Imperial College London

DrDipenderGill

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Clinical Research Fellow
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)7904 843 810dipender.gill

 
 
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Location

 

School of a Public HealthMedical SchoolSt Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

312 results found

Dib M-J, Zagkos L, Meena D, Burgess S, Chirinos JA, Gill Det al., 2024, LDL-c Lowering, Ischemic Stroke, and Small Vessel Disease Brain Imaging Biomarkers: A Mendelian Randomization Study., Stroke

BACKGROUND: The effects of lipid-lowering drug targets on different ischemic stroke subtypes are not fully understood. We aimed to explore the mechanisms by which lipid-lowering drug targets differentially affect the risk of ischemic stroke subtypes and their underlying pathophysiology. METHODS: Using a 2-sample Mendelian randomization approach, we assessed the effects of genetically proxied low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and 3 clinically approved LDL-lowering drugs (HMGCR [3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase], PCSK9 [proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9], and NPC1L1 [Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1]) on stroke subtypes and brain imaging biomarkers associated with small vessel stroke (SVS), including white matter hyperintensity volume and perivascular spaces. RESULTS: In genome-wide Mendelian randomization analyses, lower genetically predicted LDL-c was significantly associated with a reduced risk of any stroke, ischemic stroke, and large artery stroke, supporting previous findings. Significant associations between genetically predicted LDL-c and cardioembolic stroke, SVS, and biomarkers, perivascular space and white matter hyperintensity volume, were not identified in this study. In drug-target Mendelian randomization analysis, genetically proxied reduced LDL-c through NPC1L1 inhibition was associated with lower odds of perivascular space (odds ratio per 1-mg/dL decrease, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.67-0.93]) and with lower odds of SVS (odds ratio, 0.29 [95% CI, 0.10-0.85]). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides supporting evidence of a potentially protective effect of LDL-c lowering through NPC1L1 inhibition on perivascular space and SVS risk, highlighting novel therapeutic targets for SVS.

Journal article

Woolf B, Perry JA, Hong CC, Wilkins MR, Toshner M, Gill D, Burgess S, Rhodes CJet al., 2024, Multi-biobank summary data Mendelian randomisation does not support a causal effect of IL-6 signalling on risk of pulmonary arterial hypertension., Eur Respir J

Journal article

Dib M-J, Levin MG, Zhao L, Diab A, Wang Z, Ebert C, Salman O, Azzo JD, Gan S, Zamani P, Cohen JB, Gill D, Burgess S, Zagkos L, van Empel V, Richards AM, Doughty R, Rietzschel ER, Kammerhoff K, Kvikstad E, Maranville J, Schafer P, Seiffert DA, Ramirez-Valle F, Gordon DA, Chang C-P, Javaheri A, Mann DL, Cappola TP, Chirinos JAet al., 2024, Proteomic Associations of Adverse Outcomes in Human Heart Failure., J Am Heart Assoc, Vol: 13

BACKGROUND: Identifying novel molecular drivers of disease progression in heart failure (HF) is a high-priority goal that may provide new therapeutic targets to improve patient outcomes. The authors investigated the relationship between plasma proteins and adverse outcomes in HF and their putative causal role using Mendelian randomization. METHODS AND RESULTS: The authors measured 4776 plasma proteins among 1964 participants with HF with a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction enrolled in PHFS (Penn Heart Failure Study). Assessed were the observational relationship between plasma proteins and (1) all-cause death or (2) death or HF-related hospital admission (DHFA). The authors replicated nominally significant associations in the Washington University HF registry (N=1080). Proteins significantly associated with outcomes were the subject of 2-sample Mendelian randomization and colocalization analyses. After correction for multiple testing, 243 and 126 proteins were found to be significantly associated with death and DHFA, respectively. These included small ubiquitin-like modifier 2 (standardized hazard ratio [sHR], 1.56; P<0.0001), growth differentiation factor-15 (sHR, 1.68; P<0.0001) for death, A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-like protein (sHR, 1.40; P<0.0001), and pulmonary-associated surfactant protein C (sHR, 1.24; P<0.0001) for DHFA. In pathway analyses, top canonical pathways associated with death and DHFA included fibrotic, inflammatory, and coagulation pathways. Genomic analyses provided evidence of nominally significant associations between levels of 6 genetically predicted proteins with DHFA and 11 genetically predicted proteins with death. CONCLUSIONS: This study implicates multiple novel proteins in HF and provides preliminary evidence of associations between genetically predicted plasma levels of 17 candidate proteins and the risk for adverse outcomes in human HF.

Journal article

Yuan S, Xu F, Zhang H, Chen J, Ruan X, Li Y, Burgess S, Åkesson A, Li X, Gill D, Larsson SCet al., 2024, Proteomic insights into modifiable risk of venous thromboembolism and cardiovascular comorbidities., J Thromb Haemost, Vol: 22, Pages: 738-748

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been associated with several modifiable factors (MFs) and cardiovascular comorbidities. However, the mechanisms are largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to decipher proteomic pathways underlying the associations of VTE with MFs and cardiovascular comorbidities. METHODS: A 2-stage network Mendelian randomization analysis was conducted to explore the associations between 15 MFs, 1151 blood proteins, and VTE using data from a genome-wide meta-analysis including 81 190 cases of VTE. We used protein data from 35 559 individuals as the discovery analysis, and from 2 independent studies including 10 708 and 54 219 participants as the replication analyses. Based on the identified proteins, we assessed the druggability and examined the cardiovascular pleiotropy. RESULTS: The network Mendelian randomization analyses identified 10 MF-VTE, 86 MF-protein, and 34 protein-VTE associations. These associations were overall consistent in the replication analyses. Thirty-eight pathways with directionally consistent direct and indirect effects in the MF-protein-VTE pathway were identified. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 12 (LRP12: 34.3%-58.1%) and coagulation factor (F)XI (20.6%-39.6%) mediated most of the associations between 3 obesity indicators and VTE. Likewise, coagulation FXI mediated most of the smoking-VTE association (40%; 95% CI, 20%-60%) and insomnia-VTE association (27%; 95% CI, 5%-49%). Many VTE-associated proteins were highly druggable for thrombotic conditions. Five proteins (interleukin-6 receptor subunit alpha, LRP12, prothrombin, angiopoietin-1, and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4) were associated with VTE and its cardiovascular comorbidities. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that coagulation FXI, a druggable target, is an important mediator of the associations of obesity, smoking, and insomnia with VTE risk.

Journal article

Gagnon E, Daghlas I, Zagkos L, Sargurupremraj M, Georgakis MK, Anderson CD, Cronje HT, Burgess S, Arsenault BJ, Gill Det al., 2024, Mendelian Randomization Applied to Neurology: Promises and Challenges., Neurology, Vol: 102

The Mendelian randomization (MR) paradigm allows for causal inferences to be drawn using genetic data. In recent years, the expansion of well-powered publicly available genetic association data related to phenotypes such as brain tissue gene expression, brain imaging, and neurologic diseases offers exciting opportunities for the application of MR in the field of neurology. In this review, we discuss the basic principles of MR, its myriad applications to research in neurology, and potential pitfalls of injudicious applications. Throughout, we provide examples where MR-informed findings have shed light on long-standing epidemiologic controversies, provided insights into the pathophysiology of neurologic conditions, prioritized drug targets, and informed drug repurposing opportunities. With the ever-expanding availability of genome-wide association data, we project MR to become a key driver of progress in the field of neurology. It is therefore paramount that academics and clinicians within the field are familiar with the approach.

Journal article

Patel A, Gill D, Shungin D, Mantzoros CS, Knudsen LB, Bowden J, Burgess Set al., 2024, Robust use of phenotypic heterogeneity at drug target genes for mechanistic insights: Application of cis-multivariable Mendelian randomization to GLP1R gene region., Genet Epidemiol

Phenotypic heterogeneity at genomic loci encoding drug targets can be exploited by multivariable Mendelian randomization to provide insight into the pathways by which pharmacological interventions may affect disease risk. However, statistical inference in such investigations may be poor if overdispersion heterogeneity in measured genetic associations is unaccounted for. In this work, we first develop conditional F statistics for dimension-reduced genetic associations that enable more accurate measurement of phenotypic heterogeneity. We then develop a novel extension for two-sample multivariable Mendelian randomization that accounts for overdispersion heterogeneity in dimension-reduced genetic associations. Our empirical focus is to use genetic variants in the GLP1R gene region to understand the mechanism by which GLP1R agonism affects coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. Colocalization analyses indicate that distinct variants in the GLP1R gene region are associated with body mass index and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Multivariable Mendelian randomization analyses that were corrected for overdispersion heterogeneity suggest that bodyweight lowering rather than T2D liability lowering effects of GLP1R agonism are more likely contributing to reduced CAD risk. Tissue-specific analyses prioritized brain tissue as the most likely to be relevant for CAD risk, of the tissues considered. We hope the multivariable Mendelian randomization approach illustrated here is widely applicable to better understand mechanisms linking drug targets to diseases outcomes, and hence to guide drug development efforts.

Journal article

Zagkos L, Cronjé HT, Woolf B, de La Harpe R, Burgess S, Mantzoros CS, Elliott P, Yuan S, Larsson SC, Tzoulaki I, Gill Det al., 2024, Genetic investigation into the broad health implications of caffeine: evidence from phenome-wide, proteome-wide and metabolome-wide Mendelian randomization, BMC Medicine, Vol: 81, ISSN: 1741-7015

Background:Caffeine is one of the most utilized drugs in the world, yet its clinical effects are not fully understood. Circulating caffeine levels are influenced by the interplay between consumption behaviour and metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the effects of circulating caffeine levels by considering genetically predicted variation in caffeine metabolism.Methods:Leveraging genetic variants related to caffeine metabolism that affect its circulating levels, we investigated the clinical effects of plasma caffeine in a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS). We validated novel findings using a two-sample Mendelian randomization framework and explored the potential mechanisms underlying these effects in proteome-wide and metabolome-wide Mendelian randomization.Results:Higher levels of genetically predicted circulating caffeine among caffeine consumers were associated with a lower risk of obesity (odds ratio (OR) per standard deviation increase in caffeine = 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) CI: 0.95—0.98, p = 2.47 × 10−4), osteoarthrosis (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.96—0.98, P=1.10 × 10−8) and osteoarthritis (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.96 to 0.98, P = 1.09 × 10−6). Approximately one third of the protective effect of plasma caffeine on osteoarthritis risk was estimated to be mediated through lower bodyweight. Proteomic and metabolomic perturbations indicated lower chronic inflammation, improved lipid profiles, and altered protein and glycogen metabolism as potential biological mechanisms underlying these effects.Conclusions:We report novel evidence suggesting that long-term increases in circulating caffeine may reduce bodyweight and the risk of osteoarthrosis and osteoarthritis. We confirm prior genetic evidence of a protective effect of plasma caffeine on risk of overweight and obesity. Further clinical study is warranted to understand the translational relevance of these findings before clinical practice or lifestyle inte

Journal article

Chalitsios CV, Meena D, Manou M, Papagiannopoulos C, Markozannes G, Gill D, Su B, Tsilidis KK, Evangelou E, Tzoulaki Iet al., 2024, Multiple long-term conditions in people with psoriasis: a latent class and bidirectional Mendelian randomization analysis., Br J Dermatol, Vol: 190, Pages: 364-373

BACKGROUND: Coexisting long-term conditions (LTCs) in psoriasis and their potential causal associations with the disease are not well -established. OBJECTIVES: To determine distinct clusters of LTCs in people with psoriasis and the potential bidirectional causal association between these LTCs and psoriasis. METHODS: Using latent class analysis, cross-sectional data from people with psoriasis from the UK Biobank were analysed to identify distinct psoriasis-related comorbidity profiles. Linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSR) was applied to compute the genetic correlation between psoriasis and LTCs. Two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis assessed the potential causal direction using independent genetic variants that reached genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8). RESULTS: Five comorbidity clusters were identified in a population of 10 873 people with psoriasis. LDSR revealed that psoriasis was positively genetically correlated with heart failure [genetic correlation (rg) = 0.23, P = 8.8 × 10-8], depression (rg = 0.12, P = 2.7 × 10-5), coronary artery disease (CAD; rg = 0.15, P = 2 × 10-4) and type 2 diabetes (rg = 0.19, P = 3 × 10-3). Genetic liability to CAD was associated with an increased risk of psoriasis [inverse variance weighted (IVW) odds ratio (ORIVW) 1.159, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.055-1.274; P = 2 × 10-3]. The MR pleiotropy residual sum and outlier (MR-PRESSO; ORMR-PRESSO 1.13, 95% CI 1.042-1.228; P = 6 × 10-3) and the MR-robust adjusted profile score (RAPS) (ORMR-RAPS 1.149, 95% CI 1.062-1.242; P = 5 × 10-4) approaches corroborate the IVW findings. The weighted median (WM) generated similar and consistent effect estimates but was not statistically significant (ORWM 1.076, 95% CI 0.949-1.221; P = 0.25). Evidence for a suggestive increased risk was detected for CAD (ORIVW 1.031, 95% CI 1.003-1.059; P = 0.03) and heart failure (ORIVW 1.019, 95% CI 1.005-1.033; P = 9 &time

Journal article

Wang M, Zhang Z, Daghlas I, Gill D, Liu D, Lian Xet al., 2024, Adiposity and Functional Outcome After Ischemic Stroke: A Mendelian Randomization Study., Neurology, Vol: 102

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the causal relationships of abdominal adiposity (waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]) and overall adiposity (body mass index [BMI]) with functional outcome after ischemic stroke using Mendelian randomization. METHODS: Genetic instruments for WHR and BMI were obtained from the largest available genome-wide association studies meta-analysis of the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits consortium and the UK Biobank (N max = 806,834). Functional outcome after ischemic stroke was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 3-month after stroke onset, with mRS >2 (mRS 3-6) defined as an unfavorable functional outcome. Corresponding genetic estimates for an unfavorable functional outcome were extracted from the Genetics of Ischemic Stroke Functional Outcome network (N = 6,021). We applied a random-effects inverse variance weighted method as our main analysis. RESULTS: Genetically predicted higher WHR (per 0.09 ratio units) was associated with unfavorable functional outcome after ischemic stroke (mRS 3-6, OR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.03-2.13; p = 0.033). The results remained directionally consistent in sensitivity analyses. Conversely, genetically predicted BMI (per 4.8 kg/m2) was not associated with unfavorable functional outcome after ischemic stroke (OR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.75-1.36; p = 0.937). DISCUSSION: This study provides genetic evidence supporting the hypothesis that abdominal adiposity has a detrimental effect on functional recovery after ischemic stroke.

Journal article

Azzo JD, Dib M-J, Zagkos L, Zhao L, Wang Z, Chang C-P, Ebert C, Salman O, Gan S, Zamani P, Cohen JB, van Empel V, Richards AM, Javaheri A, Mann DL, Rietzschel ER, Schafer PH, Seiffert DA, Gill D, Burgess S, Ramirez-Valle F, Gordon DA, Cappola TP, Chirinos JAet al., 2024, Proteomic Associations of NT-proBNP (N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide) in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction., Circ Heart Fail, Vol: 17

BACKGROUND: NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) levels are variably elevated in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), even in the presence of increased left ventricular filling pressures. NT-proBNP levels are prognostic in HFpEF and have been used as an inclusion criterion for several recent randomized clinical trials. However, the underlying biologic differences between HFpEF participants with high and low NT-proBNP levels remain to be fully understood. METHODS: We measured 4928 proteins using an aptamer-based proteomic assay (SOMAScan) in available plasma samples from 2 cohorts: (1) Participants with HFpEF enrolled in the PHFS (Penn Heart Failure Study; n=253); (2) TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist Trial) participants in the Americas (n=218). We assessed the relationship between SOMAScan-derived plasma NT-proBNP and levels of other proteins available in the SOMAScan assay version 4 using robust linear regression, with correction for multiple comparisons, followed by pathway analysis. RESULTS: NT-proBNP levels exhibited prominent proteome-wide associations in PHFS and TOPCAT cohorts. Proteins most strongly associated with NT-proBNP in both cohorts included SVEP1 (sushi, von Willebrand factor type-A, epidermal growth factor, and pentraxin domain containing 1; βTOPCAT=0.539; P<0.0001; βPHFS=0.516; P<0.0001) and ANGPT2 (angiopoietin 2; βTOPCAT=0.571; P<0.0001; βPHFS=0.459; P<0.0001). Canonical pathway analysis demonstrated consistent associations with multiple pathways related to fibrosis and inflammation. These included hepatic fibrosis and inhibition of matrix metalloproteases. Analyses using cut points corresponding to estimated quantitative concentrations of 360 pg/mL (and 480 pg/mL in atrial fibrillation) revealed similar proteomic associations. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating NT-proBNP levels exhibit prominent proteomic associations in HFpEF. O

Journal article

Yarmolinsky J, Robinson JW, Mariosa D, Karhunen V, Huang J, Dimou N, Murphy N, Burrows K, Bouras E, Smith-Byrne K, Lewis SJ, Galesloot TE, Kiemeney LA, Vermeulen S, Martin P, Albanes D, Hou L, Newcomb PA, White E, Wolk A, Wu AH, Le Marchand L, Phipps AI, Buchanan DD, International Lung Cancer Consortium, PRACTICAL Consortium, Zhao SS, Gill D, Chanock SJ, Purdue MP, Davey Smith G, Brennan P, Herzig K-H, Järvelin M-R, Amos CI, Hung RJ, Dehghan A, Johansson M, Gunter MJ, Tsilidis KK, Martin RMet al., 2024, Association between circulating inflammatory markers and adult cancer risk: a Mendelian randomization analysis., EBioMedicine, Vol: 100

BACKGROUND: Tumour-promoting inflammation is a "hallmark" of cancer and conventional epidemiological studies have reported links between various inflammatory markers and cancer risk. The causal nature of these relationships and, thus, the suitability of these markers as intervention targets for cancer prevention is unclear. METHODS: We meta-analysed 6 genome-wide association studies of circulating inflammatory markers comprising 59,969 participants of European ancestry. We then used combined cis-Mendelian randomization and colocalisation analysis to evaluate the causal role of 66 circulating inflammatory markers in risk of 30 adult cancers in 338,294 cancer cases and up to 1,238,345 controls. Genetic instruments for inflammatory markers were constructed using genome-wide significant (P < 5.0 × 10-8) cis-acting SNPs (i.e., in or ±250 kb from the gene encoding the relevant protein) in weak linkage disequilibrium (LD, r2 < 0.10). Effect estimates were generated using inverse-variance weighted random-effects models and standard errors were inflated to account for weak LD between variants with reference to the 1000 Genomes Phase 3 CEU panel. A false discovery rate (FDR)-corrected P-value ("q-value") <0.05 was used as a threshold to define "strong evidence" to support associations and 0.05 ≤ q-value < 0.20 to define "suggestive evidence". A colocalisation posterior probability (PPH4) >70% was employed to indicate support for shared causal variants across inflammatory markers and cancer outcomes. Findings were replicated in the FinnGen study and then pooled using meta-analysis. FINDINGS: We found strong evidence to support an association of genetically-proxied circulating pro-adrenomedullin concentrations with increased breast cancer risk (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.10-1.29, q-value = 0.033, PPH4 = 84.3%) and suggestive evidence to support association

Journal article

de La Harpe R, Zagkos L, Gill D, Cronjé HT, Karhunen Vet al., 2024, Cerebrospinal and Brain Proteins Implicated in Neuropsychiatric and Risk Factor Traits: Evidence from Mendelian Randomization., Biomedicines, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2227-9059

Neuropsychiatric disorders present a global health challenge, necessitating an understanding of their molecular mechanisms for therapeutic development. Using Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis, this study explored associations between genetically predicted levels of 173 proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and 25 in the brain with 14 neuropsychiatric disorders and risk factors. Follow-up analyses assessed consistency across plasma protein levels and gene expression in various brain regions. Proteins were instrumented using tissue-specific genetic variants, and colocalization analysis confirmed unbiased gene variants. Consistent MR and colocalization evidence revealed that lower cortical expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8, coupled higher abundance in the CSF and plasma, associated with lower fluid intelligence scores and decreased bipolar disorder risk. Additionally, elevated apolipoprotein-E2 and hepatocyte growth factor-like protein in the CSF and brain were related to reduced leisure screen time and lower odds of physical activity, respectively. Furthermore, elevated CSF soluble tyrosine-protein kinase receptor 1 level increased liability to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia alongside lower fluid intelligence scores. This research provides genetic evidence supporting novel tissue-specific proteomic targets for neuropsychiatric disorders and their risk factors. Further exploration is necessary to understand the underlying biological mechanisms and assess their potential for therapeutic intervention.

Journal article

Corpas M, Siddiqui MK, Soremekun O, Mathur R, Gill D, Fatumo Set al., 2024, Addressing Ancestry and Sex Bias in Pharmacogenomics., Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, Vol: 64, Pages: 53-64

The association of an individual's genetic makeup with their response to drugs is referred to as pharmacogenomics. By understanding the relationship between genetic variants and drug efficacy or toxicity, we are able to optimize pharmacological therapy according to an individual's genotype. Pharmacogenomics research has historically suffered from bias and underrepresentation of people from certain ancestry groups and of the female sex. These biases can arise from factors such as drugs and indications studied, selection of study participants, and methods used to collect and analyze data. To examine the representation of biogeographical populations in pharmacogenomic data sets, we describe individuals involved in gene-drug response studies from PharmGKB, a leading repository of drug-gene annotations, and showcaseCYP2D6, a gene that metabolizes approximately 25% of all prescribed drugs. We also show how the historical underrepresentation of females in clinical trials has led to significantly more adverse drug reactions in females than in males.

Journal article

Woolf B, Mason A, Zagkos L, Sallis H, Munafò MR, Gill Det al., 2024, MRSamePopTest: introducing a simple falsification test for the two-sample mendelian randomisation 'same population' assumption, BMC Research Notes, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1756-0500

Two-sample MR is an increasingly popular method for strengthening causal inference in epidemiological studies. For the effect estimates to be meaningful, variant-exposure and variant-outcome associations must come from comparable populations. A recent systematic review of two-sample MR studies found that, if assessed at all, MR studies evaluated this assumption by checking that the genetic association studies had similar demographics. However, it is unclear if this is sufficient because less easily accessible factors may also be important. Here we propose an easy-to-implement falsification test. Since recent theoretical developments in causal inference suggest that a causal effect estimate can generalise from one study to another if there is exchangeability of effect modifiers, we suggest testing the homogeneity of variant-phenotype associations for a phenotype which has been measured in both genetic association studies as a method of exploring the 'same-population' test. This test could be used to facilitate designing MR studies with diverse populations. We developed a simple R package to facilitate the implementation of our proposed test. We hope that this research note will result in increased attention to the same-population assumption, and the development of better sensitivity analyses.

Journal article

Zagkos L, Dib M-J, Cronjé HT, Elliott P, Dehghan A, Tzoulaki I, Gill D, Daghlas Iet al., 2024, Cerebrospinal fluid C1-esterase inhibitor and tie-1 levels affect cognitive performance: evidence from proteome-wide mendelian randomization., Genes, Vol: 15, ISSN: 2073-4425

OBJECTIVE: The association of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein levels with cognitive function in the general population remains largely unexplored. We performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to query which CSF proteins may have potential causal effects on cognitive performance. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Genetic associations with CSF proteins were obtained from a genome-wide association study conducted in up to 835 European-ancestry individuals and for cognitive performance from a meta-analysis of GWAS including 257,841 European-ancestry individuals. We performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to test the effect of randomly allocated variation in 154 genetically predicted CSF protein levels on cognitive performance. Findings were validated by performing colocalization analyses and considering cognition-related phenotypes. RESULTS: Genetically predicted C1-esterase inhibitor levels in the CSF were associated with a better cognitive performance (SD units of cognitive performance per 1 log-relative fluorescence unit (RFU): 0.23, 95% confidence interval: 0.12 to 0.35, p = 7.91 × 10-5), while tyrosine-protein kinase receptor Tie-1 (sTie-1) levels were associated with a worse cognitive performance (-0.43, -0.62 to -0.23, p = 2.08 × 10-5). These findings were supported by colocalization analyses and by concordant effects on distinct cognition-related and brain-volume measures. CONCLUSIONS: Human genetics supports a role for the C1-esterase inhibitor and sTie-1 in cognitive performance.

Journal article

Rogne T, Gill D, Liew Z, Shi X, Stensrud VH, Nilsen TIL, Burgess Set al., 2024, Mediating Factors in the Association of Maternal Educational Level With Pregnancy Outcomes: A Mendelian Randomization Study., JAMA Netw Open, Vol: 7

IMPORTANCE: Lower educational attainment is associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, but it is unclear which pathways mediate this association. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between educational attainment and pregnancy outcomes and the proportion of this association that is mediated through modifiable cardiometabolic risk factors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this 2-sample mendelian randomization (MR) cohort study, uncorrelated (R2 < 0.01) single-nucleotide variants (formerly single-nucleotide polymorphisms) associated with the exposure (P < 5 × 10-8) and mediators and genetic associations with the pregnancy outcomes from genome-wide association studies were extracted. All participants were of European ancestry and were largely from Finland, Iceland, the United Kingdom, or the US. The inverse variance-weighted method was used in the main analysis, and the weighted median, weighted mode, and MR Egger regression were used in sensitivity analyses. In mediation analyses, the direct effect of educational attainment estimated in multivariable MR was compared with the total effect estimated in the main univariable MR analysis. Data were extracted between December 1, 2022, and April 30, 2023. EXPOSURE: Genetically estimated educational attainment. The mediators considered were genetically estimated type 2 diabetes, body mass index, smoking, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and systolic blood pressure. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Ectopic pregnancy, hyperemesis gravidarum, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, preterm birth, and offspring birth weight. RESULTS: The analyses included 3 037 499 individuals with data on educational attainment, and those included in studies on pregnancy outcomes ranged from 141 014 for ectopic pregnancy to 270 002 with data on offspring birth weight. Each SD increase in genetically estimated educational attainment (ie, 3.4 years) was associated with an increased birth weight of 42 (95

Journal article

Emerging Risk Factors CollaborationEPIC-CVDVitamin D Studies Collaboration, 2024, Estimating dose-response relationships for vitamin D with coronary heart disease, stroke, and all-cause mortality: observational and Mendelian randomisation analyses, The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, Vol: 12, Pages: e2-e11, ISSN: 2213-8587

BackgroundRandomised trials of vitamin D supplementation for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality have generally reported null findings. However, generalisability of results to individuals with low vitamin D status is unclear. We aimed to characterise dose-response relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations and risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and all-cause mortality in observational and Mendelian randomisation frameworks.MethodsObservational analyses were undertaken using data from 33 prospective studies comprising 500 962 individuals with no known history of coronary heart disease or stroke at baseline. Mendelian randomisation analyses were performed in four population-based cohort studies (UK Biobank, EPIC-CVD, and two Copenhagen population-based studies) comprising 386 406 middle-aged individuals of European ancestries, including 33 546 people who developed coronary heart disease, 18 166 people who had a stroke, and 27 885 people who died. Primary outcomes were coronary heart disease, defined as fatal ischaemic heart disease (International Classification of Diseases 10th revision code I20-I25) or non-fatal myocardial infarction (I21-I23); stroke, defined as any cerebrovascular disease (I60-I69); and all-cause mortality.FindingsObservational analyses suggested inverse associations between incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and all-cause mortality outcomes with 25(OH)D concentration at low 25(OH)D concentrations. In population-wide genetic analyses, there were no associations of genetically predicted 25(OH)D with coronary heart disease (odds ratio [OR] per 10 nmol/L higher genetically-predicted 25(OH)D concentration 0·98, 95% CI 0·95–1·01), stroke (1·01, [0·97–1·05]), or all-cause mortality (0·99, 0·95–1·02). Null findings were also observed in genetic analyses for cause-specific mortality outcomes, and in stratified genetic analyses for

Journal article

Qin S, Wang M, Gill D, Zhang Z, Liu Xet al., 2024, The mediating role of atrial fibrillation in causal associations between risk factors and stroke: a Mendelian randomization study., Epidemiol Health, Vol: 46

OBJECTIVES: Atrial fibrillation (AF) contributes to stroke development and progression. We aimed to quantify the mediating role of AF in the causal associations between a wide range of risk factors and stroke via a Mendelian randomization (MR) framework. METHODS: We assessed the associations of 108 traits with stroke and its subtypes in a 2-sample univariable MR approach, then conducted a bidirectional MR analysis between these 108 traits and AF to evaluate the presence and direction of their causal associations. Finally, to further investigate the extent to which AF mediated the effects of eligible traits on stroke, we applied multivariable and 2-step MR techniques in a mediation analysis where outcomes were restricted to stroke types causally affected by AF (any stroke [AS], any ischemic stroke [AIS], and cardioembolic stroke [CES]). RESULTS: Among 108 traits, 42 were putatively causal for at least 1 stroke type; of these 42 traits, 20 that had no bidirectional relationship with AF were retained. Finally, 33 associations of 15 eligible traits were examined in the mediation analysis. The mediation analyses for AS, AIS, and CES each included 11 eligible traits. After AF adjustment, the direct effects of all traits on CES were attenuated to null (all p>0.05), while the associations with AS and AIS persisted for most traits (AF-mediated proportion: from 6.6% [95% confidence interval, 2.7 to 0.6] to 52.0% [95% confidence interval, 39.8 to 64.3]). CONCLUSIONS: The causal associations between all eligible traits and CES were largely mediated through AF, while most traits affected AS and AIS independently of AF.

Journal article

Gill D, Zagkos L, Gill R, Benzing T, Jordan J, Birkenfeld AL, Burgess S, Zahn Get al., 2023, The citrate transporter SLC13A5 as a therapeutic target for kidney disease: evidence from Mendelian randomization to inform drug development, BMC Medicine, Vol: 21, ISSN: 1741-7015

Background:Solute carrier family 13 member 5 (SLC13A5) is a Na+-coupled citrate co-transporter that mediates entry of extracellular citrate into the cytosol. SLC13A5 inhibition has been proposed as a target for reducing progression of kidney disease. The aim of this study was to leverage the Mendelian randomization paradigm to gain insight into the effects of SLC13A5 inhibition in humans, towards prioritizing and informing clinical development efforts.Methods:The primary Mendelian randomization analyses investigated the effect of SLC13A5 inhibition on measures of kidney function, including creatinine and cystatin C-based measures of estimated glomerular filtration rate (creatinine-eGFR and cystatin C-eGFR), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urine albumin-creatinine ratio (uACR), and risk of chronic kidney disease and microalbuminuria. Secondary analyses included a paired plasma and urine metabolome-wide association study, investigation of secondary traits related to SLC13A5 biology, a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS), and a proteome-wide association study. All analyses were compared to the effect of genetically predicted plasma citrate levels using variants selected from across the genome, and statistical sensitivity analyses robust to the inclusion of pleiotropic variants were also performed. Data were obtained from large-scale genetic consortia and biobanks, with sample sizes ranging from 5023 to 1,320,016 individuals.Results:We found evidence of associations between genetically proxied SLC13A5 inhibition and higher creatinine-eGFR (p = 0.002), cystatin C-eGFR (p = 0.005), and lower BUN (p = 3 × 10−4). Statistical sensitivity analyses robust to the inclusion of pleiotropic variants suggested that these effects may be a consequence of higher plasma citrate levels. There was no strong evidence of associations of genetically proxied SLC13A5 inhibition with uACR or risk of CKD or microalbuminuria. Sec

Journal article

Woolf B, Rajasundaram S, Cronjé HT, Yarmolinsky J, Burgess S, Gill Det al., 2023, A drug target for erectile dysfunction to help improve fertility, sexual activity, and wellbeing: mendelian randomisation study, BMJ: British Medical Journal, Vol: 383, ISSN: 0959-535X

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of genetically proxied (using a surrogate biomarker) inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), an established drug target for erectile dysfunction, with fertility, sexual behaviour, and subjective wellbeing. DESIGN: Two sample cis-mendelian randomisation study. SETTING: Summary data on genetic associations obtained from the International Consortium for Blood Pressure and UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals of European ancestry from the International Consortium for Blood Pressure (n=757 601) for estimating PDE5 inhibition (using the surrogate biomarker of diastolic blood pressure reduction), and UK Biobank (n=211 840) for estimating the fertility, sexual behaviour, and subjective wellbeing outcomes in male participants. INTERVENTION: Genetically proxied PDE5 inhibition. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of children fathered, number of sexual partners, probability of never having had sexual intercourse, and subjective wellbeing. RESULTS: Genetically proxied PDE5 inhibition was associated with male participants having 0.28 (95% confidence interval 0.16 to 0.39) more children (false discovery rate corrected P<0.001). This association was not identified in female participants. No evidence was found of an association between genetically proxied PDE5 inhibition and number of sexual partners, probability of never having had sexual intercourse, or self-reported wellbeing in male participants. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study provide genetic support for PDE5 inhibition potentially increasing the number of children fathered by male individuals. Absence of this association in female participants supports increased propensity for sustained and robust penile erections as a potential underlying mechanism. Further studies are required to confirm this, however, and these findings should not promote indiscriminate use of PDE5 inhibitors, which can also have harmful adverse effects.

Journal article

Yang F, Xu F, Zhang H, Gill D, Larsson SC, Li X, Cui H, Yuan Set al., 2023, Proteomic insights into the associations between obesity, lifestyle factors, and coronary artery disease., BMC Med, Vol: 21

BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the protein pathways linking obesity and lifestyle factors to coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Summary-level genome-wide association statistics of CAD were obtained from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium (60,801 cases and 123,504 controls) and the FinnGen study (R8, 39,036 cases and 303,463 controls). Proteome-wide Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis was conducted to identify CAD-associated blood proteins, supplemented by colocalization analysis to minimize potential bias caused by linkage disequilibrium. Two-sample MR analyses were performed to assess the associations of genetically predicted four obesity measures and 13 lifestyle factors with CAD risk and CAD-associated proteins' levels. A two-step network MR analysis was conducted to explore the mediating effects of proteins in the associations between these modifiable factors and CAD. RESULTS: Genetically predicted levels of 41 circulating proteins were associated with CAD, and 17 of them were supported by medium to high colocalization evidence. PTK7 (protein tyrosine kinase-7), RGMB (repulsive guidance molecule BMP co-receptor B), TAGLN2 (transgelin-2), TIMP3 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3), and VIM (vimentin) were identified as promising therapeutic targets. Several proteins were found to mediate the associations between some modifiable factors and CAD, with PCSK9, C1S, AGER (advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor), and MST1 (mammalian Ste20-like kinase 1) exhibiting highest frequency among the mediating networks. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests pathways explaining the associations of obesity and lifestyle factors with CAD from alterations in blood protein levels. These insights may be used to prioritize therapeutic intervention for further study.

Journal article

Rajasundaram S, Zebardast N, Mehta P, Khawaja AP, Warwick A, Duchinski K, Burgess S, Gill D, Segrè AV, Wiggs Jet al., 2023, TIE1 and TEK signalling, intraocular pressure, and primary open-angle glaucoma: a Mendelian randomization study, Journal of Translational Medicine, Vol: 21, ISSN: 1479-5876

BACKGROUND: In primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only proven way of slowing vision loss. Schlemm's canal (SC) is a hybrid vascular and lymphatic vessel that mediates aqueous humour drainage from the anterior ocular chamber. Animal studies support the importance of SC endothelial angiopoietin-TEK signalling, and more recently TIE1 signalling, in maintaining normal IOP. However, human genetic support for a causal role of TIE1 and TEK signalling in lowering IOP is currently lacking. METHODS: GWAS summary statistics were obtained for plasma soluble TIE1 (sTIE1) protein levels (N = 35,559), soluble TEK (sTEK) protein levels (N = 35,559), IOP (N = 139,555) and POAG (Ncases = 16,677, Ncontrols = 199,580). Mendelian randomization (MR) was performed to estimate the association of genetically proxied TIE1 and TEK protein levels with IOP and POAG liability. Where significant MR estimates were obtained, genetic colocalization was performed to assess the probability of a shared causal variant (PPshared) versus distinct (PPdistinct) causal variants underlying TIE1/TEK signalling and the outcome. Publicly available single-nucleus RNA-sequencing data were leveraged to investigate differential expression of TIE1 and TEK in the human ocular anterior segment. RESULTS: Increased genetically proxied TIE1 signalling and TEK signalling associated with a reduction in IOP (- 0.21 mmHg per SD increase in sTIE1, 95% CI = - 0.09 to - 0.33 mmHg, P = 6.57 × 10-4, and - 0.14 mmHg per SD decrease in sTEK, 95% CI = - 0.03 to - 0.25 mmHg, P = 0.011), but not with POAG liability. Colocalization analysis found that the probability of a shared causal variant was greater for TIE1 and IOP than for TEK and IOP (PPshared/(PPdistinct + PPshared)

Journal article

Bassett E, Broadbent J, Gill D, Burgess S, Mason AMet al., 2023, Inconsistency in UK Biobank Event Definitions From Different Data Sources and Its Impact on Bias and Generalizability: A Case Study of Venous Thromboembolism., Am J Epidemiol

The UK Biobank study contains several sources of diagnostic data, including hospital inpatient data and self-reported conditions for ~500,000 participants, and primary care data for ~177,000 participants (35%). Epidemiological investigations require a primary disease definition, but whether to combine sources to maximize power or focus on one to ensure a consistent outcome is not clear. The consistency of definitions was investigated for venous thromboembolism (VTE) by looking at overlap when defining cases from hospital in-patient data, primary care reports, and self-reported questionnaires. VTE cases showed little overlap between data sources, with only 6% of reported events for those with primary care data identified by all three of hospital, primary care, and self-report, while 71% appeared only in one source. Deep vein thrombosis only events represented 68% of self-reported and 36% of hospital-reported VTE cases, while pulmonary embolism only events represented 20% of self-reported and 50% of hospital-reported VTE cases. Additionally, different distributions of sociodemographic characteristics were observed; for example, 46% of hospital reported VTE cases were female, compared with 58% of self-reported VTE cases. These results illustrate how seemingly neutral decisions taken to improve data quality can affect the representativeness of a dataset.

Journal article

Roychowdhury T, Klarin D, Levin MG, Spin JM, Rhee YH, Deng A, Headley CA, Tsao NL, Gellatly C, Zuber V, Shen F, Hornsby WE, Laursen IH, Verma SS, Locke AE, Einarsson G, Thorleifsson G, Graham SE, Dikilitas O, Pattee JW, Judy RL, Pauls-Verges F, Nielsen JB, Wolford BN, Brumpton BM, Dilmé J, Peypoch O, Juscafresa LC, Edwards TL, Li D, Banasik K, Brunak S, Jacobsen RL, Garcia-Barrio MT, Zhang J, Rasmussen LM, Lee R, Handa A, Wanhainen A, Mani K, Lindholt JS, Obel LM, Strauss E, Oszkinis G, Nelson CP, Saxby KL, van Herwaarden JA, van der Laan SW, van Setten J, Camacho M, Davis FM, Wasikowski R, Tsoi LC, Gudjonsson JE, Eliason JL, Coleman DM, Henke PK, Ganesh SK, Chen YE, Guan W, Pankow JS, Pankratz N, Pedersen OB, Erikstrup C, Tang W, Hveem K, Gudbjartsson D, Gretarsdottir S, Thorsteinsdottir U, Holm H, Stefansson K, Ferreira MA, Baras A, Kullo IJ, Ritchie MD, Christensen AH, Iversen KK, Eldrup N, Sillesen H, Ostrowski SR, Bundgaard H, Ullum H, Burgess S, Gill D, Gallagher K, Sabater-Lleal M, DiscovEHR, Regeneron Genetics Center, UK Aneurysm Growth Study, DBDS Genomic Consortium, VA Million Veteran Program, Surakka I, Jones GT, Bown MJ, Tsao PS, Willer CJ, Damrauer SMet al., 2023, Genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies risk loci for abdominal aortic aneurysm and highlights PCSK9 as a therapeutic target., Nat Genet, Vol: 55, Pages: 1831-1842

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common disease with substantial heritability. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis from 14 discovery cohorts and uncovered 141 independent associations, including 97 previously unreported loci. A polygenic risk score derived from meta-analysis explained AAA risk beyond clinical risk factors. Genes at AAA risk loci indicate involvement of lipid metabolism, vascular development and remodeling, extracellular matrix dysregulation and inflammation as key mechanisms in AAA pathogenesis. These genes also indicate overlap between the development of AAA and other monogenic aortopathies, particularly via transforming growth factor β signaling. Motivated by the strong evidence for the role of lipid metabolism in AAA, we used Mendelian randomization to establish the central role of nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol in AAA and identified the opportunity for repurposing of proprotein convertase, subtilisin/kexin-type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors. This was supported by a study demonstrating that PCSK9 loss of function prevented the development of AAA in a preclinical mouse model.

Journal article

Giontella A, de La Harpe R, Cronje HT, Zagkos L, Woolf B, Larsson SC, Gill Det al., 2023, Caffeine intake, plasma caffeine level, and kidney function: a Mendelian randomization study, Nutrients, Vol: 15, ISSN: 2072-6643

Caffeine is a psychoactive substance widely consumed worldwide, mainly via sources such as coffee and tea. The effects of caffeine on kidney function remain unclear. We leveraged the genetic variants in the CYP1A2 and AHR genes via the two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) framework to estimate the association of genetically predicted plasma caffeine and caffeine intake on kidney traits. Genetic association summary statistics on plasma caffeine levels and caffeine intake were taken from genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses of 9876 and of >47,000 European ancestry individuals, respectively. Genetically predicted plasma caffeine levels were associated with a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measured using either creatinine or cystatin C. In contrast, genetically predicted caffeine intake was associated with an increase in eGFR and a low risk of chronic kidney disease. The discrepancy is likely attributable to faster metabolizers of caffeine consuming more caffeine-containing beverages to achieve the same pharmacological effect. Further research is needed to distinguish whether the observed effects on kidney function are driven by the harmful effects of higher plasma caffeine levels or the protective effects of greater intake of caffeine-containing beverages, particularly given the widespread use of drinks containing caffeine and the increasing burden of kidney disease.

Journal article

Georgiou AN, Zagkos L, Markozannes G, Chalitsios CV, Asimakopoulos AG, Xu W, Wang L, Mesa-Eguiagaray I, Zhou X, Loizidou EM, Kretsavos N, Theodoratou E, Gill D, Burgess S, Evangelou E, Tsilidis KK, Tzoulaki Iet al., 2023, Appraising the Causal Role of Risk Factors in Coronary Artery Disease and Stroke: A Systematic Review of Mendelian Randomization Studies., J Am Heart Assoc, Vol: 12

BACKGROUND Mendelian randomization (MR) offers a powerful approach to study potential causal associations between exposures and health outcomes by using genetic variants associated with an exposure as instrumental variables. In this systematic review, we aimed to summarize previous MR studies and to evaluate the evidence for causality for a broad range of exposures in relation to coronary artery disease and stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS MR studies investigating the association of any genetically predicted exposure with coronary artery disease or stroke were identified. Studies were classified into 4 categories built on the significance of the main MR analysis results and its concordance with sensitivity analyses, namely, robust, probable, suggestive, and insufficient. Studies reporting associations that did not perform any sensitivity analysis were classified as nonevaluable. We identified 2725 associations eligible for evaluation, examining 535 distinct exposures. Of them, 141 were classified as robust, 353 as probable, 110 as suggestive, and 926 had insufficient evidence. The most robust associations were observed for anthropometric traits, lipids, and lipoproteins and type 2 diabetes with coronary artery; disease and clinical measurements with coronary artery disease and stroke; and thrombotic factors with stroke. CONCLUSIONS Despite the large number of studies that have been conducted, only a limited number of associations were supported by robust evidence. Approximately half of the studies reporting associations presented an MR sensitivity analysis along with the main analysis that further supported the causality of associations. Future research should focus on more thorough assessments of sensitivity MR analyses and further assessments of mediation effects or nonlinearity of associations.

Journal article

Roychowdhury T, Klarin D, Levin MG, Spin JM, Rhee YH, Deng A, Headley CA, Tsao NL, Gellatly C, Zuber V, Shen F, Hornsby WE, Laursen IH, Verma SS, Locke AE, Einarsson G, Thorleifsson G, Graham SE, Dikilitas O, Pattee JW, Judy RL, Pauls-Verges F, Nielsen JB, Wolford BN, Brumpton BM, Dilme J, Peypoch O, Juscafresa LC, Edwards TL, Li D, Banasik K, Brunak S, Jacobsen RL, Garcia-Barrio MT, Zhang J, Rasmussen LM, Lee R, Handa A, Wanhainen A, Mani K, Lindholt JS, Obel LM, Strauss E, Oszkinis G, Nelson CP, Saxby KL, van Herwaarden JA, van der Laan SW, van Setten J, Camacho M, Davis FM, Wasikowski R, Tsoi LC, Gudjonsson JE, Eliason JL, Coleman DM, Henke PK, Ganesh SK, Chen YE, Guan W, Pankow JS, Pankratz N, Pedersen OB, Erikstrup C, Tang W, Hveem K, Gudbjartsson D, Gretarsdottir S, Thorsteinsdottir U, Holm H, Stefansson K, Ferreira MA, Baras A, Kullo IJ, Ritchie MD, Christensen AH, Iversen KK, Eldrup N, Sillesen H, Ostrowski SR, Bundgaard H, Ullum H, Burgess S, Gill D, Gallagher K, Sabater-Lleal M, Surakka I, Jones GT, Bown MJ, Tsao PS, Willer CJ, Damrauer SM, Dudbridge F, Samani NJet al., 2023, Genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies risk loci for abdominal aortic aneurysm and highlights PCSK9 as a therapeutic target, NATURE GENETICS, ISSN: 1061-4036

Journal article

Ciofani JL, Han D, Allahwala UK, Woolf B, Gill D, Bhindi Ret al., 2023, Lipids, Blood Pressure, and Diabetes Mellitus on Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases in East Asians: A Mendelian Randomization Study, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY, Vol: 205, Pages: 329-337, ISSN: 0002-9149

Journal article

Gill D, Woolf B, Zagkos L, Cronje HT, Tzoulaki Iet al., 2023, The cardiovascular efficacy of lipid-lowering drug targets is not entirely explained by apolipoprotein B reduction: Mendelian randomization evidence, Circulation: Genomic and Precision Medicine, Vol: 16, Pages: 490-492, ISSN: 2574-8300

Journal article

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