myocardial injury. Studies to date report CMR abnormalities in 26% to 60% of hospitalized patients who have recovered from COVID-19, including functional impairment, myocardial tissue abnormalities, late gadolinium enhancement, or pericardial abnormalities. In athletes post-COVID-19, CMR has detected myocarditis-like abnormalities. In children, multisystem inflammatory syndrome may occur 2 to 6 weeks after infection; associated myocarditis and coronary artery aneurysms are evaluable by CMR. At this time, our understanding of COVID-19-related cardiovascular involvement is incomplete, and multiple studies are planned to evaluate patients with COVID-19 using CMR. In this review, we summarize existing studies of CMR for patients with COVID-19 and present ongoing research. We also provide recommendations for clinical use of CMR for patients with acute symptoms or who are recovering from COVID-19.

Journal article

Wustmann K, Constantine A, Davies JE, Li W, Pennell D, Wort S, Kempny A, Price L, McCabe C, Mohiaddin R, Francis D, Gatzoulis M, Dimopoulos Ket al., 2021, Prognostic implications of pulmonary wave reflection and reservoir pressure in patients with pulmonary hypertension, International Journal of Cardiology: Congenital Heart Disease, Vol: 5, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 2666-6685

BackgroundRight ventricular (RV) coupling to the pulmonary circulation influences the response of the RV to the increased afterload caused by pulmonary hypertension (PH), which ultimately determines prognosis. A methodology that accounts for pulsatile flow is required when assessing ventriculo-arterial coupling. We applied wave intensity analysis (WIA) methods to assess the compliance of the main pulmonary artery (PA) in patients with or without PH and compared this to PA distensibility, RV function and clinical outcomes.MethodsHigh-fidelity blood pressure and Doppler flow velocity tracings were obtained simultaneously during cardiac catheterisation for suspected PH. RV volumes, main PA distensibility and ventriculo-arterial coupling (Emax/Ea) were analysed using cardiovascular magnetic resonance.ResultsThe study included 17 ​PH patients and 6 controls. Wave speed, reservoir and excess pressure were higher in PH patients compared to controls (p ​< ​0.01 for all). Waveforms relating to RV ejection, microvascular wave reflection and late systolic proximal deceleration were higher in PH patients compared to controls (p ​< ​0.01 for all) and related to echocardiographic findings, including PA Doppler notching and shortened acceleration time. Wave speed, reservoir pressure and excess pressure were strongly correlated to main PA distensibility, RV function and Emax/Ea. A higher total pressure integral was associated with an increased risk of death (all-cause mortality).ConclusionThe reservoir-excess pressure model, in combination with conventional clinical imaging, provides valuable information on the pathophysiology of PH that standard haemodynamic parameters do not. Future studies should further investigate the prognostic implications of WIA in PH, and its potential role in clinical practice.

Journal article

Puricelli F, Gati S, Banya W, Daubeney PEF, Pennell DJ, Voges I, Krupickova Set al., 2021, Normal values of MAPSE and TAPSE in the paediatric population established by cardiovascular magnetic resonance, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR IMAGING, ISSN: 1569-5794

Journal article

Bermejo IA, Bautista-Rodriguez C, Fraisse A, Voges I, Gatehouse P, Kang H, Piccinelli E, Rowlinson G, Lane M, Semple T, Moscatelli S, Dwornik M, Lota A, Di Salvo G, Wage R, Prasad SK, Mohiaddin R, Pennell DJ, Krupickova Set al., 2021, Short-Term Sequelae of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children Assessed by CMR (vol 14, pg 1666, 2021), JACC-CARDIOVASCULAR IMAGING, Vol: 14, Pages: 1885-1885, ISSN: 1936-878X

Journal article

Bhuva AN, Moralee R, Brunker T, Lascelles K, Cash L, Patel KP, Lowe M, Sekhri N, Alpendurada F, Pennell DJ, Schilling R, Lambiase PD, Chow A, Moon JC, Litt H, Baksi AJ, Manisty CHet al., 2021, Evidence to support magnetic resonance conditional labelling of all pacemaker and defibrillator leads in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices., Eur Heart J

AIMS: Many cardiac pacemakers and defibrillators are not approved by regulators for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Even following generator exchange to an approved magnetic resonance (MR)-conditional model, many systems remain classified 'non-MR conditional' due to the leads. This classification makes patient access to MRI challenging, but there is no evidence of increased clinical risk. We compared the effect of MRI on non-MR conditional and MR-conditional pacemaker and defibrillator leads. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients undergoing clinical 1.5T MRI with pacemakers and defibrillators in three centres over 5 years were included. Magnetic resonance imaging protocols were similar for MR-conditional and non-MR conditional systems. Devices were interrogated pre- and immediately post-scan, and at follow-up, and adverse clinical events recorded. Lead parameter changes peri-scan were stratified by MR-conditional labelling. A total of 1148 MRI examinations were performed in 970 patients (54% non-MR conditional systems, 39% defibrillators, 15% pacing-dependent) with 2268 leads. There were no lead-related adverse clinical events, and no clinically significant immediate or late lead parameter changes following MRI in either MR-conditional or non-MR conditional leads. Small reductions in atrial and right ventricular sensed amplitudes and impedances were similar between groups, with no difference in the proportion of leads with parameter changes greater than pre-defined thresholds (7.1%, 95% confidence interval: 6.1-8.3). CONCLUSIONS: There was no increased risk of MRI in patients with non-MR conditional pacemaker or defibrillator leads when following recommended protocols. Standardizing MR conditions for all leads would significantly improve access to MRI by enabling patients to be scanned in non-specialist centres, with no discernible incremental risk.

Journal article

Tayal U, gregson J, Buchan R, Whiffin N, Halliday B, Lota A, Roberts A, Baksi A, Voges I, Jarman J, Baruah R, Frenneaux M, Cleland J, Barton P, Pennell D, Ware J, Cook S, Prasad Set al., 2021, Moderate excess alcohol consumption and adverse cardiac remodelling in dilated cardiomyopathy, Heart, ISSN: 1355-6037

Objective The effect of moderate excess alcohol consumption is widely debated and has not been well defined in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). There is need for a greater evidence base to help advise patients. We sought to evaluate the effect of moderate excess alcohol consumption on cardiovascular structure, function and outcomes in DCM. Methods Prospective longitudinal observational cohort study. Patients with DCM (n=604) were evaluated for a history of moderate excess alcohol consumption (UK government guidelines; >14 units/week for women, >21 units/week for men) at cohort enrollment, had cardiovascular magnetic resonance and were followed up for the composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, heart failure and arrhythmic events. Patients meeting criteria for alcoholic cardiomyopathy were not recruited. ResultsDCM patients with a history of moderate excess alcohol consumption (n=98, 16%) had lower biventricular function and increased chamber dilatation of the left ventricle, right ventricle and left atrium, as well as increased left ventricular hypertrophy compared to patients without moderate alcohol consumption. They were more likely to be male (alcohol excess group– n =92, 94% vs n =306, 61%, p=<0.001). After adjustment for biological sex, moderate excess alcohol was not associated with adverse cardiac structure. There was no difference in mid-wall myocardial fibrosis between groups. Prior moderate excess alcohol consumption did not affect prognosis (HR 1.29, 0.73 to 2.26, p=0.38) during median follow up of 3.9 years. ConclusionDilated cardiomyopathy patients with moderate excess alcohol consumption have adverse cardiac structure and function at presentation but this is largely due to biological sex. Alcohol may contribute to sex-specific phenotypic differences in DCM. These findings help to inform lifestyle discussions for patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.

Journal article

Hatipoglu S, Almogheer B, Mahon C, Houshmand G, Uygur B, Giblin GT, Krupickova S, Baksi AJ, Alpendurada F, Prasad SK, Babu-Narayan SV, Gatzoulis MA, Mohiaddin RH, Pennell DJ, Izgi Cet al., 2021, Clinical Significance of Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connections (Isolated and Atrial Septal Defect Associated) Determined by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR IMAGING, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1941-9651

Journal article

Bermejo IA, Bautista-Rodriguez C, Fraisse A, Voges I, Gatehouse P, Kang H, Piccinelli E, Rowlinson G, Lane M, Semple T, Moscatelli S, Dwornik M, Lota A, Di Salvo G, Wage R, Prasad SK, Mohiaddin R, Pennell DJ, Thavendiranathan P, Krupickova Set al., 2021, Short-Term sequelae of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children Assessed by CMR, JACC-CARDIOVASCULAR IMAGING, Vol: 14, Pages: 1666-1667, ISSN: 1936-878X

Journal article

Ghonim S, Gatzoulis M, Ernst S, Li W, Moon J, Smith G, Heng EL, Keegan J, Ho SY, McCarthy KP, Shore D, Uebing A, Kempny A, Alpendurada F, Dimopoulos K, Pennell DJ, Babu-Narayan Set al., 2021, Predicting survival in repaired tetralogy of Fallot- a lesion specific and personalised approach, JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging, ISSN: 1876-7591

Objective: We sought to identifyrepaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) patients at high-risk of death and malignant ventricular arrhythmia (VA). Background: To date there is no robust risk stratification scheme to predict outcomes in adults with rTOF. Methods: Consecutive patients were prospectively recruited for late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance (LGE CMR) to define right and left ventricular (RV,LV) fibrosisin addition to proven risk markers. Results: The primary end-point was all-cause mortality. Of the 550 patients, (median age 32 years, 56% male), 27 died (mean follow-up 6.4 (±5.8); total 3512 years). Mortality was independently predicted by RVLGE extent, presence of LVLGE, RV ejection fraction (EF) ≤47%, LVEF ≤55%, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) ≥127ng/L, peak exercise oxygen uptake (V02) ≤17ml/kg/min, prior sustained atrial arrhythmia and age ≥50 years. The weighted scores for each of the above independent predictors differentiated a high-risk sub-group patients with a 4.4%, annual risk of mortality (AUC 0.87,P<0.001). The secondary end-point (VA), a composite of life-threatening sustained ventricular tachycardia/resuscitated ventricular fibrillation/sudden cardiac death occurred in 29. Weighted scores that included several predictors of mortality and RV outflow tractakinetic length ≥55mm and RVsystolic pressure ≥47mm Hg identified high-risk patients with a 3.7%, annual risk ofVA (AUC 0.79,P<0.001) RVLGE was heavily weighted in both risk scores due to its strong relative prognostic value. Conclusion: We present ascore integrating multiple appropriately weighted risk factors to identify the sub-group of rTOF patients that are at highannual risk of death who may benefit from targeted therapy.

Journal article

Krupickova S, Hatipoglu S, DiSalvo G, Voges I, Redfearn D, Foldvari S, Eichhorn C, Chivers S, Puricelli F, Delle-Donne G, Barth C, Pennell DJ, Prasad SK, Daubeney PEFet al., 2021, Left ventricular noncompaction in pediatric population: could cardiovascular magnetic resonance derived fractal analysis aid diagnosis?, JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE, Vol: 23, ISSN: 1097-6647

Journal article

Halliday B, Vazir A, Owen R, Gregson J, Wassall R, Lota A, Khalique Z, Tayal U, Jones R, Hammersley D, Pantazis A, Baksi A, Rosen S, Pennell D, Cowie M, Cleland J, Prasad Set al., 2021, Heart rate as a marker of relapse during withdrawal of therapy in recovered dilated cardiomyopathy, JACC: Heart Failure, Vol: 9, Pages: 509-517, ISSN: 2213-1779

Objective: To determine the relationship between heart rate and relapse amongst patients in the TRED-HF trial. Background: Understanding markers and mechanisms of relapse amongst patients with recovered dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) might enable personalised management.Methods: The relationship between serial heart rate measurements and relapse was examined amongst patients TRED-HF, a randomised trial which examined the safety and feasibility of withdrawing heart failure therapy amongst 51 patients with recovered DCM over 6 months. In total, 25 patients were randomised to therapy withdrawal and 26 to continue therapy, of whom 25 subsequently began therapy withdrawal in a single arm crossover phase.Results: The mean heart rate (standard deviation) for those who had therapy withdrawn and did not relapse was 64.6bpm (10.7) at baseline and 74.7bpm (10.4) at follow-up compared to 68.3bpm (11.3) and 86.1bpm (11.8) for those who relapsed. After adjusting for baseline heart rate, patients who had therapy withdrawn and relapsed had a 10.4bpm (95% confidence intervals [CIs] 4.0-16.8) greater rise in heart rate compared to patients who had therapy withdrawn and did not relapse (p=0.002). After adjusting for age, log NT-pro-BNP and LVEF, heart rate (per 10bpm - hazard ratio: 1.65, 95%CI 1.10-2.57, p=0.01) and change in heart rate from baseline (per 10bpm - hazard ratio: 1.70, 95%CI 1.12-2.57, p=0.01) were associated with relapse. The results remained qualitatively the same after adjusting for beta-blocker dose.Conclusion: For patients with DCM and improved LVEF, the rise in heart rate after withdrawing treatment identifies patients who are more likely to relapse. Whether the increase in heart rate is a marker or mediator of relapse requires investigation.

Journal article

Ng M-Y, Chin CY, Yap PM, Wan EYF, Hai JSH, Cheung S, Tse HF, Bucciarelli-Ducci C, Pennell DJ, Yiu K-Het al., 2021, Prognostic value of perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance with adenosine triphosphate stress in stable coronary artery disease, JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE, Vol: 23, ISSN: 1097-6647

Journal article

Lota A, 2021, Prognostic significance of non-ischaemic patterns of myocardial fibrosis in patients with normal left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction – the FINALIZE study, JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging, ISSN: 1876-7591

Background: Non-ischaemic patterns of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) with normal left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction are increasingly detected on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) but their prognostic significance, and consequently management, is uncertain. Objectives: To investigate the prognostic significance of LGE in patients without coronary artery disease and with normal range LV volumes and ejection fraction. Methods: Patients with mid-wall/subepicardial LGE and normal LV volumes, wall thickness and ejection fraction on CMR were enrolled and compared to a control group without LGE.57 The primary outcome was actual or aborted sudden cardiac death (SCD). Results: Of 748 patients enrolled, 401 had LGE and 347 did not. Median age was 50 years (IQR 38-61), LV ejection fraction 66% (IQR 62-70) and 287 (38%) were women. Scan indications included chest pain (40%), palpitation (33%) and breathlessness (13%). Nopatient experienced SCD and only one LGE+ patient (0.13%) had an aborted SCD in the 11th follow-up year. Over a median of 4.3years, thirty patients (4.0%) died. All-cause mortality was similar for LGE+/- patients (3.7% vs 4.3%; p=0.71) and was associated with age (H 2.04 per 10-years; 95%CI 1.46-2.79; p<0.001). Twenty-one LGE+ and 4 LGE- patients had an unplanned CV hospitalisation (HR 7.22; 95%CI 4.26-21.17; p<0.0001). Conclusion: There was a low SCD risk during long-term follow-up in patients with LGE but otherwise normal LV volumes and ejection fraction. Mortality was driven by age and not LGE presence, location or extent, although the latter was associated with greater CV hospitalisation for suspected myocarditis and symptomatic ventricular tachycardia.

Journal article

Tayal U, Fecht D, Chadeau-Hyam M, Owen R, Gregson J, Halliday B, Lota A, Gulliver J, Ware J, Pennell D, Kelly F, Shah A, Miller M, Newby D, Prasad Set al., 2021, AIR POLLUTION AND ADVERSE CARDIAC REMODELLING IN PATIENTS WITH DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY, 70th Annual Scientific Session and Expo of the American-College-of-Cardiology (ACC), Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: 600-600, ISSN: 0735-1097

Conference paper

Halliday B, Owen R, Gregson J, Vassiliou V, Chen X, Wage R, Lota A, Khalique Z, Tayal U, Hammersley D, Jones R, Baksi A, Cowie M, Cleland J, Pennell D, Prasad Set al., 2021, Myocardial remodelling after withdrawing therapy for heart failure in patients with recovered dilated cardiomyopathy: insights from TRED-HF, European Journal of Heart Failure, Vol: 23, Pages: 293-301, ISSN: 1388-9842

Aims: To characterize adverse ventricular remodelling after withdrawing therapy in recovered dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Methods and results: TRED-HF was a randomized controlled trial with a follow-on single-arm cross-over phase that examined the safety and feasibility of therapy withdrawal in patients with recovered DCM over 6 months. The primary endpoint was relapse of heart failure defined by (i) a reduction in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction >10% and to <50%, (ii) >10% increase in LV end-diastolic volume and to above the normal range, (iii) a twofold rise in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and to >400 ng/L, or (iv) evidence of heart failure. LV mass, LV and right ventricular (RV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) and extracellular volume were measured using cardiovascular magnetic resonance at baseline and follow-up (6 months or relapse) for 48 patients. LV cell and extracellular matrix masses were derived. The effect of withdrawing therapy, stratified by relapse and genotype, was investigated in the randomized and follow-on phases. In the randomized comparison, withdrawing therapy led to an increase in mean LV mass [5.4 g/m2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3–9.5] and cell mass (4.2 g/m2; 95% CI 0.5–8.0) and a reduction in LV (3.5; 95% CI 1.6–5.5) and RV (2.4; 95% CI 0.1–4.7) GLS. In a non-randomized comparison of all patients (n = 47) who had therapy withdrawn in either phase, there was an increase in LV mass (6.2 g/m2; 95% CI 3.6–8.9; P = 0.0001), cell mass (4.0 g/m2; 95% CI 1.8–6.2; P = 0.0007) and matrix mass (1.7 g/m2; 95% CI 0.7–2.6; P = 0.001) and a reduction in LV GLS (2.7; 95% CI 1.5–4.0; P = 0.0001). Amongst those who had therapy withdrawn and did not relapse, similar changes were observed (n = 28; LV mass: 5.1 g/m2, 95% CI 1.5–8.8, P = 0.007; cell mass: 3.7 g/m2, 95% CI 0.3–7.0, P = 0.03; matrix mass: 1.7 g/m2, 95% CI 0.4–3.0, P = 0.02; LV GLS: 1.7, 95% CI

Journal article

Raphael C, Mitchell F, Kanaganayagam G, liew A, Di Pietro E, Vieira M, Kanapeckaite L, Newsome S, Gregson J, Owen R, Hsu L-Y, Vassiliou V, Cooper R, Ali A, Ismail T, Wong B, Sun K, Gatehouse P, Firmin D, Cook S, Frenneaux M, Arai A, O'Hanlon R, Pennell D, Prasad Set al., 2021, Cardiovascular magnetic resonance predictors of heart failure in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: the role of myocardial replacement fibrosis and the microcirculation, Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Vol: 26, ISSN: 1097-6647

IntroductionHeart failure (HF) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Predictors of HF, in particular the role of myocardial fibrosis and microvascular ischemia remain unclear. We assessed the predictive value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for development of HF in HCM in an observational cohort study.MethodsSerial patients with HCM underwent CMR, including adenosine first-pass perfusion, left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) volumes indexed to body surface area (i) and late gadolinium enhancement (%LGE- as a % of total myocardial mass). We used a composite endpoint of HF death, cardiac transplantation, and progression to NYHA class III/IV.ResultsA total of 543 patients with HCM underwent CMR, of whom 94 met the composite endpoint at baseline. The remaining 449 patients were followed for a median of 5.6 years. Thirty nine patients (8.7%) reached the composite endpoint of HF death (n = 7), cardiac transplantation (n = 2) and progression to NYHA class III/IV (n = 20). The annual incidence of HF was 2.0 per 100 person-years, 95% CI (1.6–2.6). Age, previous non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, LV end-systolic volume indexed to body surface area (LVESVI), LA volume index ; LV ejection fraction, %LGE and presence of mitral regurgitation were significant univariable predictors of HF, with LVESVI (Hazard ratio (HR) 1.44, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.16–1.78, p = 0.001), %LGE per 10% (HR 1.44, 95%CI 1.14–1.82, p = 0.002) age (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.06–1.77, p = 0.02) and mitral regurgitation (HR 2.6, p = 0.02) remaining independently predictive on multivariable analysis. The presence or extent of inducible perfusion defect assessed using a visual score did not predict outcome (p = 0.16, p = 0.27 respectively).DiscussionThe annual incidence of HF in a contemporary ambulatory HCM population undergoing CMR

Journal article

Zhou W, Lee JCY, Leung ST, Lai A, Lee T-F, Chiang JB, Cheng YW, Chan H-L, Yiu K-H, Goh VK-M, Pennell DJ, Ng M-Yet al., 2021, Long-Term Prognosis of Patients With Coronary Microvascular Disease Using Stress Perfusion Cardiac Magnetic Resonance, JACC-CARDIOVASCULAR IMAGING, Vol: 14, Pages: 602-611, ISSN: 1936-878X

Journal article

Halliday B, Senior R, Pennell D, 2021, Assessing left ventricular systolic function – from ejection fraction to strain analysis, European Heart Journal, Vol: 42, Pages: 789-797, ISSN: 0195-668X

The measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a ubiquitous component of imaging studies used to evaluate patients with cardiac conditions and acts as an arbiter for many management decisions. This follows early trials investigating heart failure therapies which used a binary LVEF cut-off to select patients with the worst prognosis, who may gain the most benefit. Forty years on, the cardiac disease landscape has changed. LVEF is now a poor indicator of prognosis for many heart failure patients; specifically, for the half of patients with heart failure and truly preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF). It is also recognised that LVEF may remain normal amongst patients with valvular heart disease who have significant myocardial dysfunction. This emphasises the importance of the interaction between LVEF and left ventricular geometry. Guidelines based on LVEF may therefore miss a proportion of patients who would benefit from early intervention to prevent further myocardial decompensation and future adverse outcomes. The assessment of myocardial strain, or intrinsic deformation, holds promise to improve these issues. The measurement of global longitudinal strain (GLS) has consistently been shown to improve the risk stratification of patients with heart failure and identify patients with valvular heart disease who have myocardial decompensation despite preserved LVEF and an increased risk of adverse outcomes. To complete the integration of GLS into routine clinical practice, further studies are required to confirm that such approaches improve therapy selection and accordingly, the outcome for patients.

Journal article

Balaban G, Halliday B, Bradley P, Bai W, Nygaard S, Owen R, Hatipoglu S, Ferreira ND, Izgi C, Tayal U, Corden B, Ware J, Pennell D, Rueckert D, Plank G, Rinaldi CA, Prasad SK, Bishop Met al., 2021, Late-gadolinium enhancement interface area and electrophysiological simulations predict arrhythmic events in non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy patients, JACC: Clinical Electrophysiology, Vol: 7, Pages: 238-249, ISSN: 2405-5018

BACKGROUND: The presence of late-gadolinium enhancement (LGE) predicts life threatening ventricular arrhythmias in non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM); however, risk stratification remains imprecise. LGE shape and simulations of electrical activity may be able to provide additional prognostic information.OBJECTIVE: This study sought to investigate whether shape-based LGE metrics and simulations of reentrant electrical activity are associated with arrhythmic events in NIDCM patients.METHODS: CMR-LGE shape metrics were computed for a cohort of 156 NIDCM patients with visible LGE and tested retrospectively for an association with an arrhythmic composite end-point of sudden cardiac death and ventricular tachycardia. Computational models were created from images and used in conjunction with simulated stimulation protocols to assess the potential for reentry induction in each patient’s scar morphology. A mechanistic analysis of the simulations was carried out to explain the associations. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 1611 [IQR 881-2341] days, 16 patients (10.3%) met the primary endpoint. In an inverse probability weighted Cox regression, the LGE-myocardial interface area (HR:1.75; 95% CI:1.24-2.47; p=0.001), number of simulated reentries (HR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.23-1.59; p<0.01) and LGE volume (HR:1.44; 95% CI:1.07-1.94; p=0.02) were associated with arrhythmic events. Computational modeling revealed repolarisation heterogeneity and rate-dependent block of electrical wavefronts at the LGE-myocardial interface as putative arrhythmogenic mechanisms directly related to LGE interface area.CONCLUSION: The area of interface between scar and surviving myocardium, as well as simulated reentrant activity, are associated with an elevated risk of major arrhythmic events in NIDCM patients with LGE and represent novel risk predictors.

Journal article

Hatipoglu S, Lyon AR, Pennell DJ, 2021, CMR unveiling the cause of post CoVid-19 infection chest pain, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR IMAGING, Vol: 37, Pages: 2025-2026, ISSN: 1569-5794

Journal article

Khan TZ, Haskard D, Hartley A, Caga-Annan M, Pennell DJ, Collins P, Barbir M, Khamis Ret al., 2021, Oxidised LDL and Anti-Oxidised LDL Antibodies Are Reduced by Lipoprotein Apheresis in a Randomised Controlled Trial on Patients with Refractory Angina and Elevated Lipoprotein(a), Antioxidants, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2076-3921

Aims: An abundance of epidemiological evidence demonstrates that elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) represents a significant contributing risk factor towards the development of cardiovascular disease. In particular, raised Lp(a) may play a mechanistic role in patients with refractory angina. Studies have also shown a correlation between oxidised LDL (oxLDL) levels and atherosclerotic burden as well as rates of cardiovascular events. Antibodies against oxLDL (anti-oxLDL) are involved in the removal of oxLDL. Lipoprotein apheresis (LA), which removes lipoproteins using extra-corporeal processes, is an established means of reducing Lp(a), and thereby reduces cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LA on oxLDL and anti-oxLDL levels amongst those with refractory angina in the context of raised Lp(a). Methods: We performed a sub-study within a randomised controlled crossover trial involving 20 patients with refractory angina and raised Lp(a) > 500 mg/L, comparing the effect of three months of blinded weekly LA or sham, followed by crossover to the opposite study arm. We utilized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to quantify oxLDL and IgG/ IgM anti-oxLDL antibody levels at baseline and following three months of active LA or sham sessions. Results: Following three months of LA, there was a 30% reduction in oxLDL from 0.37 ± 0.06 to 0.26 ± 0.04 with a mean drop of −0.11 units (U) (95% CI −0.13, −0.09) compared to no significant change with sham therapy (p < 0.0001 between treatment arms). LA also led to a 22% reduction in levels of IgG and IgM anti-oxLDL, again with no significant change demonstrated during sham (p = 0.0036 and p = 0.012, respectively, between treatment arms). Conclusion: Amongst patients with refractory angina in the context of elevated Lp(a), LA significantly lowers levels of oxLDL and anti-oxLDL antibodies, representing potential mechanisms by which LA yields symptomatic and

Journal article

Krupickova S, Risch J, Gati S, Caliebe A, Sarikouch S, Beerbaum P, Puricelli F, Daubeney PEF, Barth C, Wage R, Boroni Grazioli S, Uebing A, Pennell DJ, Voges Iet al., 2021, Cardiovascular magnetic resonance normal values in children for biventricular wall thickness and mass, JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE, Vol: 23, ISSN: 1097-6647

Journal article

Ng M-Y, Tang HS, Fong LCW, Chan V, Senior R, Pennell DJet al., 2021, Invasive and Non-Invasive Imaging for Ischaemia with No Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease, Cardiovascular Imaging Asia, Vol: 5, Pages: 83-83, ISSN: 2508-707X

Journal article

Raphael CE, Liew AC, Mitchell F, Kanaganayagam GS, Di Pietro E, Newsome S, Owen R, Gregson J, Cooper R, Amin FR, Gatehouse P, Vassiliou V, Ernst S, O'Hanlon R, Frenneaux M, Pennell DJ, Prasad SKet al., 2020, Predictors and Mechanisms of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY, Vol: 136, Pages: 140-148, ISSN: 0002-9149

Journal article

Altamar IB, Whittaker E, Herberg J, Fraisse A, Bautista C, Kang H, Giselle R, Wage R, Lane M, Piccinelli E, Di Salvo G, Mohiaddin R, Pennell DJ, Krupickova SJet al., 2020, Short-term Sequalae of Children With Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporarily Associated With Sars-cov-2 Infection (pims-ts) Assessed by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, ISSN: 0009-7322

Conference paper

Leiner T, Bogaert J, Friedrich MG, Mohiaddin R, Muthurangu V, Myerson S, Powell AJ, Raman S, Pennell DJet al., 2020, SCMR Position Paper (2020) on clinical indications for cardiovascular magnetic resonance, JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE, Vol: 22, ISSN: 1097-6647

Journal article

Ferreira PF, Martin RR, Scott AD, Khalique Z, Yang G, Nielles-Vallespin S, Pennell DJ, Firmin DNet al., 2020, Automating in vivo cardiac diffusion tensor postprocessing with deep learning-based segmentation, Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Vol: 84, Pages: 2801-2814, ISSN: 0740-3194

PurposeIn this work we develop and validate a fully automated postprocessing framework for in vivo diffusion tensor cardiac magnetic resonance (DT‐CMR) data powered by deep learning.MethodsA U‐Net based convolutional neural network was developed and trained to segment the heart in short‐axis DT‐CMR images. This was used as the basis to automate and enhance several stages of the DT‐CMR tensor calculation workflow, including image registration and removal of data corrupted with artifacts, and to segment the left ventricle. Previously collected and analyzed scans (348 healthy scans and 144 cardiomyopathy patient scans) were used to train and validate the U‐Net. All data were acquired at 3 T with a STEAM‐EPI sequence. The DT‐CMR postprocessing and U‐Net training/testing were performed with MATLAB and Python TensorFlow, respectively.ResultsThe U‐Net achieved a median Dice coefficient of 0.93 [0.92, 0.94] for the segmentation of the left‐ventricular myocardial region. The image registration of diffusion images improved with the U‐Net segmentation (P < .0001), and the identification of corrupted images achieved an F1 score of 0.70 when compared with an experienced user. Finally, the resulting tensor measures showed good agreement between an experienced user and the fully automated method.ConclusionThe trained U‐Net successfully automated the DT‐CMR postprocessing, supporting real‐time results and reducing human workload. The automatic segmentation of the heart improved image registration, resulting in improvements of the calculated DT parameters.

Journal article

Rajakulasingam R, Nielles-Vallespin S, Ferreira PF, Scott AD, Khalique Z, Rogers P, Barnes G, Tindale A, Prendergast C, Cantor E, Wage R, Dalby M, Firmin DN, Pennell DJ, De Silva Ret al., 2020, Diffusion tensor cardiovascular magnetic resonance detects altered myocardial microstructure in patients with acute st-elevation myocardial infarction, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: 208-208, ISSN: 0195-668X

Conference paper

Nielles-Vallespin S, Ferreira PF, Scott A, Rajakulasingam R, Sehmi J, Gorodezky M, Kellman P, Xue H, Pennell DJ, Firmin DN, Arai AE, De Silva Ret al., 2020, Diffusion tensor cardiovascular magnetic resonance predicts adverse remodelling after myocardial infarction, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: 216-216, ISSN: 0195-668X

Conference paper

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