41 results found
Brand C, Dons E, Anaya-Boig E, et al., 2021, The climate change mitigation effects of daily active travel in cities, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Vol: 93, Pages: 1-18, ISSN: 1361-9209
Active travel (walking or cycling for transport) is considered the most sustainable form of personal transport. Yet its net effects on mobility-related CO2 emissions are complex and under-researched. Here we collected travel activity data in seven European cities and derived life cycle CO2 emissions across modes and purposes. Daily mobility-related life cycle CO2 emissions were 3.2 kgCO2 per person, with car travel contributing 70% and cycling 1%. Cyclists had 84% lower life cycle CO2 emissions than non-cyclists. Life cycle CO2 emissions decreased by −14% per additional cycling trip and decreased by −62% for each avoided car trip. An average person who ‘shifted travel modes’ from car to bike decreased life cycle CO2 emissions by 3.2 kgCO2/day. Promoting active travel should be a cornerstone of strategies to meet net zero carbon targets, particularly in urban areas, while also improving public health and quality of urban life.
Brand C, Gotschi T, Dons E, et al., 2021, The climate change mitigation impacts of active travel: Evidence from a longitudinal panel study in seven European cities, GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE-HUMAN AND POLICY DIMENSIONS, Vol: 67, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 0959-3780
Active travel (walking or cycling for transport) is considered the most sustainable and low carbon form of getting from A to B. Yet the net effects of changes in active travel on changes in mobility-related CO2 emissions are complex and under-researched. Here we collected longitudinal data on daily travel behavior, journey purpose, as well as personal and geospatial characteristics in seven European cities and derived mobility-related lifecycle CO2 emissions over time and space. Statistical modelling of longitudinal panel (n = 1849) data was performed to assess how changes in active travel, the ‘main mode’ of daily travel, and cycling frequency influenced changes in mobility-related lifecycle CO2 emissions.We found that changes in active travel have significant lifecycle carbon emissions benefits, even in European urban contexts with already high walking and cycling shares. An increase in cycling or walking consistently and independently decreased mobility-related lifecycle CO2 emissions, suggesting that active travel substituted for motorized travel – i.e. the increase was not just additional (induced) travel over and above motorized travel. To illustrate this, an average person cycling 1 trip/day more and driving 1 trip/day less for 200 days a year would decrease mobility-related lifecycle CO2 emissions by about 0.5 tonnes over a year, representing a substantial share of average per capita CO2 emissions from transport. The largest benefits from shifts from car to active travel were for business purposes, followed by social and recreational trips, and commuting to work or place of education. Changes to commuting emissions were more pronounced for those who were younger, lived closer to work and further to a public transport station.Even if not all car trips could be substituted by active travel the potential for decreasing emissions is considerable and significant. The study gives policy and practice the empirical evidence needed to assess climate
Kahlmeier S, Boig EA, Castro A, et al., 2021, Assessing the policy environment for active mobility in cities-development and feasibility of the PASTA cycling and walking policy environment score, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol: 18, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 1660-4601
The importance of setting a policy focus on promoting cycling and walking as sustainable and healthy modes of transport is increasingly recognized. However, to date a science-driven scoring system to assess the policy environment for cycling and walking is lacking. In this study, spreadsheet-based scoring systems for cycling and walking were developed, including six dimensions (cycling/walking culture, social acceptance, perception of traffic safety, advocacy, politics and urban planning). Feasibility was tested using qualitative data from pre-specified sections of semi-standardized interview and workshop reports from a European research project in seven cities, assessed independently by two experts. Disagreements were resolved by discussions of no more than 75 minutes per city. On the dimension “perception of traffic safety”, quantitative panel data were used. While the interrater agreement was fair, feasibility was confirmed in general. Validity testing against social norms towards active travel, modal split and network length was encouraging for the policy area of cycling. Rating the policy friendliness for cycling and walking separately was found to be appropriate, as different cities received the highest scores for each. Replicating this approach in a more standardized way would pave the way towards a transparent, evidence-based system for benchmarking policy approaches of cities towards cycling and walking.
Branion-Calles M, Gotschi T, Nelson T, et al., 2020, Cyclist crash rates and risk factors in a prospective cohort in seven European cities, Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol: 141, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 0001-4575
Increased cycling uptake can improve population health, but barriers include real and perceived risks. Crash risk factors are important to understand in order to improve safety and increase cycling uptake. Many studies of cycling crash risk are based on combining diverse sources of crash and exposure data, such as police databases (crashes) and travel surveys (exposure), based on shared geography and time. When conflating crash and exposure data from different sources, the risk factors that can be quantified are only those variables common to both datasets, which tend to be limited to geography (e.g. countries, provinces, municipalities) and a few general road user characteristics (e.g. gender and age strata). The Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) project was a prospective cohort study that collected both crash and exposure data from seven European cities (Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Örebro, Rome, Vienna and Zürich). The goal of this research was to use data from the PASTA project to quantify exposure-adjusted crash rates and model adjusted crash risk factors, including detailed sociodemographic characteristics, attitudes about transportation, neighbourhood built environment features and location by city. We used negative binomial regression to model the influence of risk factors independent of exposure. Of the 4,180 cyclists, 10.2 % reported 535 crashes. We found that overall crash rates were 6.7 times higher in London, the city with the highest crash rate, relative to Örebro, the city with the lowest rate. Differences in overall crash rates between cities are driven largely by crashes that did not require medical treatment and that involved motor-vehicles. In a parsimonious crash risk model, we found higher crash risks for less frequent cyclists, men, those who perceive cycling to not be well regarded in their neighbourhood, and those who live in areas of very high building density. Longitudinal collection of crash a
García-Herrero S, Aldred R, Anaya-Boig E, et al., 2020, Vulnerability of cyclists on the road. A probabilistic analysis of the database of traffic injuries in Spain focusing on type of involved vehicle and driver culpability, Pages: 403-409
The goal of this research is to explore the role of the collision partner - vehicle type and driver culpability - in incidents involving injuries to people cycling. Previous research has explored a range of factors affecting cyclist injury severity, but were more frequently focused on cyclist behaviour and/or road conditions. The database for our study includes a total of 12,318 drivers or riders of any vehicles involved in traffic injuries with victims in Spain in 2016, of which 7,488 are injured bicycle riders. The database used in our research was provided by Spain's National Traffic Department (Dirección General de Tráfico - DGT). This research uses Bayesian machine learning techniques. These have been recently used to study the severity of traffic injuries, since they provide a sound methodology for analyzing their causes and risks and predicting the probability of traffic injuries with serious injuries or fatalities. We have found proof that involvement of heavy vehicles substantially increases the likelihood of cyclists being killed or seriously injured, and that drivers are more likely than cyclists to be held responsible for the injury.
Aldred R, García-Herrero S, Anaya E, et al., 2019, Cyclist injury severity in Spain: a Bayesian analysis of police road injury data focusing on involved vehicles and route environment., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1660-4601
This study analyses factors associated with cyclist injury severity, focusing on vehicle type, route environment, and interactions between them. Data analysed was collected by Spanish police during 2016 and includes records relating to 12,318 drivers and cyclist involving in collisions with at least one injured cyclist, of whom 7230 were injured cyclists. Bayesian methods were used to model relationships between cyclist injury severity and circumstances related to the crash, with the outcome variable being whether a cyclist was killed or seriously injured (KSI) rather than slightly injured. Factors in the model included those relating to the injured cyclist, the route environment, and involved motorists. Injury severity among cyclists was likely to be higher where an Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) was involved, and certain route conditions (bicycle infrastructure, 30 kph zones, and urban zones) were associated with lower injury severity. Interactions exist between the two: collisions involving large vehicles in lower-risk environments are less likely to lead to KSIs than collisions involving large vehicles in higher-risk environments. Finally, motorists involved in a collision were more likely than the injured cyclists to have committed an error or infraction. The study supports the creation of infrastructure that separates cyclists from motor traffic. Also, action needs to be taken to address motorist behaviour, given the imbalance between responsibility and risk.
Branion-Calles M, Winters M, Nelson T, et al., 2019, Impacts of study design on sample size, participation bias, and outcome measurement: A case study from bicycling research, Journal of Transport and Health, Vol: 15, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 2214-1405
IntroductionMeasuring bicycling behaviour is critical to bicycling research. A common study design question is whether to measure bicycling behaviour once (cross-sectional) or multiple times (longitudinal). The Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) project is a longitudinal cohort study of over 10,000 participants from seven European cities over two years. We used PASTA data as a case study to investigate how measuring once or multiple times impacted three factors: a) sample size b) participation bias and c) accuracy of bicycling behaviour estimates.MethodsWe compared two scenarios: i) as if only the baseline data were collected (cross-sectional approach) and ii) as if the baseline plus repeat follow-ups were collected (longitudinal approach). We compared each approach in terms of differences in sample size, distribution of sociodemographic characteristics, and bicycling behaviour. In the cross-sectional approach, we measured participants long-term bicycling behaviour by asking for recall of typical weekly habits, while in the longitudinal approach we measured by taking the average of bicycling reported for each 7-day period.ResultsRelative to longitudinal, the cross-sectional approach provided a larger sample size and slightly better representation of certain sociodemographic groups, with worse estimates of long-term bicycling behaviour. The longitudinal approach suffered from participation bias, especially the drop-out of more frequent bicyclists. The cross-sectional approach under-estimated the proportion of the population that bicycled, as it captured ‘typical’ behaviour rather than 7-day recall. The magnitude and directionality of the difference between typical weekly (cross-sectional approach) and the average 7-day recall (longitudinal approach) varied depending on how much bicycling was initially reported.ConclusionsIn our case study we found that measuring bicycling once, resulted in a larger sample with better repres
Gascon M, Götschi T, de Nazelle A, et al., 2019, Correlates of walking for travel in seven European cities: The PASTA project., Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol: 127, Pages: 097003-1-097003-13, ISSN: 0091-6765
BACKGROUND: Although walking for travel can help in reaching the daily recommended levels of physical activity, we know relatively little about the correlates of walking for travel in the European context. OBJECTIVE: Within the framework of the European Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) project, we aimed to explore the correlates of walking for travel in European cities. METHODS: The same protocol was applied in seven European cities. Using a web-based questionnaire, we collected information on total minutes of walking per week, individual characteristics, mobility behavior, and attitude ( N = 7,875 ). Characteristics of the built environment (the home and the work/study addresses) were determined with geographic information system (GIS)-based techniques. We conducted negative binomial regression analyses, including city as a random effect. Factor and principal component analyses were also conducted to define profiles of the different variables of interest. RESULTS: Living in high-density residential areas with richness of facilities and density of public transport stations was associated with increased walking for travel, whereas the same characteristics at the work/study area were less strongly associated with the outcome when the residential and work/study environments were entered in the model jointly. A walk-friendly social environment was associated with walking for travel. All three factors describing different opinions about walking (ranging from good to bad) were associated with increased minutes of walking per week, although the importance given to certain criteria to choose a mode of transport provided different results according to the criteria. DISCUSSION: The present study supports findings from previous research regarding the role of the built environment in the promotion o
Castro A, Gaupp-Berghausen M, Dons E, et al., 2019, Physical activity of electric bicycle users compared to conventional bicycle users and non-cyclists: Insights based on health and transport data from an online survey in seven European cities, Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Vol: 1, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2590-1982
Physical activity has been widely associated with beneficial health effects. The use of electric-assist bicycles (e-bikes) can lead to increased or decreased physical activity, depending on the transport mode substituted.This study aimed to compare physical activity levels of e-bikers and conventional bicycle users (cyclists) as well as across e-bike user groups based on the transport mode substituted by e-bike. Physical activity, transport and user related parameters were analysed. Data from the longitudinal on-line survey of the PASTA project were used. The survey recruited over 10,000 participants in seven European cities.Physical activity levels, measured in Metabolic Equivalent Task minutes per week (MET min/wk), were similar among e-bikers and cyclists (4463 vs. 4085). E-bikers reported significantly longer trip distances for both e-bike (9.4 km) and bicycle trips (8.4 km) compared to cyclists for bicycle trips (4.8 km), as well as longer daily travel distances for e-bike than cyclists for bicycle (8.0 vs. 5.3 km per person, per day, respectively). Travel-related activities of e-bikers who switched from cycling decreased by around 200 MET min/wk., while those switching from private motorized vehicle and public transport gained around 550 and 800 MET min/wk. respectively.Therefore, this data suggests that e-bike use leads to substantial increases in physical activity in e-bikers switching from private motorized vehicle and public transport, while net losses in physical activity in e-bikers switching from cycling were much less due to increases in overall travel distance.
Avila-Palencia I, Laeremans M, Hoffmann B, et al., 2019, Effects of physical activity and air pollution on blood pressure, Environmental Research, Vol: 173, Pages: 387-396, ISSN: 0013-9351
AIM: To assess the main and interaction effects of black carbon and physical activity on arterial blood pressure in a healthy adult population from three European cities using objective personal measurements over short-term (hours and days) and long-term exposure. METHODS: A panel study of 122 healthy adults was performed in three European cities (Antwerp, Barcelona, and London). In 3 seasons between March 2015 and March 2016, each participant wore sensors for one week to objectively measure their exposure to black carbon and monitor their physical activity continuously. Blood pressure was assessed three times during the week: at the beginning (day 0), in the middle (day 4), and at the end (day 7). Associations of black carbon and physical activity with blood pressure and their interactions were investigated with linear regression models and multiplicative interaction terms, adjusting for all the potential confounders. RESULTS: In multiple exposure models, we did not see any effects of black carbon on blood pressure but did see effects on systolic blood pressure of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity effect that were statistically significant from 1 h to 8 h after exposure and for long-term exposure. For a 1METhour increase of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, the difference in the expected mean systolic blood pressure varied from -1.46 mmHg (95%CI -2.11, -0.80) for 1 h mean exposure, to -0.29 mmHg (95%CI -0.55, -0.03) for 8 h mean exposure, and -0.05 mmHg (95%CI -0.09, -0.00) for long-term exposure. There were little to no interaction effects. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study provide evidence that short-term and long-term exposure to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is associated with a decrease in systolic blood pressure levels. We did not find evidence for a consistent main effect of black carbon on blood pressure, nor any interaction between black carbon and physical activity levels.
Gaupp-Berghausen M, Raser E, Anaya-Boig E, et al., 2019, Evaluation of different recruitment methods: Longitudinal, web-based, pan-European physical activity through sustainable transport approaches (PASTA) project, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol: 21, ISSN: 1438-8871
Background:Sufficient sample size and minimal sample bias are core requirements in empirical data analyses. Combining opportunistic recruitment with an online survey and data collection platform yields new benefits compared to traditional recruitment approaches.Objective:The objective of this paper is to report on the success of different recruitment methods to obtain participantsâ€™ characteristics, participation behavior, recruitment rates, and representativeness of the sample.Methods:A longitudinal online survey was implemented as part of the European PASTA project, which was online between November 2014 and December 2016. During this period participants in seven European cities were recruited on a rolling basis. For all cities to reach a sufficient number of adult participants a standardized guide on recruitment strategy was developed. In order to make use of the strengths and to minimize weakness a combination of different opportunistic recruitment methods was applied. In addition, the city of Oerebro applied random sampling approach. In order to reduce attrition rate and improve real-time monitoring the online platform featured a participant and a researchers` user interface and dashboard.Results:A total of 10,691 participants were recruited. Most people found out about the survey through their workplace or employer (21.5 %), outreach promotion (20.8 %), and social media (17.4 %). The average number of questionnaires filled-in per participant varied between the cities, with the highest number in Zurich (11.0 Â± 0.33) and the lowest in Oerebro (4.8 Â± 0.17). Collaboration with local organizations, the use of Facebook and mailing lists, and direct street recruitment were the most effective approaches in reaching a high share of participants (p = <.001). Under consideration of invested working hours Facebook (p = <.001) was one of the most time-efficient methods. Compared to the cities census data, the composition
Gaupp-Berghausen M, Raser E, Anaya-Boig E, et al., 2019, Evaluating different recruitment methods in a longitudinal survey: Findings from the pan-European PASTA project, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol: 21, ISSN: 1438-8871
Background: Sufficient sample size and minimal sample bias are core requirements for empirical data analyses. Combining opportunistic recruitment with a Web-based survey and data-collection platform yields new benefits over traditional recruitment approaches.Objective: This paper aims to report the success of different recruitment methods and obtain data on participants’ characteristics, participation behavior, recruitment rates, and representativeness of the sample.Methods: A longitudinal, Web-based survey was implemented as part of the European PASTA (Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches) project, between November 2014 and December 2016. During this period, participants were recruited from 7 European cities on a rolling basis. A standardized guide on recruitment strategy was developed for all cities, to reach a sufficient number of adult participants. To make use of the strengths and minimize weakness, a combination of different opportunistic recruitment methods was applied. In addition, the random sampling approach was applied in the city of Örebro. To reduce the attrition rate and improve real-time monitoring, the Web-based platform featured a participant’s and a researchers’ user interface and dashboard.Results: Overall, 10,691 participants were recruited; most people found out about the survey through their workplace or employer (2300/10691, 21.51%), outreach promotion (2219/10691, 20.76%), and social media (1859/10691, 17.39%). The average number of questionnaires filled in per participant varied significantly between the cities (P<.001), with the highest number in Zurich (11.0, SE 0.33) and the lowest in Örebro (4.8, SE 0.17). Collaboration with local organizations, the use of Facebook and mailing lists, and direct street recruitment were the most effective approaches in reaching a high share of participants (P<.001). Considering the invested working hours, Facebook was one of the most time-efficient me
Avila-Palencia I, Int Panis L, Dons E, et al., 2018, The effects of transport mode use on self-perceived health, mental health, and social contact measures: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study, Environment International, Vol: 120, Pages: 199-206, ISSN: 0160-4120
BACKGROUND: Transport mode choice has been associated with different health risks and benefits depending on which transport mode is used. We aimed to evaluate the association between different transport modes use and several health and social contact measures. METHODS: We based our analyses on the Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) longitudinal study, conducted over a period of two years in seven European cities. 8802 participants finished the baseline questionnaire, and 3567 answered the final questionnaire. Participants were 18 years of age or older (16 years of age or older in Zurich) and lived, worked and/or studied in one of the case-study cities. Associations between transport mode use and health/social contact measures were estimated using mixed-effects logistic regression models, linear regression models, and logistic regression models according to the data available. All the associations were assessed with single and multiple transport mode models. All models were adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: In multiple transport mode models, bicycle use was associated with good self-perceived health [OR (CI 95%) = 1.07 (1.05, 1.08)], all the mental health measures [perceived stress: coef (CI 95%) = -0.016 (-0.028, -0.004); mental health: coef (CI 95%) = 0.11 (0.05, 0.18); vitality: coef (CI 95%) = 0.14 (0.07, 0.22)], and with fewer feelings of loneliness [coef (CI 95%) = -0.03 (-0.05, -0.01)]. Walking was associated with good self-perceived health [OR (CI 95%) = 1.02 (1.00, 1.03)], higher vitality [coef (CI 95%) = 0.14 (0.05, 0.23)], and more frequent contact with friends/family [OR (CI 95%) = 1.03 (1.00, 1.05)]. Car use was associated with fewer feelings of loneliness [coef (CI 95%) = -0.04 (-0.06, -0.02)]. The results for e-bike and public transport use were non-significant, and the results for motorbike use were inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: Similarity of findings across cities suggested that active transport, especially bic
Dons E, Rojas-Rueda D, Anaya-Boig E, et al., 2018, Transport mode choice and body mass index: Cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence from a European-wide study., Environment International, Vol: 119, Pages: 109-116, ISSN: 0160-4120
BACKGROUND: In the fight against rising overweight and obesity levels, and unhealthy urban environments, the renaissance of active mobility (cycling and walking as a transport mode) is encouraging. Transport mode has been shown to be associated to body mass index (BMI), yet there is limited longitudinal evidence demonstrating causality. We aimed to associate transport mode and BMI cross-sectionally, but also prospectively in the first ever European-wide longitudinal study on transport and health. METHODS: Data were from the PASTA project that recruited adults in seven European cities (Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Oerebro, Rome, Vienna, Zurich) to complete a series of questionnaires on travel behavior, physical activity levels, and BMI. To assess the association between transport mode and BMI as well as change in BMI we performed crude and adjusted linear mixed-effects modeling for cross-sectional (n = 7380) and longitudinal (n = 2316) data, respectively. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, BMI was 0.027 kg/m2 (95%CI 0.015 to 0.040) higher per additional day of car use per month. Inversely, BMI was -0.010 kg/m2 (95%CI -0.020 to -0.0002) lower per additional day of cycling per month. Changes in BMI were smaller in the longitudinal within-person assessment, however still statistically significant. BMI decreased in occasional (less than once per week) and non-cyclists who increased cycling (-0.303 kg/m2, 95%CI -0.530 to -0.077), while frequent (at least once per week) cyclists who stopped cycling increased their BMI (0.417 kg/m2, 95%CI 0.033 to 0.802). CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses showed that people lower their BMI when starting or increasing cycling, demonstrating the health benefits of active mobility.
Laeremans M, Dons E, Avila-Palencia I, et al., 2018, Black Carbon Reduces the Beneficial Effect of Physical Activity on Lung Function, MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE, Vol: 50, Pages: 1875-1881, ISSN: 0195-9131
Introduction When physical activity is promoted in urban outdoor settings (e.g., walking and cycling), individuals are also exposed to FEV<sub xmlns:mrws="http://webservices.ovid.com/mrws/1.0">1</sub>|AIR POLLUTION|ACTIVE MOBILITY. It has been reported that short-term lung function increases as a response to physical activity, but this beneficial effect is hampered when elevated FEV<sub xmlns:mrws="http://webservices.ovid.com/mrws/1.0">1</sub>|AIR POLLUTION|ACTIVE MOBILITY concentrations are observed. Our study assessed the long-term impact of FEV<sub xmlns:mrws="http://webservices.ovid.com/mrws/1.0">1</sub>|AIR POLLUTION|ACTIVE MOBILITY on the pulmonary health benefit of physical activity.Methods Wearable sensors were used to monitor physical activity levels (SenseWear) and exposure to black carbon (microAeth) of 115 healthy adults during 1 wk in three European cities (Antwerp, Barcelona, London). The experiment was repeated in three different seasons to approximate long-term behavior. Spirometry tests were performed at the beginning and end of each measurement week. All results were averaged on a participant level as a proxy for long-term lung function. Mixed effect regression models were used to analyze the long-term impact of physical activity, black carbon and their interaction on lung function parameters, forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, forced expiratory flow (FEF)25–75, and peak expiratory flow. Interaction plots were used to interpret the significant interaction effects.Results Negative interaction effects of physical activity and black carbon exposure on FEV1 (P = 0.07), FEV1/FVC (P = 0.03), and FEF25–75 (P = 0.03) were observed. For black carbon concentrations up to approximately 1 μg·m−3, an additional MET·h−1·wk−1 resulted in a trend toward lung function increases (FEV1, FEV1/F
Laeremans M, Dons E, Avila-Palencia I, et al., 2018, Short-term effects of physical activity, air pollution and their interaction on the cardiovascular and respiratory system, ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 117, Pages: 82-90, ISSN: 0160-4120
Physical activity (PA) in urban environments may lead to increased inhalation of air pollutants. As PA and air pollution (AP) have respectively beneficial and detrimental effects on the cardiorespiratory system, the responses to these exposures can interact. Therefore, we assessed the short-term effects of PA, AP and their interaction on a set of subclinical cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes in a panel of healthy adults: heart rate variability (HRV), retinal vessel diameters, lung function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO).One hundred twenty two participants measured their PA level and exposure to black carbon (BC), a marker of AP exposure, with wearable sensors during an unscripted week in three different seasons. The study was part of the PASTA project in three European cities (Antwerp: 41 participants, Barcelona: 41 participants, London: 40 participants). At the end of each measurement week, the health outcomes were evaluated. Responses to PA, BC and their interaction were assessed with mixed effect regression models. Separate models were used to account for a 2-h and 24-h time window.During the 2-h time window, HRV and lung function changed statistically significantly in response to PA (METhours) and logarithmic BC (%change). Changes in HRV marked an increased sympathetic tone with both PA (logarithmic LF/HF: +7%; p < 0.01) and BC (logarithmic HF: −19%; p < 0.05). In addition, PA provoked bronchodilation which was illustrated by a significant increase in lung function (FEV1: +15.63 mL; p < 0.05). While a BC %increase was associated with a significant lung function decrease (PEF: −0.10 mL; p < 0.05), the interaction indicated a potential protective effect of PA (p < 0.05). We did not observe a response of the retinal vessel diameters. Most subclinical outcomes did not change in the 24-h time window (except for a few minor changes in LF/HF, FeNO and PEF).Our results on the separate and combined effects of short-term PA and
Raser E, Gaupp-Berghausen M, Dons E, et al., 2018, European cyclists' travel behavior: Differences and similarities between seven European (PASTA) cities, JOURNAL OF TRANSPORT & HEALTH, Vol: 9, Pages: 244-252, ISSN: 2214-1405
Dons E, Laeremans M, Anaya-Boig E, et al., 2018, Concern over health effects of air pollution is associated to NO<inf>2</inf>in seven European cities, Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health, Vol: 11, Pages: 591-599, ISSN: 1873-9318
Subjective perception of air pollution is important and can have impacts on health in its own rights, can lead to protective behaviour, or it can be leveraged to engage citizens and stakeholders in support of cleaner air policies. The aim of the current analysis was to examine associations between level of concern over health effects of air pollution and personal and environmental factors. In seven European cities, 7622 adult participants were recruited to complete an online questionnaire on travel and physical activity behaviour, perceptions and attitudes on active mobility and the environment, and sociodemographics. Air pollution at the home address was determined using Europe-wide PM2.5and NO2land use regression models. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to model concern over air pollution (worried versus not worried; city as random effect). Fifty-eight percent of participants were worried over health effects of air pollution with large differences across cities (Antwerp 78%, Barcelona 81%, London 64%, Orebro 11%, Rome 72%, Vienna 43%, Zurich 33%). Linking mean modelled air pollution to mean level of concern per city gave a good correlation for NO2(r2= 0.75), and a lower correlation for PM2.5(r2= 0.49). In the regression model, sex, having children in the household, levels of physical activity, and NO2at the home address were significantly linked to individual concern over health effects of air pollution. We found that NO2but not PM2.5at the home address was associated with concern over health effects of air pollution.
Duran AC, Anaya-Boig E, Shake JD, et al., 2018, Bicycle-sharing system socio-spatial inequalities in Brazil, JOURNAL OF TRANSPORT & HEALTH, Vol: 8, Pages: 262-270, ISSN: 2214-1405
Avila-Palencia I, Laeremans M, Carrasco-Turigas G, et al., 2018, P I – 1–7 Effects of air pollution and physical activity on blood pressure, ISEE Young 2018, Early Career Researchers Conference on Environmental Epidemiology – Together for a Healthy Environment, 19–20 March 2018, Freising, Germany, Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd
Avila-Palencia I, Gaupp-Berghausen M, Raser E, et al., 2018, 1 Transport modes and subjective general health: roles of mental health, social contacts, and physical activity, ISEE Young 2018, Early Career Researchers Conference on Environmental Epidemiology – Together for a Healthy Environment, 19–20 March 2018, Freising, Germany, Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd
Götschi T, de Nazelle A, Brand C, et al., 2017, Towards a comprehensive conceptual framework of active travel behavior: a review and synthesis of published frameworks, Current Environmental Health Reports, Vol: 4, Pages: 286-295, ISSN: 2196-5412
Purpose of ReviewThis paper reviews the use of conceptual frameworks in research on active travel, such as walking and cycling. Generic framework features and a wide range of contents are identified and synthesized into a comprehensive framework of active travel behavior, as part of the Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches project (PASTA). PASTA is a European multinational, interdisciplinary research project on active travel and health.Recent FindingsAlong with an exponential growth in active travel research, a growing number of conceptual frameworks has been published since the early 2000s. Earlier frameworks are simpler and emphasize the distinction of environmental vs. individual factors, while more recently several studies have integrated travel behavior theories more thoroughly.SummaryBased on the reviewed frameworks and various behavioral theories, we propose the comprehensive PASTA conceptual framework of active travel behavior. We discuss how it can guide future research, such as data collection, data analysis, and modeling of active travel behavior, and present some examples from the PASTA project.
Boig EA, de Nazelle A, Gotschi T, et al., 2017, Building and Testing an Evaluation Model of the Impact of Cycling Policies, JOURNAL OF TRANSPORT & HEALTH, Vol: 5, Pages: S52-S53, ISSN: 2214-1405
Avila-Palencia I, Panis LI, de Nazelle A, et al., 2017, Active Mobility and Subjective General Health: Roles of Mental Health, Social Support and Physical Activity, JOURNAL OF TRANSPORT & HEALTH, Vol: 5, Pages: S76-S76, ISSN: 2214-1405
de Nazelle A, Smeds E, Boig EA, et al., 2017, A Comparison between Literature Findings and Stakeholder Perspectives on Active Travel Promotion, JOURNAL OF TRANSPORT & HEALTH, Vol: 5, Pages: S69-S70, ISSN: 2214-1405
Laeremans M, Gotschi T, Dons E, et al., 2017, Does an Increase in Walking and Cycling Translate into a Higher Overall Physical Activity Level?, JOURNAL OF TRANSPORT & HEALTH, Vol: 5, Pages: S20-S20, ISSN: 2214-1405
Dons E, Laeremans M, Boig EA, et al., 2017, NO2 but Not PM2.5 at the Home Address is Associated with Concern over Health Effects of Air Pollution, JOURNAL OF TRANSPORT & HEALTH, Vol: 5, Pages: S94-S94, ISSN: 2214-1405
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