84 results found
Munblit D, Bobkova P, Spiridonova E, et al., 2021, Incidence and risk factors for persistent symptoms in adults previously hospitalized for COVID-19, CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGY, ISSN: 0954-7894
McArdle AJ, Vito O, Patel H, et al., 2021, Treatment of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol: 385, Pages: 11-22, ISSN: 0028-4793
BACKGROUNDEvidence is urgently needed to support treatment decisions for children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.METHODSWe performed an international observational cohort study of clinical and outcome data regarding suspected MIS-C that had been uploaded by physicians onto a Web-based database. We used inverse-probability weighting and generalized linear models to evaluate intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) as a reference, as compared with IVIG plus glucocorticoids and glucocorticoids alone. There were two primary outcomes: the first was a composite of inotropic support or mechanical ventilation by day 2 or later or death; the second was a reduction in disease severity on an ordinal scale by day 2. Secondary outcomes included treatment escalation and the time until a reduction in organ failure and inflammation.RESULTSData were available regarding the course of treatment for 614 children from 32 countries from June 2020 through February 2021; 490 met the World Health Organization criteria for MIS-C. Of the 614 children with suspected MIS-C, 246 received primary treatment with IVIG alone, 208 with IVIG plus glucocorticoids, and 99 with glucocorticoids alone; 22 children received other treatment combinations, including biologic agents, and 39 received no immunomodulatory therapy. Receipt of inotropic or ventilatory support or death occurred in 56 patients who received IVIG plus glucocorticoids (adjusted odds ratio for the comparison with IVIG alone, 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33 to 1.82) and in 17 patients who received glucocorticoids alone (adjusted odds ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.22 to 1.33). The adjusted odds ratios for a reduction in disease severity were similar in the two groups, as compared with IVIG alone (0.90 for IVIG plus glucocorticoids and 0.93 for glucocorticoids alone). The time until a reduction in disease severity was similar in the three groups.CONCLUSIONSWe found n
Osmanov IM, Spiridonova E, Bobkova P, et al., 2021, Risk factors for long covid in previoulsy hospitalsied children using the ISARIC Global Follow-Up Protocol: a prospective cohort study, European Respiratory Journal, ISSN: 0903-1936
Background The long-term sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) in children remain poorly characterised. This study aimed to assess long-term outcomes in children previously hospitalised with Covid-19 and associated risk factors.Methods This is a prospective cohort study of children (≤18 years old) admitted with confirmed Covid-19. Children admitted to the hospital between April 2, 2020 and August 26, 2020, were included. Telephone interview using the International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) Covid-19 Health and Wellbeing paediatric follow-up survey. Persistent symptoms (>5 months) were further categorised by system(s) involved.Findings 518 of 853 (61%) of eligible children were available for the follow-up assessment and included in the study. Median age was 10.4 years (IQR, 3–15.2) and 270 (52.1%) were girls; median follow-up since hospital discharge was 256 (223–271) days. At the time of the follow-up interview 126 (24.3%) participants reported persistent symptoms among which fatigue (53, 10.7%), sleep disturbance (36, 6.9%,) and sensory problems (29, 5.6%) were the most common. Multiple symptoms were experienced by 44 (8.4%) participants. Risk factors for persistent symptoms were: older age “6–11 years” (odds ratio 2.74 (95% confidence interval 1.37 to 5.75) and “12–18 years” (2.68, 1.41 to 5.4); and a history of allergic diseases (1.67, 1.04 to 2.67).Interpretation A quarter of children experienced persistent symptoms months after hospitalization with acute covid-19 infection, with almost one in ten experiencing multi-system involvement. Older age and allergic diseases were associated with higher risk of persistent symptoms at follow-up.
Munblit D, Nekliudov NA, Bugaeva P, et al., 2021, StopCOVID cohort: An observational study of 3,480 patients admitted to the Sechenov University hospital network in Moscow city for suspected COVID-19 infection, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol: 73, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 1058-4838
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology, clinical course, and outcomes of COVID-19 patients in the Russian population are unknown. Information on the differences between laboratory-confirmed and clinically-diagnosed COVID-19 in real-life settings is lacking. METHODS: We extracted data from the medical records of adult patients who were consecutively admitted for suspected COVID-19 infection in Moscow, between April 8 and May 28, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 4261 patients hospitalised for suspected COVID-19, outcomes were available for 3480 patients (median age 56 years (interquartile range 45-66). The commonest comorbidities were hypertension, obesity, chronic cardiac disease and diabetes. Half of the patients (n=1728) had a positive RT-PCR while 1748 were negative on RT-PCR but had clinical symptoms and characteristic CT signs suggestive of COVID-19 infection.No significant differences in frequency of symptoms, laboratory test results and risk factors for in-hospital mortality were found between those exclusively clinically diagnosed or with positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR.In a multivariable logistic regression model the following were associated with in-hospital mortality; older age (per 1 year increase) odds ratio [OR] 1.05 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03 - 1.06); male sex (OR 1.71, 1.24 - 2.37); chronic kidney disease (OR 2.99, 1.89 - 4.64); diabetes (OR 2.1, 1.46 - 2.99); chronic cardiac disease (OR 1.78, 1.24 - 2.57) and dementia (OR 2.73, 1.34 - 5.47). CONCLUSIONS: Age, male sex, and chronic comorbidities were risk factors for in-hospital mortality. The combination of clinical features were sufficient to diagnoseCOVID-19 infection indicating that laboratory testing is not critical in real-life clinical practice.
ISARIC Clinical Characterisation Group, 2021, COVID-19 symptoms at hospital admission vary with age and sex: results from the ISARIC prospective multinational observational study, Infection: journal of infectious disease, ISSN: 0300-8126
BACKGROUND: The ISARIC prospective multinational observational study is the largest cohort of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. We present relationships of age, sex, and nationality to presenting symptoms. METHODS: International, prospective observational study of 60 109 hospitalized symptomatic patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 recruited from 43 countries between 30 January and 3 August 2020. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate relationships of age and sex to published COVID-19 case definitions and the most commonly reported symptoms. RESULTS: 'Typical' symptoms of fever (69%), cough (68%) and shortness of breath (66%) were the most commonly reported. 92% of patients experienced at least one of these. Prevalence of typical symptoms was greatest in 30- to 60-year-olds (respectively 80, 79, 69%; at least one 95%). They were reported less frequently in children (≤ 18 years: 69, 48, 23; 85%), older adults (≥ 70 years: 61, 62, 65; 90%), and women (66, 66, 64; 90%; vs. men 71, 70, 67; 93%, each P < 0.001). The most common atypical presentations under 60 years of age were nausea and vomiting and abdominal pain, and over 60 years was confusion. Regression models showed significant differences in symptoms with sex, age and country. INTERPRETATION: This international collaboration has allowed us to report reliable symptom data from the largest cohort of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. Adults over 60 and children admitted to hospital with COVID-19 are less likely to present with typical symptoms. Nausea and vomiting are common atypical presentations under 30 years. Confusion is a frequent atypical presentation of COVID-19 in adults over 60 years. Women are less likely to experience typical symptoms than men.
Greenhawt M, Abrams EM, Shaker M, et al., 2021, The risk of allergic reaction to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and recommended evaluation and management: a systematic review, meta-analysis, GRADE assessment, and international consensus approach, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, ISSN: 2213-2198
Concerns for anaphylaxis may hamper SARS-CoV-2 immunization efforts. We convened a multi-disciplinary group of international experts in anaphylaxis comprised of allergy, infectious disease, emergency medicine, and front-line clinicians to systematically develop recommendations regarding SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immediate allergic reactions. Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, the WHO global coronavirus database, and the grey literature (inception-March 19, 2021) were systematically searched. Paired reviewers independently selected studies addressing anaphylaxis after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polysorbate allergy, and accuracy of allergy testing for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine allergy. Random effects models synthesized the data to inform recommendations based on the GRADE approach, agreed upon using a modified Delphi panel. The incidence of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine anaphylaxis is 7.91 cases/million (n=41,000,000 vaccinations, 95%CI 4.02-15.59; 26 studies, moderate certainty), the prevalence of PEG allergy is 103 cases/million (95%CI 88-120; 2 studies, very low certainty), and the sensitivity for PEG skin testing is poor though specificity is high (15 studies, very low certainty). We recommend vaccination over either no vaccination or performing SARS-CoV-2 vaccine/excipient screening allergy testing for individuals without history of a severe allergic reaction to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine/excipient, and a shared decision-making paradigm in consultation with an allergy specialist for individuals with a history of a severe allergic reaction to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine/excipient. We recommend further research to clarify SARS-CoV-2 vaccine/vaccine excipient testing utility in individuals potentially allergic to SARS-CoV2 vaccines or their excipients.
Munblit D, Simpson F, Mabbitt J, et al., 2021, Legacy of COVID-19 infection in children: long-COVID will have a lifelong health/economic impact., Arch Dis Child
Mustafa SS, Shaker MS, Munblit D, et al., 2021, Paediatric allergy practice in the era of coronavirus disease 2019, CURRENT OPINION IN ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 21, Pages: 159-165, ISSN: 1528-4050
Carson G, Long Covid Forum Group, 2021, Research priorities for Long Covid: refined through an international multi-stakeholder forum., BMC Med, Vol: 19
Yeruva L, Munblit D, Collado MC, 2021, Editorial: Impact of Early Life Nutrition on Immune System Development and Related Health Outcomes in Later Life, FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1664-3224
Greenhawt M, Kimball S, DunnGalvin A, et al., 2021, Media Influence on Anxiety, Health Utility, and Health Beliefs Early in the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic-a Survey Study, JOURNAL OF GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE, Vol: 36, Pages: 1327-1337, ISSN: 0884-8734
Munblit D, Bobkova P, Spiridonova E, et al., 2021, Risk factors for long-term consequences of COVID-19 in hospitalised adults in Moscow using the ISARIC Global follow-up protocol: StopCOVID cohort study
<jats:title>ABSTRACT</jats:title><jats:sec><jats:title>Background</jats:title><jats:p>The long-term sequalae of COVID-19 remain poorly characterised. In this study, we aimed to assess long-standing symptoms (LS) (symptoms lasting from the time of discharge) in previously hospitalised patients with COVID-19 and assess associated risk factors.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods</jats:title><jats:p>This is a longitudinal cohort study of adults (≥18 years of age) with clinically diagnosed or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to Sechenov University Hospital Network in Moscow, Russia. Data were collected from patients discharged between April 8 and July 10, 2020. Participants were interviewed via telephone using Tier 1 ISARIC Long-term Follow-up Study CRF and the WHO CRF for Post COVID conditions. Reported symptoms were further categorised based on the system(s) involved. Additional information on dyspnoea, quality of life and fatigue was collected using validated instruments. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to investigate risk factors for development of LS categories.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Findings</jats:title><jats:p>Overall, 2,649 of 4,755 patients discharged from the hospitals were available for the follow-up and included in the study. The median age of the patients was 56 years (IQR, 46–66) and 1,353 (51.1%) were women. The median follow-up time since hospital discharge was 217.5 (200.4-235.5) days. At the time of the follow-up interview 1247 (47.1%) participants reported LS. Fatigue (21.2%, 551/2599), shortness of breath (14.5%, 378/2614) and forgetfulness (9.1%, 237/2597) were the most common LS reported. Chronic fatigue (25%, 658/2593) and respiratory (17.2% 451/2616) were the most common LS categories. with reporting of multi-system involvement (MSI) less common (11.3%; 299). Female sex was as
Carr LE, Virmani MD, Rosa F, et al., 2021, Role of Human Milk Bioactives on Infants' Gut and Immune Health, FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1664-3224
Wang A, Koleva P, du Toit E, et al., 2021, The Milk Metabolome of Non-secretor and Lewis Negative Mothers, FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2296-861X
Munblit D, Palmer DJ, Boyle RJ, 2021, Maternal Elimination Diet and Symptoms of Cow's Milk Allergy in Breastfed Infants-Reply, JAMA PEDIATRICS, Vol: 175, Pages: 426-427, ISSN: 2168-6203
O'Reilly D, Dorodnykh D, Avdeenko N, et al., 2021, Perspective: The Role of Human Breast-Milk Extracellular Vesicles in Child Health and Disease, ADVANCES IN NUTRITION, Vol: 12, Pages: 59-70, ISSN: 2161-8313
Sigfrid L, Cevik M, Jesudason E, et al., 2021, What is the recovery rate and risk of long-term consequences following a diagnosis of COVID-19? A harmonised, global longitudinal observational study protocol, BMJ OPEN, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2044-6055
Azad MB, Nickel NC, Bode L, et al., 2020, Breastfeeding and the origins of health: Interdisciplinary perspectives and priorities, MATERNAL AND CHILD NUTRITION, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1740-8695
Schoos A-MM, Bullens D, Chawes BL, et al., 2020, Immunological Outcomes of Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy in Food Allergy, FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1664-3224
Sim K, Mijakoski D, Stoleski S, et al., 2020, Outcomes for clinical trials of food allergy treatments, ANNALS OF ALLERGY ASTHMA & IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 125, Pages: 535-542, ISSN: 1081-1206
Samuel TM, Zhou Q, Giuffrida F, et al., 2020, Nutritional and Non-nutritional Composition of Human Milk Is Modulated by Maternal, Infant, and Methodological Factors, FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2296-861X
Munblit D, Warner J, Tudor-Williams G, et al., 2020, Excessive media consumption about COVID-19 is associated with increased state anxiety: Outcomes of a large online survey in Russia, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol: 22, Pages: 1-18, ISSN: 1438-8871
Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has potentially had a negative impact on the mental health and well being of individuals and families. Anxiety levels and risk factors within particular populations are poorly described.Objectives: To evaluate confidence, understanding, trust and concerns and levels of anxiety during COVID-19 pandemic in general population and assess risk factors for increased anxiety.Methods: We launched a cross-sectional online survey a large Russian population between 6th and 15th April 2020 using multiple social media platforms. A set of questions targeted confidence, understanding, trust and concerns in respondents. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to measure anxiety. Multiple linear regressions were used to model predictors of COVID-19 related anxiety.Results: The survey was completed by 23,756 out of 53,966 unique visitors (44.0% response rate); 21,364 of who were residing in 62 areas of Russia. State anxiety (S-Anxiety) scores were higher than Trait anxiety (T-Anxiety) across all regions of Russia (median S-Anxiety score 52 [IQR 44-60]), exceeding published norms. Time spent following news on COVID-19 was strongly associated with an increased S-Anxiety adjusted for baseline anxiety level. One to two hours spent reading COVID news was associated with 5.46 (95%CI 5.03-5.90) point difference, 2-3 hours 7.06 (6.37-7.74) and more than three hours 8.65 (7.82-9.47), respectively; all compared to less than 30 minutes per day. Job loss during pandemic was another important factor associated with higher S-Anxiety scores (3.95 [3.31 – 4.58]).Despite survey respondents reporting high confidence in information regarding COVID-19, as well as understanding of healthcare guidance, they reported low overall trust in state and local authorities and perception of country readiness.Conclusions: Among Russian respondents from multiple social media platforms, there is evidence of higher levels of state-anxiety asso
Sigfrid L, Cevik M, Jesudason E, et al., 2020, What is the recovery rate and risk of long-term consequences following a diagnosis of COVID-19? - A harmonised, global longitudinal observational study
<jats:p>IntroductionVery little is known about possible clinical sequelae that may persist after resolution of the acute Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). A recent longitudinal cohort from Italy including 143 patients recovered after hospitalisation with COVID-19 reported that 87% had at least one ongoing symptom at 60 day follow-up. Early indications suggest that patients with COVID-19 may need even more psychological support than typical ICU patients. The assessment of risk factors for longer term consequences requires a longitudinal study linked to data on pre-existing conditions and care received during the acute phase of illness. Methods and analysisThis is an international open-access prospective, observational multi-site study. It will enrol patients following a diagnosis of COVID-19. Tier 1 is developed for following up patients day 28 post-discharge, additionally at 3 to 6 months intervals. This module can be used to identify sub-sets of patients experiencing specific symptomatology or syndromes for further follow up. A Tier 2 module will be developed for in-clinic, in-depth follow up. The primary aim is to characterise physical consequences in patients post-COVID-19. Secondary aim includes estimating the frequency of and risk factors for post-COVID- 19 medical sequalae, psychosocial consequences and post-COVID-19 mortality. A subset of patients will have sampling to characterize longer term antibody, innate and cell-mediated immune responses to SARS-CoV-2. Ethics and disseminationThis collaborative, open-access study aims to characterize the frequency of and risk factors for long-term consequences and characterise the immune response over time in patients following a diagnosis of COVID-19 and facilitate standardized and longitudinal data collection globally. The outcomes of this study will inform strategies to prevent long term consequences; inform clinical management, direct rehabilitation, and inform public health management to reduce overall mo
Stinson LF, Gay MCL, Koleva PT, et al., 2020, Human Milk From Atopic Mothers Has Lower Levels of Short Chain Fatty Acids, FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1664-3224
Brough HA, Kalayci O, Sediva A, et al., 2020, Managing childhood allergies and immunodeficiencies during respiratory virus epidemics - The 2020 COVID-19 pandemic: A statement from the EAACI-section on pediatrics, PEDIATRIC ALLERGY AND IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 31, Pages: 442-448, ISSN: 0905-6157
Munblit D, Crawley H, Hyde R, et al., 2020, Health and nutrition claims for infant formula are poorly substantiated and potentially harmful, BMJ: British Medical Journal, Vol: 369, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 0959-535X
Munblit D, Perkin MR, Palmer DJ, et al., 2020, Assessment of evidence about common infant symptoms and cow’s milk allergy, JAMA Pediatrics, Vol: 174, Pages: 599-608, ISSN: 2168-6203
Importance Sales of specialized formula for managing cow’s milk allergy (CMA) have increased, triggering concern that attribution of common infant symptoms, such as crying, vomiting, and rashes, to CMA may be leading to overdiagnosis, which could undermine breastfeeding.Objective To understand whether CMA guideline recommendations might promote CMA overdiagnosis or undermine breastfeeding.Evidence Review We reviewed recommendations made in CMA guidelines and critically appraised 2 key recommendations. First, we reviewed relevant literature summarizing whether maternal or infant dietary exclusion of cow’s milk is effective for managing common infant symptoms. Second, we reviewed published data on breastmilk composition and thresholds of reactivity in CMA to estimate the probability that cow’s milk protein in human breastmilk can trigger symptoms in infants with CMA. We also documented the level of commercial involvement in CMA guidelines.Findings We reviewed 9 CMA guidelines published from 2012 to 2019. Seven suggest considering CMA as a cause of common infant symptoms. Seven recommend strict maternal cow’s milk exclusion for managing common symptoms in breastfed infants. We found CMA proven by food challenge affects approximately 1% of infants, while troublesome crying, vomiting, or rashes are each reported in 15% to 20% of infants. We found clinical trials do not provide consistent support for using maternal or infant cow’s milk exclusion to manage common symptoms in infants without proven CMA. We estimated that for more than 99% infants with proven CMA, the breastmilk of a cow’s milk–consuming woman contains insufficient milk allergen to trigger an allergic reaction. Three CMA guidelines were directly supported by formula manufacturers or marketing consultants, and 81% of all guideline authors reported a conflict of interest with formula manufacturers.Conclusions and Relevance Recommendations to manage common infant s
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