Imperial College London

ProfessorDeclanO'Regan

Faculty of MedicineInstitute of Clinical Sciences

Professor of Imaging Sciences
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 3313 1510declan.oregan

 
 
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Location

 

Imaging Sciences DepartmentHammersmith HospitalHammersmith Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

165 results found

Tayal U, Verdonschot JAJ, Hazebroek MR, Howard J, Gregson J, Newsome S, Gulati A, Pua CJ, Halliday BP, Lota AS, Buchan RJ, Whiffin N, Kanapeckaite L, Baruah R, Jarman JWE, O'Regan DP, Barton PJR, Ware JS, Pennell DJ, Adriaans BP, Bekkers SCAM, Donovan J, Frenneaux M, Cooper LT, Januzzi JL, Cleland JGF, Cook SA, Deo RC, Heymans SRB, Prasad SKet al., 2022, Precision phenotyping of dilated cardiomyopathy using multidimensional data., Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol: 79, Pages: 2219-2232, ISSN: 0735-1097

BACKGROUND: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a final common manifestation of heterogenous etiologies. Adverse outcomes highlight the need for disease stratification beyond ejection fraction. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify novel, reproducible subphenotypes of DCM using multiparametric data for improved patient stratification. METHODS: Longitudinal, observational UK-derivation (n = 426; median age 54 years; 67% men) and Dutch-validation (n = 239; median age 56 years; 64% men) cohorts of DCM patients (enrolled 2009-2016) with clinical, genetic, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, and proteomic assessments. Machine learning with profile regression identified novel disease subtypes. Penalized multinomial logistic regression was used for validation. Nested Cox models compared novel groupings to conventional risk measures. Primary composite outcome was cardiovascular death, heart failure, or arrhythmia events (median follow-up 4 years). RESULTS: In total, 3 novel DCM subtypes were identified: profibrotic metabolic, mild nonfibrotic, and biventricular impairment. Prognosis differed between subtypes in both the derivation (P < 0.0001) and validation cohorts. The novel profibrotic metabolic subtype had more diabetes, universal myocardial fibrosis, preserved right ventricular function, and elevated creatinine. For clinical application, 5 variables were sufficient for classification (left and right ventricular end-systolic volumes, left atrial volume, myocardial fibrosis, and creatinine). Adding the novel DCM subtype improved the C-statistic from 0.60 to 0.76. Interleukin-4 receptor-alpha was identified as a novel prognostic biomarker in derivation (HR: 3.6; 95% CI: 1.9-6.5; P = 0.00002) and validation cohorts (HR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.3-2.8; P = 0.00005). CONCLUSIONS: Three reproducible, mechanistically distinct DCM subtypes were identified using widely available clinical and biological data, adding prognostic value to trad

Journal article

Vasey B, Nagendran M, Campbell B, Clifton DA, Collins GS, Denaxas S, Denniston AK, Faes L, Geerts B, Ibrahim M, Liu X, Mateen BA, Mathur P, McCradden MD, Morgan L, Ordish J, Rogers C, Saria S, Ting DSW, Watkinson P, Weber W, Wheatstone P, McCulloch P, DECIDE-AI expert groupet al., 2022, Reporting guideline for the early stage clinical evaluation of decision support systems driven by artificial intelligence: DECIDE-AI, BMJ: British Medical Journal, Vol: 377, ISSN: 0959-535X

A growing number of artificial intelligence (AI)-based clinical decision support systems are showing promising performance in preclinical, in silico, evaluation, but few have yet demonstrated real benefit to patient care. Early stage clinical evaluation is important to assess an AI system’s actual clinical performance at small scale, ensure its safety, evaluate the human factors surrounding its use, and pave the way to further large scale trials. However, the reporting of these early studies remains inadequate. The present statement provides a multistakeholder, consensus-based reporting guideline for the Developmental and Exploratory Clinical Investigations of DEcision support systems driven by Artificial Intelligence (DECIDE-AI). We conducted a two round, modified Delphi process to collect and analyse expert opinion on the reporting of early clinical evaluation of AI systems. Experts were recruited from 20 predefined stakeholder categories. The final composition and wording of the guideline was determined at a virtual consensus meeting. The checklist and the Explanation & Elaboration (E&E) sections were refined based on feedback from a qualitative evaluation process. 123 experts participated in the first round of Delphi, 138 in the second, 16 in the consensus meeting, and 16 in the qualitative evaluation. The DECIDE-AI reporting guideline comprises 17 AI specific reporting items (made of 28 subitems) and 10 generic reporting items, with an E&E paragraph provided for each. Through consultation and consensus with a range of stakeholders, we have developed a guideline comprising key items that should be reported in early stage clinical studies of AI-based decision support systems in healthcare. By providing an actionable checklist of minimal reporting items, the DECIDE-AI guideline will facilitate the appraisal of these studies and replicability of their findings.

Journal article

Thanaj M, Mielke J, McGurk K, Bai W, Savioli N, Simoes Monteiro de Marvao A, Meyer H, Zeng L, Sohler F, Lumbers T, Wilkins M, Ware J, Bender C, Rueckert D, MacNamara A, Freitag D, O'Regan Det al., 2022, Genetic and environmental determinants of diastolic heart function, Nature Cardiovascular Research, Vol: 1, Pages: 361-371, ISSN: 2731-0590

Diastole is the sequence of physiological events that occur in the heart during ventricular filling and principally depends onmyocardial relaxation and chamber stiffness. Abnormal diastolic function is related to many cardiovascular disease processesand is predictive of health outcomes, but its genetic architecture is largely unknown. Here, we use machine learning cardiacmotion analysis to measure diastolic functional traits in 39,559 participants of the UK Biobank and perform a genome-wideassociation study. We identified 9 significant, independent loci near genes that are associated with maintaining sarcomericfunction under biomechanical stress and genes implicated in the development of cardiomyopathy. Age, sex and diabetes wereindependent predictors of diastolic function and we found a causal relationship between genetically-determined ventricularstiffness and incident heart failure. Our results provide insights into the genetic and environmental factors influencing diastolicfunction that are relevant for identifying causal relationships and potential tractable targets.

Journal article

Manchester E, Pirola S, Salmasi MY, O'Regan D, Athanasiou T, Xu Xet al., 2022, Evaluation of computational methodologies for accurate prediction of wall shear stress and turbulence parameters in a patient-specific aorta, Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2296-4185

Background: Recent studies suggest that blood flow in main arteries is intrinsically disturbed, even under healthy conditions. Despite this, many computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of aortic haemodynamics make the assumption of laminar flow, and best practices surroundingappropriate modelling choices are lacking. This study aims to address this gap by evaluating different modelling and post-processing approaches in simulations of a patient-specific aorta. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 4D flow MRI from a patient with aortic valve stenosis were used to reconstruct the aortic geometry and derive patient-specific inlet and outlet boundary conditions. Three different computational approaches were considered based on assumed laminar or assumed disturbed flow states including low-resolution laminar (LR-laminar),high-resolution laminar (HR-Laminar) and large-eddy simulation (LES). Each simulation was ran for 30 cardiac cycles and post-processing was conducted on either the final cardiac cycle, or using a phase-averaged approach which utilised all 30 simulated cycles. Model capabilities were evaluated in terms of mean and turbulence-based parameters. Results: All simulation types, regardless of post-processing approach could correctly predict velocity values and flow patterns throughout the aorta. Lower resolution simulations could not accurately predict gradient-derived parameters including wall shear stress and viscous energy loss (largest differences up to 44.6% and 130.3%, respectively), although phase-averagingthese parameters improved predictions. The HR-Laminar simulation produced more comparable results to LES with largest differences in wall shear stress and viscous energy loss parameters up to 5.1% and 11.6%, respectively. Laminar-based parameters were better estimated thanturbulence-based parameters.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that well-resolved laminar simulations can accurately predict many laminar-based parameters in disturbed flo

Journal article

McGurk KA, Zheng SL, Henry A, Josephs K, Edwards M, de Marvao A, Whiffin N, Roberts A, Lumbers TR, O'Regan DP, Ware JSet al., 2022, Correspondence on "ACMG SF v3.0 list for reporting of secondary findings in clinical exome and genome sequencing: a policy statement of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG)" by Miller et al, Genetics in Medicine, Vol: 24, Pages: 744-746, ISSN: 1098-3600

Journal article

Meng Q, Bai W, Liu T, Simoes Monteiro de Marvao A, O'Regan D, Rueckert Det al., 2022, MulViMotion: shape-aware 3D myocardial motion tracking from multi-view cardiac MRI, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, ISSN: 0278-0062

Recovering the 3D motion of the heart from cine cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging enables the assessment of regional myocardial function and is important for understanding and analyzing cardiovascular disease. However, 3D cardiac motion estimation is challenging because the acquired cine CMR images are usually 2D slices which limit the accurate estimation of through-plane motion. To address this problem, we propose a novel multi-view motion estimation network (MulViMotion), which integrates 2D cine CMR images acquired in short-axis and long-axis planes to learn a consistent 3D motion field of the heart. In the proposed method, a hybrid 2D/3D network is built to generate dense 3D motion fields by learning fused representations from multi-view images. To ensure that the motion estimation is consistent in 3D, a shape regularization module is introduced during training, where shape information from multi-view images is exploited to provide weak supervision to 3D motion estimation. We extensively evaluate the proposed method on 2D cine CMR images from 580 subjects of the UK Biobank study for 3D motion tracking of the left ventricular myocardium. Experimental results show that the proposed method quantitatively and qualitatively outperforms competing methods.

Journal article

Meng Q, Bai W, Liu T, Simoes Monteiro de Marvao A, O'Regan D, Rueckert Det al., 2022, Multiview Motion Estimation for 3D cardiac motion tracking

Code for paper ''MulViMotion: Shape-aware 3D Myocardial Motion Tracking from Multi-View Cardiac MRI''

Software

Jia X, Thorley A, Chen W, Qiu H, Shen L, Styles IB, Chang HJ, Leonardis A, de Marvao A, O'Regan DP, Rueckert D, Duan Jet al., 2022, Learning a Model-Driven Variational Network for Deformable Image Registration, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING, Vol: 41, Pages: 199-212, ISSN: 0278-0062

Journal article

Osimo E, Sweeney M, De Marvao A, Berry A, Statton B, Perry BI, Pillinger T, Whitehurst T, Cook S, ORegan D, Thomas EL, Howes ODet al., 2021, Adipose tissue dysfunction, inflammation, and insulin resistance: alternative pathways to cardiac remodelling in schizophrenia. A multimodal, case-control study, Translational Psychiatry, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2158-3188

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia show evidence of concentric cardiac remodelling (CCR), defined as an increase in left-ventricular mass over end-diastolic volumes. CCR is a predictor of cardiac disease, but the molecular pathways leading to this in schizophrenia are unknown. We aimed to explore the relevance of hypertensive and non-hypertensive pathways to CCR and their potential molecular underpinnings in schizophrenia. In this multimodal case–control study, we collected cardiac and whole-body fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), clinical measures, and blood levels of several cardiometabolic biomarkers known to potentially cause CCR from individuals with schizophrenia, alongside healthy controls (HCs) matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and body surface area. Of the 50 participants, 34 (68%) were male. Participants with schizophrenia showed increases in cardiac concentricity (d = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.12, 1.30; p = 0.01), indicative of CCR, but showed no differences in overall content or regional distribution of adipose tissue compared to HCs. Despite the cardiac changes, participants with schizophrenia did not demonstrate activation of the hypertensive CCR pathway; however, they showed evidence of adipose dysfunction: adiponectin was reduced (d = −0.69, 95% CI: −1.28, −0.10; p = 0.02), with evidence of activation of downstream pathways, including hypertriglyceridemia, elevated C-reactive protein, fasting glucose, and alkaline phosphatase. In conclusion, people with schizophrenia showed adipose tissue dysfunction compared to body mass-matched HCs. The presence of non-hypertensive CCR and a dysmetabolic phenotype may contribute to excess cardiovascular risk in schizophrenia. If our results are confirmed, acting on this pathway could reduce cardiovascular risk and resultant life-years lost in people with schizophrenia.

Journal article

Keenan NG, Captur G, McCann GP, Berry C, Myerson SG, Fairbairn T, Hudsmith L, O'Regan DP, Westwood M, Greenwood JPet al., 2021, Regional variation in cardiovascular magnetic resonance service delivery across the UK, Heart, Vol: 107, Pages: 1974-1979, ISSN: 1355-6037

OBJECTIVES: To examine service provision in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in the UK. Equitable access to diagnostic imaging is important in healthcare. CMR is widely available in the UK, but there may be regional variations. METHODS: An electronic survey was sent by the British Society of CMR to the service leads of all CMR units in the UK in 2019 requesting data from 2017 and 2018. Responses were analysed by region and interpreted alongside population statistics. RESULTS: The survey response rate was 100% (82 units). 100 386 clinical scans were performed in 2017 and 114 967 in 2018 (15% 1-year increase; 5-fold 10-year increase compared with 2008 data). In 2018, there were 1731 CMR scans/million population overall, with significant regional variation, for example, 4256 scans/million in London vs 396 scans/million in Wales. Median number of clinical scans per unit was 780, IQR 373-1951, range 98-10 000, with wide variation in mean waiting times (median 41 days, IQR 30-49, range 5-180); median 25 days in London vs 180 days in Northern Ireland). Twenty-five units (30%) reported mean elective waiting times in excess of 6 weeks, and 8 (10%) ≥3 months. There were 351 consultants reporting CMR, of whom 230 (66%) were cardiologists and 121 (34%) radiologists; 81% of units offered a CMR service for patients with pacemakers and defibrillators. CONCLUSIONS: This survey provides a unique, contemporary insight into national CMR delivery with 100% centre engagement. The 10-year growth in CMR usage at fivefold has been remarkable but heterogeneous across the UK, with some regions still reporting low usage or long waiting times which may be of clinical concern.

Journal article

Zekavat SM, Raghu VK, Trinder M, Ye Y, Koyama S, Honigberg MC, Yu Z, Pampana A, Urbut S, Haidermota S, O'Regan DP, Zhao H, Ellinor PT, Segrè AV, Elze T, Wiggs JL, Martone J, Adelman RA, Zebardast N, Del Priore L, Wang JC, Natarajan Pet al., 2021, Deep learning of the retina enables phenome- and genome-wide analyses of the microvasculature., Circulation, Vol: 145, Pages: 134-150, ISSN: 0009-7322

Background: The microvasculature, the smallest blood vessels in the body, has key roles in maintenance of organ health as well as tumorigenesis. The retinal fundus is a window for human in vivo non-invasive assessment of the microvasculature. Large-scale complementary machine learning-based assessment of the retinal vasculature with phenome-wide and genome-wide analyses may yield new insights into human health and disease. Methods: We utilized 97,895 retinal fundus images from 54,813 UK Biobank participants. Using convolutional neural networks to segment the retinal microvasculature, we calculated fractal dimension (FD) as a measure of vascular branching complexity, and vascular density. We associated these indices with 1,866 incident ICD-based conditions (median 10y follow-up) and 88 quantitative traits, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and ethnicity. Results: Low retinal vascular FD and density were significantly associated with higher risks for incident mortality, hypertension, congestive heart failure, renal failure, type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, anemia, and multiple ocular conditions, as well as corresponding quantitative traits. Genome-wide association of vascular FD and density identified 7 and 13 novel loci respectively, which were enriched for pathways linked to angiogenesis (e.g., VEGF, PDGFR, angiopoietin, and WNT signaling pathways) and inflammation (e.g., interleukin, cytokine signaling). Conclusions: Our results indicate that the retinal vasculature may serve as a biomarker for future cardiometabolic and ocular disease and provide insights on genes and biological pathways influencing microvascular indices. Moreover, such a framework highlights how deep learning of images can quantify an interpretable phenotype for integration with electronic health records, biomarker, and genetic data to inform risk prediction and risk modification.

Journal article

Salmasi MYB, Pirola S, Sasidharan S, Fisichella S, Redaelli A, Jarral O, O'Regan D, Oo A, Moore Jr J, Xu XY, Athanasiou Tet al., 2021, High wall shear stress can predict wall degradation in ascending aorticaneurysms: an integrated biomechanics study, Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2296-4185

Background: Blood flow patterns can alter material properties of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAA) via vascular wall remodeling. This study examines the relationship between wall shear stress (WSS) obtained from image-based computational modelling with tissue-derived mechanical and microstructural properties of the ATAA wall using segmental analysis.Methods: Ten patients undergoing surgery for ATAA were recruited. Exclusions: bicuspid aortopathy, connective tissue disease. All patients had pre-operative 4-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI), allowing for patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis and anatomically precise WSS mapping of ATAA regions (6–12 segments per patient). ATAA samples were obtained from surgery and subjected to region-specific tensile and peel testing (matched to WSS segments). Computational pathology was used to characterize elastin/collagen abundance and smooth muscle cell (SMC) count.Results: Elevated values of WSS were predictive of: reduced wall thickness [coef −0.0489, 95% CI (−0.0905, −0.00727), p = 0.022] and dissection energy function (longitudinal) [−15,0, 95% CI (−33.00, −2.98), p = 0.048]. High WSS values also predicted higher ultimate tensile strength [coef 0.136, 95% CI (0 0.001, 0.270), p = 0.048]. Additionally, elevated WSS also predicted a reduction in elastin levels [coef −0.276, 95% (CI −0.531, −0.020), p = 0.035] and lower SMC count ([oef −6.19, 95% CI (−11.41, −0.98), p = 0.021]. WSS was found to have no effect on collagen abundance or circumferential mechanical properties.Conclusions: Our study suggests an association between elevated WSS values and aortic wall degradation in ATAA disease. Further studies might help identify threshold values to predict acute aortic events.

Journal article

De Marvao A, McGurk K, Zheng S, Thanaj M, Bai W, Duan J, Halliday B, Pantazis A, Prasad S, Rueckert D, Walsh R, Ho C, Cook S, Ware J, O'Regan Det al., 2021, Outcomes and phenotypic expression of rare variants in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy genes in over 200,000 adults, ESC Congress 2021, Publisher: European Society of Cardiology, Pages: 1731-1731, ISSN: 0195-668X

BackgroundHypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is caused by rare variants in sarcomere-encoding genes, but little is known about the clinical significance of these variants in the general population.PurposeTo determine the population prevalence of HCM-associated sarcomeric variants, characterise their phenotypic manifestations, estimate penetrance, and identify associations between sarcomeric variants and clinical outcomes, we performed an observational study of 218,813 adults in the UK Biobank (UKBB), of whom 200,584 have whole exome sequencing (WES).MethodsWe carried out an integrated analysis of WES and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in UK Biobank participants stratified by sarcomere-encoding variant status. Computer vision techniques were used to automatically segment the four chambers of the heart (Figure 1). Cardiac motion analysis was used to derive strain and strain rates. Regional analysis of left ventricular wall thickness was performed using three-dimensional modelling of these segmentations.ResultsMedian age at recruitment was 58 (IQR 50–63 years), and participants were followed up for a median of 10.8 years (IQR 9.9–11.6 years) with a total of 19,507 primary clinical events reported.The prevalence of rare variants (allele frequency <0.ehab724.17314) in HCM-associated sarcomere-encoding genes in 200,584 participants was 2.9% (n=5,727; 1 in 35), and the prevalence of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants (SARC-P/LP) was 0.24% (n=474, 1 in 423).SARC-P/LP variants were associated with increased risk of death or major adverse cardiac events (MACE) compared to controls (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.37–2.06, p<0.001), mainly due to heart failure endpoints (Figure 2: cumulative hazard curves with zoomed plots for lifetime risk of A) death and MACE or B) heart failure, stratified by genotype; genotype negative (SARC-NEG), carriers of indeterminate sarcomeric variants (SARC-IND) or SARC-P/LP; C) Forest plot of comparative lifetime risk of c

Conference paper

Wang S, Qin C, Savioli N, Chen C, O'Regan D, Cook S, Guo Y, Rueckert D, Bai Wet al., 2021, Joint motion correction and super resolution for cardiac segmentationvia latent optimisation, International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI)

In cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, a 3D high-resolution segmentation of the heart is essential for detailed description of its anatomical structures. However, due to the limit of acquisition duration andrespiratory/cardiac motion, stacks of multi-slice 2D images are acquired inclinical routine. The segmentation of these images provides a low-resolution representation of cardiac anatomy, which may contain artefacts caused by motion. Here we propose a novel latent optimisation framework that jointly performs motion correction and super resolution for cardiac image segmentations. Given a low-resolution segmentation as input, the framework accounts for inter-slice motion in cardiac MR imaging and super-resolves the input into a high-resolution segmentation consistent with input. A multi-view loss is incorporated to leverage information from both short-axis view and long-axis view of cardiac imaging. To solve the inverse problem, iterative optimisation is performed in a latent space, which ensures the anatomical plausibility. This alleviates the need of paired low-resolution and high-resolution images for supervised learning. Experiments on two cardiac MR datasets show that the proposed framework achieves high performance, comparable to state-of-the-art super-resolution approaches and with better cross-domain generalisability and anatomical plausibility.

Conference paper

Thorley A, Jia X, Chang HJ, Liu B, Bunting K, Stoll V, de Marvao A, O'Regan DP, Gkoutos G, Kotecha D, Duan Jet al., 2021, Nesterov accelerated ADMM for fast diffeomorphic image registration, International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI), Publisher: SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, Pages: 150-160, ISSN: 0302-9743

Deterministic approaches using iterative optimisation have been historically successful in diffeomorphic image registration (DiffIR). Although these approaches are highly accurate, they typically carry a significant computational burden. Recent developments in stochastic approaches based on deep learning have achieved sub-second runtimes for DiffIR with competitive registration accuracy, offering a fast alternative to conventional iterative methods. In this paper, we attempt to reduce this difference in speed whilst retaining the performance advantage of iterative approaches in DiffIR. We first propose a simple iterative scheme that functionally composes intermediate non-stationary velocity fields to handle large deformations in images whilst guaranteeing diffeomorphisms in the resultant deformation. We then propose a convex optimisation model that uses a regularisation term of arbitrary order to impose smoothness on these velocity fields and solve this model with a fast algorithm that combines Nesterov gradient descent and the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Finally, we leverage the computational power of GPU to implement this accelerated ADMM solver on a 3D cardiac MRI dataset, further reducing runtime to less than 2 s. In addition to producing strictly diffeomorphic deformations, our methods outperform both state-of-the-art deep learning-based and iterative DiffIR approaches in terms of dice and Hausdorff scores, with speed approaching the inference time of deep learning-based methods.

Conference paper

Simoes Monteiro de Marvao A, McGurk K, Zheng S, Thanaj M, Bai W, Duan J, Biffi C, Mazzarotto F, Statton B, Dawes T, Savioli N, Halliday B, Xu X, Buchan R, Baksi A, Quinlan M, Tokarczuk P, Tayal U, Francis C, Whiffin N, Theotokis A, Zhang X, Jang M, Berry A, Pantazis A, Barton P, Rueckert D, Prasad S, Walsh R, Ho C, Cook S, Ware J, O'Regan Det al., 2021, Phenotypic expression and outcomes in individuals with rare genetic variants of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol: 78, Pages: 1097-1110, ISSN: 0735-1097

Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is caused by rare variants in sarcomereencoding genes, but little is known about the clinical significance of these variants in thegeneral population.Objectives: To compare lifetime outcomes and cardiovascular phenotypes according to thepresence of rare variants in sarcomere-encoding genes amongst middle-aged adults.Methods: We analysed whole exome sequencing and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)imaging in UK Biobank participants stratified by sarcomere-encoding variant status.Results: The prevalence of rare variants (allele frequency <0.00004) in HCM-associatedsarcomere-encoding genes in 200,584 participants was 2.9% (n=5,712; 1 in 35), and theprevalence of variants pathogenic or likely pathogenic for HCM (SARC-HCM-P/LP) was0.25% (n=493, 1 in 407). SARC-HCM-P/LP variants were associated with increased risk ofdeath or major adverse cardiac events compared to controls (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07,p<0.001), mainly due to heart failure endpoints (HR 4.23, 95% CI 3.07 to 5.83, p<0.001). In21,322 participants with CMR, SARC-HCM-P/LP were associated with asymmetric increasein left ventricular maximum wall thickness (10.9±2.7 vs 9.4±1.6 mm, p<0.001) buthypertrophy (≥13mm) was only present in 18.4% (n=9/49, 95% CI 9 to 32%). SARC-HCMP/LP were still associated with heart failure after adjustment for wall thickness (HR 6.74,95% CI 2.43 to 18.7, p<0.001).Conclusions: In this population of middle-aged adults, SARC-HCM-P/LP variants have lowaggregate penetrance for overt HCM but are associated with increased risk of adversecardiovascular outcomes and an attenuated cardiomyopathic phenotype. Although absoluteevent rates are low, identification of these variants may enhance risk stratification beyondfamilial disease.

Journal article

Onwordi EC, Whitehurst T, Mansur A, Statton B, Berry A, Quinlan M, O'Regan D, Rogdaki M, Reis Marques T, Rabiner E, Gunn R, Vernon A, Natesan S, Howes Oet al., 2021, The relationship between synaptic density marker SV2A, glutamate and N-acetyl aspartate levels in healthy volunteers and schizophrenia: a multimodal PET and magnetic resonance spectroscopy brain imaging study, Translational Psychiatry, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2158-3188

Glutamatergic excitotoxicity is hypothesised to underlie synaptic loss in schizophrenia pathogenesis, but it is unknown whether synaptic markers are related to glutamatergic function in vivo. Additionally, it has been proposed that N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) levels reflect neuronal integrity. Here, we investigated whether synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 A (SV2A) levels are related to glutamatergic markers and NAA in healthy volunteers (HV) and schizophrenia patients (SCZ). Forty volunteers (SCZ n = 18, HV n = 22) underwent [11C]UCB-J positron emission tomography and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) imaging in the left hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to index [11C]UCB-J distribution volume ratio (DVR), and creatine-scaled glutamate (Glu/Cr), glutamate and glutamine (Glx/Cr) and NAA (NAA/Cr). In healthy volunteers, but not patients, [11C]UCB-J DVR was significantly positively correlated with Glu/Cr, in both the hippocampus and ACC. Furthermore, in healthy volunteers, but not patients, [11C]UCB-J DVR was significantly positively correlated with Glx/Cr, in both the hippocampus and ACC. There were no significant relationships between [11C]UCB-J DVR and NAA/Cr in the hippocampus or ACC in healthy volunteers or patients. Therefore, an appreciable proportion of the brain 1H-MRS glutamatergic signal is related to synaptic density in healthy volunteers. This relationship is not seen in schizophrenia, which, taken with lower synaptic marker levels, is consistent with lower levels of glutamatergic terminals and/or a lower proportion of glutamatergic relative to GABAergic terminals in the ACC in schizophrenia.

Journal article

Salmasi MY, Pirola S, Mahuttanatan S, Fisichella SM, Sengupta S, Jarral OA, Oo A, O'Regan D, Xu XY, Athanasiou Tet al., 2021, Geometry and flow in ascending aortic aneurysms are influenced by left ventricular outflow tract orientation: Detecting increased wall shear stress on the outer curve of proximal aortic aneurysms., J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg

BACKGROUND: The geometrical characterization of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms in clinical practice is limited to diameter measurements. Despite growing interest in hemodynamic assessment, its relationship with ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm pathogenesis is poorly understood. This study examines the relationship between geometry of the ventriculo-aortic junction and blood flow patterns in ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm disease. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (exclusions: bicuspid aortic valves, connective tissue disease) underwent 4-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging. After image segmentation, geometrical parameters were measured, including aortic curvature, tortuosity, length, and diameter. A unique angular measurement made by the trajectory of the left ventricular outflow tract axis and the proximal aorta was also conducted. Velocity profiles were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. In addition, 11 patients (33%) underwent wall shear stress mapping of the ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm region using computational fluid dynamics simulation. RESULTS: Greater left ventricular outflow tract aortic angles were associated with larger aortic diameters at the levels of the sinus (coefficient = 0.387, P = .014) and ascending aorta (coefficient = 0.284, P = .031). Patients with left ventricular outflow tract aortic angles greater than 60° had marked asymmetric flow acceleration on the outer curvature in the proximal aorta, ascertained from 4-dimensional flow analysis. For patients undergoing computational fluid dynamics assessment, regression analysis found that higher left ventricular outflow tract aortic angles were associated with significantly higher wall shear stress values in the outer curve of the aorta (coefficient 0.07, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.11, P = .002): Angles greater than 50° yielded time-averaged wall shear stress values g

Journal article

Garnier S, Harakalova M, Weiss S, Mokry M, Regitz-Zagrosek V, Hengstenberg C, Cappola TP, Isnard R, Arbustini E, Cook SA, van Setten J, Calis JJA, Hakonarson H, Morley MP, Stark K, Prasad SK, Li J, O'Regan DP, Grasso M, Muller-Nurasyid M, Meitinger T, Empana J-P, Strauch K, Waldenberger M, Marguiles KB, Seidman CE, Kararigas G, Meder B, Haas J, Boutouyrie P, Lacolley P, Jouven X, Erdmann J, Blankenberg S, Wichter T, Ruppert V, Tavazzi L, Dubourg O, Roizes G, Dorent R, de Groote P, Fauchier L, Trochu J-N, Aupetit J-F, Bilinska ZT, Germain M, Volker U, Hemerich D, Raji I, Bacq-Daian D, Proust C, Remior P, Gomez-Bueno M, Lehnert K, Maas R, Olaso R, Saripella GV, Felix SB, McGinn S, Duboscq-Bidot L, van Mil A, Besse C, Fontaine V, Blanche H, Ader F, Keating B, Curjol A, Boland A, Komajda M, Cambien F, Deleuze J-F, Dorr M, Asselbergs FW, Villard E, Tregouet D-A, Charron Pet al., 2021, Genome-wide association analysis in dilated cardiomyopathy reveals two new players in systolic heart failure on chromosomes 3p25.1 and 22q11.23, EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL, Vol: 42, Pages: 2000-2011, ISSN: 0195-668X

Journal article

Manchester E, Pirola S, Salmasi M, O'Regan D, Athanasiou T, Xu Xet al., 2021, Analysis of turbulence effects in a patient-specific aorta with aortic valve stenosis, Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology, Vol: 12, Pages: 438-453, ISSN: 1869-408X

Blood flow in the aorta is often assumed laminar, however aortic valve pathologies may induce transition to turbulence and our understanding of turbulence effects is incomplete. The aim of the study was to provide a detailed analysis of turbulence effects in aortic valve stenosis (AVS).Methods:Large-eddy simulation (LES) of flow through a patient-specific aorta with AVS was conducted. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed and used for geometric reconstruction and patient-specific boundary conditions. Computed velocity field was compared with 4D flow MRI to check qualitative and quantitative consistency. The effect of turbulence was evaluated in terms of fluctuating kinetic energy, turbulence-related wall shear stress (WSS) and energy loss.Results:Our analysis suggested that turbulence was induced by a combination of a high velocity jet impinging on the arterial wall and a dilated ascending aorta which provided sufficient space for turbulence to develop. Turbulent WSS contributed to 40% of the total WSS in the ascending aorta and 38% in the entire aorta. Viscous and turbulent irreversible energy losses accounted for 3.9 and 2.7% of the total stroke work, respectively.Conclusions:This study demonstrates the importance of turbulence in assessing aortic haemodynamics in a patient with AVS. Neglecting the turbulent contribution to WSS could potentially result in a significant underestimation of the total WSS. Further work is warranted to extend the analysis to more AVS cases and patients with other aortic valve diseases.

Journal article

Mazzarotto F, Hawley MH, Beltrami M, Beekman L, De Marvao A, McGurk K, Statton B, Boschi B, Girolami F, Roberts AM, Lodder EM, Allouba M, Romeih S, Aguib Y, Baksi J, Pantazis A, Prasad SK, Cerbai E, Yacoub M, O'Regan D, Cook S, Ware J, Funke B, Olivotto I, Bezzina C, Barton P, Walsh Ret al., 2021, Systematic large-scale assessment of the genetic architecture of left ventricular non-compaction reveals diverse aetiologies, Genetics in Medicine, Vol: 23, Pages: 856-864, ISSN: 1098-3600

Purpose: To characterise the genetic architecture of left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) and investigate the extent to which it may represent a distinct pathology or a secondary phenotype associated with other cardiac diseases.Methods: We performed rare variant association analysis with 840 LVNC cases and 125,748 gnomAD population controls, and compared results to similar analyses on dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Results: We observed substantial genetic overlap indicating that LVNC often represents a phenotypic variation of DCM or HCM. In contrast, truncating variants (TV) in MYH7, ACTN2 and PRDM16 were uniquely associated with LVNC and may reflect a distinct LVNC aetiology. In particular, MYH7 TV, generally considered non-pathogenic for cardiomyopathies, were 20-fold enriched in LVNC cases over controls. MYH7 TV heterozygotes identified in the UK Biobank and healthy volunteer cohorts also displayed significantly greater non-compaction compared to matched controls. RYR2 exon deletions and HCN4 transmembrane variants were also enriched in LVNC, supporting prior reports of association with arrhythmogenic LVNC phenotypes.Conclusions: LVNC is characterised by substantial genetic overlap with DCM/HCM but is also associated with distinct non-compaction and arrhythmia aetiologies. These results will enable enhanced application of LVNC genetic testing and help to distinguish pathological from physiological non-compaction.

Journal article

Ware J, Tadros R, Francis C, Xu X, Matthews P, watkins H, Bezzina Cet al., 2021, Shared genetic pathways contribute to risk of hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies with opposite directions of effect, Nature Genetics, Vol: 53, Pages: 128-134, ISSN: 1061-4036

The heart muscle diseases hypertrophic (HCM) and dilated (DCM) cardiomyopathies are leading causes of sudden death and heart failure in young otherwise healthy individuals. We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and multi-trait analyses in HCM (1,733 cases), DCM (5,521 cases), and nine left ventricular (LV) traits in 19,260 UK Biobank participants with structurally-normal hearts. We identified 16 loci associated with HCM, 13 with DCM, and 23 with LV traits. We show strong genetic correlations between LV traits and cardiomyopathies, with opposing effects in HCM and DCM. Two-sample Mendelian randomization supports a causal association linking increased contractility with HCM risk. A polygenic risk score (PRS) explains a significant portion of phenotypic variability in carriers of HCM-causing rare variants. Our findings thus provide evidence that PRS may account for variability in Mendelian diseases. More broadly, we provide insights into how genetic pathways may lead to distinct disorders through opposing genetic effects.

Journal article

Lu W, Jia X, Chen W, Savioli N, de Marvao A, Shen L, O'Regan D, Duan Jet al., 2021, One-stage Multi-task Detector for 3D Cardiac MR Imaging, 25th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), Publisher: IEEE COMPUTER SOC, Pages: 1949-1955, ISSN: 1051-4651

Conference paper

Zhang X, Walsh R, Whiffin N, Buchan R, Midwinter W, Wilk A, Govind R, Li N, Ahmad M, Mazzarotto F, Roberts A, Theotokis P, Mazaika E, Allouba M, de Marvao A, Pua CJ, Day SM, Ashley E, Colan SD, Michels M, Pereira AC, Jacoby D, Ho CY, Olivotto I, Gunnarsson GT, Jefferies J, Semsarian C, Ingles J, ORegan DP, Aguib Y, Yacoub MH, Cook SA, Barton PJR, Bottolo L, Ware JSet al., 2021, Disease-specific variant pathogenicity prediction significantly improves variant interpretation in inherited cardiac conditions, Genetics in Medicine, Vol: 23, Pages: 69-79, ISSN: 1098-3600

Background: Accurate discrimination of benign and pathogenic rare variation remains a priority for clinical genome interpretation. State-of-the-art machine learning tools are useful for genome-wide variant prioritisation but remain imprecise. Since the relationship between molecular consequence and likelihood of pathogenicity varies between genes with distinct molecular mechanisms, we hypothesised that a disease-specific classifier may outperform existing genome-wide tools. Methods: We present a novel disease-specific variant classification tool, CardioBoost, that estimates the probability of pathogenicity for rare missense variants in inherited cardiomyopathies and arrhythmias, trained with variants of known clinical effect. To benchmark against state-of-the-art genome-wide pathogenicity classification tools, we assessed classification of hold-out test variants using both overall performance metrics, and metrics of high-confidence (&gt;90%) classifications relevant to variant interpretation. We further evaluated the prioritisation of variants associated with disease and patient clinical outcomes, providing validations that are robust to potential mis-classification in gold-standard reference datasets.Results: CardioBoost has higher discriminating power than published genome-wide variant classification tools in distinguishing between pathogenic and benign variants based on overall classification performance measures with the highest area under the Precision-Recall Curve as 91% for cardiomyopathies and as 96% for inherited arrhythmias. When assessed at high-confidence (&gt;90%) classification thresholds, prediction accuracy is improved by at least 120% over existing tools for both cardiomyopathies and arrhythmias, with significantly improved sensitivity and specificity. Finally, CardioBoost improves prioritisation of variants significantly associated with disease, and stratifies survival of patients with cardiomyopathies, confirming biologically relevant vari

Journal article

Keenan N, Captur G, McCann G, Berry C, Myerson S, Fairbairn T, Hudsmith L, O'Regan D, Westwood M, Greenwood Jet al., 2020, UK national and regional trends in cardiovascular magnetic resonance usage - the British Society of CMR survey results, European-Society-of-Cardiology (ESC) Congress, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: 200-200, ISSN: 0195-668X

Conference paper

Onwordi EC, Halff E, Whitehurst T, Mansur A, Statton B, Berry A, Quinlan M, O'Regan D, Rogdaki M, Marques TR, Rabiner EA, Gunn RN, Vernon AC, Natesan S, Howes ODet al., 2020, The relationship between synaptic density marker SV2A and glutamate: a multimodal positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging study, 33rd Congress of the European-College-of-Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP), Publisher: ELSEVIER, Pages: S296-S296, ISSN: 0924-977X

Conference paper

Aguib Y, Allouba M, Afify A, Halawa S, El-Khatib M, Sous M, Galal A, Abdelrahman E, Shehata N, El Sawy A, Elmaghawry M, Anwer S, Kamel O, El Mozy W, Khedr H, Kharabish A, Thabet N, Theotokis P, Buchan R, Govind R, Whiffin N, Walsh R, Aguib H, ElGuindy A, O'Regan D, Cook S, Barton P, Ware J, Yacoub Met al., 2020, The Egyptian collaborative cardiac genomics (ECCO-GEN) Project: defining a healthy volunteer cohort, npj Genomic Medicine, Vol: 5, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 2056-7944

The integration of comprehensive genomic and phenotypic data from diverse ethnic populations offers unprecedented opportunities towards advancements in precision medicine and novel diagnostic technologies. Current reference genomic databases are not representative of the global human population, making variant interpretation challenging, especially in underrepresented populations such as the North African population. To address this, the Egyptian Collaborative Cardiac Genomics (ECCO-GEN) Project launched a study comprising 1,000 individuals free of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here, we present the first 391 Egyptian healthy volunteers (EHVols) recruited to establish a pilot phenotyped control cohort. All individuals underwent detailed clinical investigation, including cardiac MRI, and were sequenced using a targeted panel of 174 genes with reported roles in inherited cardiac conditions (ICC). We identified 1,262 variants in 27 cardiomyopathy genes of which 15.1% were not captured in current global and regional genetic reference databases (here: gnomAD and Great Middle Eastern (GME) Variome). The ECCO-GEN project aims at defining the genetic landscape of an understudied population and providing individual-level genetic and phenotypic data to support future studies in CVD and population genetics.

Journal article

Bai W, Suzuki H, Huang J, Francis C, Wang S, Tarroni G, Guitton F, Aung N, Fung K, Petersen SE, Piechnik SK, Neubauer S, Evangelou E, Dehghan A, O'Regan DP, Wilkins MR, Guo Y, Matthews PM, Rueckert Det al., 2020, A population-based phenome-wide association study of cardiac and aortic structure and function, Nature Medicine, Vol: 26, Pages: 1654-1662, ISSN: 1078-8956

Differences in cardiac and aortic structure and function are associated with cardiovascular diseases and a wide range of other types of disease. Here we analyzed cardiovascular magnetic resonance images from a population-based study, the UK Biobank, using an automated machine-learning-based analysis pipeline. We report a comprehensive range of structural and functional phenotypes for the heart and aorta across 26,893 participants, and explore how these phenotypes vary according to sex, age and major cardiovascular risk factors. We extended this analysis with a phenome-wide association study, in which we tested for correlations of a wide range of non-imaging phenotypes of the participants with imaging phenotypes. We further explored the associations of imaging phenotypes with early-life factors, mental health and cognitive function using both observational analysis and Mendelian randomization. Our study illustrates how population-based cardiac and aortic imaging phenotypes can be used to better define cardiovascular disease risks as well as heart–brain health interactions, highlighting new opportunities for studying disease mechanisms and developing image-based biomarkers.

Journal article

Meyer H, Dawes T, Serrani M, Bai W, Tokarczuk P, Cai J, Simoes Monteiro de Marvao A, Henry A, Lumbers T, Gierten J, Thumberger T, Wittbrodt J, Ware J, Rueckert D, Matthews P, Prasad S, Costantino M, Cook S, Birney E, O'Regan Det al., 2020, Genetic and functional insights into the fractal structure of the heart, Nature, Vol: 584, Pages: 589-594, ISSN: 0028-0836

The inner surfaces of the human heart are covered by a complex network of muscular strands that is thought to be a vestigeof embryonic development.1,2 The function of these trabeculae in adults and their genetic architecture are unknown. Toinvestigate this we performed a genome-wide association study using fractal analysis of trabecular morphology as animage-derived phenotype in 18,096 UK Biobank participants. We identified 16 significant loci containing genes associatedwith haemodynamic phenotypes and regulation of cytoskeletal arborisation.3,4 Using biomechanical simulations and humanobservational data, we demonstrate that trabecular morphology is an important determinant of cardiac performance. Throughgenetic association studies with cardiac disease phenotypes and Mendelian randomisation, we find a causal relationshipbetween trabecular morphology and cardiovascular disease risk. These findings suggest an unexpected role for myocardialtrabeculae in the function of the adult heart, identify conserved pathways that regulate structural complexity, and reveal theirinfluence on susceptibility to disease

Journal article

Osimo EF, Brugger SP, de Marvao A, Pillinger T, Whitehurst T, Statton B, Quinlan M, Berry A, Cook SA, O'Regan DP, Howes ODet al., 2020, Cardiac structure and function in schizophrenia: cardiac magnetic resonance imaging study, British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol: 217, Pages: 450-457, ISSN: 0007-1250

BACKGROUND: Heart disease is the leading cause of death in schizophrenia. However, there has been little research directly examining cardiac function in schizophrenia. AIMS: To investigate cardiac structure and function in individuals with schizophrenia using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) after excluding medical and metabolic comorbidity. METHOD: In total, 80 participants underwent CMR to determine biventricular volumes and function and measures of blood pressure, physical activity and glycated haemoglobin levels. Individuals with schizophrenia ('patients') and controls were matched for age, gender, ethnicity and body surface area. RESULTS: Patients had significantly smaller indexed left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume (effect size d = -0.82, P = 0.001), LV end-systolic volume (d = -0.58, P = 0.02), LV stroke volume (d = -0.85, P = 0.001), right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume (d = -0.79, P = 0.002), RV end-systolic volume (d = -0.58, P = 0.02), and RV stroke volume (d = -0.87, P = 0.001) but unaltered ejection fractions relative to controls. LV concentricity (d = 0.73, P = 0.003) and septal thickness (d = 1.13, P < 0.001) were significantly larger in the patients. Mean concentricity in patients was above the reference range. The findings were largely unchanged after adjusting for smoking and/or exercise levels and were independent of medication dose and duration. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with schizophrenia show evidence of concentric cardiac remodelling compared with healthy controls of a similar age, gender, ethnicity, body surface area and blood pressure, and independent of smoking and activity levels. This could be contributing to the excess cardiovascular mortality observed in schizophrenia. Future studies should investigate the contribution of antipsychotic medication to these changes.

Journal article

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