48 results found
Maillot C, Auvinet E, Harman C, et al., 2020, Hip resurfacing generates a more physiological gait than total hip replacement: A case-control study, ORTHOPAEDICS & TRAUMATOLOGY-SURGERY & RESEARCH, Vol: 106, Pages: 527-534, ISSN: 1877-0568
Vermue H, Lambrechts J, Tampere T, et al., 2020, How should we evaluate robotics in the operating theatre? A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LEARNING CURVE OF ROBOT-ASSISTED KNEE ARTHROPLASTY, BONE & JOINT JOURNAL, Vol: 102B, Pages: 407-413, ISSN: 2049-4394
Hughes S, Zhao H, Auvinet E, et al., 2019, Attenuation of capsaicin-induced ongoing pain and secondary hyperalgesia during exposure to an immersive virtual reality environment, PAIN Reports, Vol: 4, Pages: e790-e790, ISSN: 2471-2531
Introduction: There is growing evidence that virtual reality (VR) can be used in the treatment of chronic pain conditions. However, further research is required in order to better understand the analgesic mechanisms during sensitised pain states. Objectives: We examined the effects of an immersive polar VR environment on capsaicin-induced ongoing pain and secondary hyperalgesia. We also investigated whether the degree of analgesia was related to baseline conditioned pain modulation (CPM) responses. Methods: Nineteen subjects had baseline CPM and electrical pain perception (EPP) thresholds measured prior to the topical application of capsaicin cream. Visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings were measured to track the development of an ongoing pain state and EPP thresholds were used to measure secondary hyperalgesia. The effects of a passive polar VR environment on ongoing pain and secondary hyperalgesia were compared to sham VR (i.e. 2D monitor screen) in responders to capsaicin (n=15). Results: VR was associated with a transient reduction in ongoing pain and an increase in EPP thresholds in an area of secondary hyperalgesia. Baseline CPM measurements showed a significant correlation with VR-induced changes in secondary hyperalgesia, but not with VR-induced changes in ongoing pain perception. There was no correlation between VR-induced changes in pain perception and VR-induced changes in secondary hyperalgesia. Conclusions: Virtual reality can reduce the perception of capsaicin-induced ongoing pain perception and secondary hyperalgesia. We also show that CPM may provide a means by which to identify individuals likely to respond to VR therapy.
Wang H, Sugand K, Newman S, et al., 2019, Are multiple views superior to a single view when teaching hip surgery? A single-blinded randomized controlled trial of technical skill acquisition, PLoS ONE, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1932-6203
s Metrics Comments Media Coverage Abstract Introduction Materials and methods Results Discussion Conclusion Supporting information References Reader Comments (0) Media Coverage (0) FiguresAbstractPurposeSurgical education videos currently all use a single point of view (POV) with the trainee locked onto a fixed viewpoint, which may not deliver sufficient information for complex procedures. We developed a novel multiple POV video system and evaluated its training outcome compared with traditional single POV.MethodsWe filmed a hip resurfacing procedure performed by an expert attending using 8 cameras in theatre. 30 medical students were randomly and equally allocated to learn the procedure using the multiple POV (experiment group [EG]) versus single POV system (control group [CG]). Participants advanced a pin into the femoral head as demonstrated in the video. We measured the drilling trajectories and compared it with pre-operative plan to evaluate distance of the pin insertion and angular deviations. Two orthopedic attendings expertly evaluated the participants’ performance using a modified global rating scale (GRS). There was a pre-video knowledge test that was repeated post-simulation alongside a Likert-scale questionnaire.ResultsThe angular deviation of the pin in EG was significantly less by 29% compared to CG (p = 0.037), with no significant difference in the entry point’s distance between groups (p = 0.204). The GRS scores for EG were 3.5% higher than CG (p = 0.046). There was a 32% higher overall knowledge test score (p<0.001) and 21% improved Likert-scale questionnaire score (p = 0.002) after video-learning in EG than CG, albeit no significant difference in the knowledge test score before video-learning (p = 0.721).ConclusionThe novel multiple POV provided significant objective and subjective advantages over single POV for acquisition of technical skills in hip surgery.
Logishetty K, Western L, Morgan R, et al., 2018, Can an Augmented Reality Headset Improve Accuracy of Acetabular Cup Orientation in Simulated THA? A Randomized Trial., Clin Orthop Relat Res
BACKGROUND: Accurate implant orientation reduces wear and increases stability in arthroplasty but is a technically demanding skill. Augmented reality (AR) headsets overlay digital information on top of the real world. We have developed an enhanced AR headset capable of tracking bony anatomy in relation to an implant, but it has not yet been assessed for its suitability as a training tool for implant orientation. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) In the setting of simulated THA performed by novices, does an AR headset improve the accuracy of acetabular component positioning compared with hands-on training by an expert surgeon? (2) What are trainees' perceptions of the AR headset in terms of realism of the task, acceptability of the technology, and its potential role for surgical training? METHODS: Twenty-four study participants (medical students in their final year of school, who were applying to surgery residency programs, and who had no prior arthroplasty experience) participated in a randomized simulation trial using an AR headset and a simulated THA. Participants were randomized to two groups completing four once-weekly sessions of baseline assessment, training, and reassessment. One group trained using AR (with live holographic orientation feedback) and the other received one-on-one training from a hip arthroplasty surgeon. Demographics and baseline performance in orienting an acetabular implant to six patient-specific values on the phantom pelvis were collected before training and were comparable. The orientation error in degrees between the planned and achieved orientations was measured and was not different between groups with the numbers available (surgeon group mean error ± SD 16° ± 7° versus AR 14° ± 7°; p = 0.22). Participants trained by AR also completed a validated posttraining questionnaire evaluating their experiences. RESULTS: During the four training sessions, participants using AR-guidance had smaller mean (± SD) e
Rivière C, Dhaif F, Shah H, et al., 2018, Kinematic alignment of current TKA implants does not restore the native trochlear anatomy, Revue de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Traumatologique, Vol: 104, Pages: 673-685, ISSN: 1877-0517
Rivière C, Dhaif F, Shah H, et al., 2018, Kinematic alignment of current TKA implants does not restore the native trochlear anatomy, Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Surgery and Research, Vol: 104, Pages: 983-995, ISSN: 1877-0568
INTRODUCTION: Preserving constitutional patellofemoral anatomy, and thus producing physiological patellofemoral kinematics, could prevent patellofemoral complications and improve clinical outcomes after kinematically aligned TKA (KA TKA). Our study aims 1) to compare the native and prosthetic trochleae (planned or implanted), and 2) to estimate the safety of implanting a larger Persona® femoral component size matching the proximal lateral trochlea facet height (flange area) in order to reduce the native articular surfaces understuffing generated by the prosthetic KA trochlea. METHODS: Persona® femoral component 3D model was virtually kinematically aligned on 3D bone-cartilage models of healthy knees by using a conventional KA technique (group 1, 36 models, planned KA TKA) or an alternative KA technique (AT KA TKA) aiming to match the proximal (flange area) lateral facet height (10 models, planned AT KA TKA). Also, 13 postoperative bone-implant (KA Persona®) models were co-registered to the same coordinate geometry as their preoperative bone-cartilage models (group 2 - implanted KA TKA). In-house analysis software was used to compare native and prosthetic trochlea articular surfaces and medio-lateral implant overhangs for every group. RESULTS: The planned and performed prosthetic trochleae were similar and valgus oriented (6.1° and 8.5°, respectively), substantially proximally understuffed compared to the native trochlea. The AT KA TKAs shows a high rate of native trochlea surface overstuffing (70%, 90%, and 100% for lateral facet, groove, medial facet) and mediolateral implant overhang (60%). There was no overstuffing with conventional KA TKAs having their anterior femoral cut flush. CONCLUSION: We found that with both the planned and implanted femoral components, the KA Persona® trochlea was more valgus oriented and understuffed compared to the native trochlear anatomy. In addition, restoring the lateral trochlea facet height by increasing t
Liu H, Auvinet E, Giles J, et al., 2018, Augmented reality based navigation for computer assisted hip resurfacing: a proof of concept study, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, Vol: 46, Pages: 1595-1605, ISSN: 0090-6964
Implantation accuracy has a great impact on the outcomes of hip resurfacing such as recovery of hip function. Computer assisted orthopedic surgery has demonstrated clear advantages for the patients, with improved placement accuracy and fewer outliers, but the intrusiveness, cost, and added complexity have limited its widespread adoption. To provide seamless computer assistance with improved immersion and a more natural surgical workflow, we propose an augmented-reality (AR) based navigation system for hip resurfacing. The operative femur is registered by processing depth information from the surgical site with a commercial depth camera. By coupling depth data with robotic assistance, obstacles that may obstruct the femur can be tracked and avoided automatically to reduce the chance of disruption to the surgical workflow. Using the registration result and the pre-operative plan, intra-operative surgical guidance is provided through a commercial AR headset so that the user can perform the operation without additional physical guides. To assess the accuracy of the navigation system, experiments of guide hole drilling were performed on femur phantoms. The position and orientation of the drilled holes were compared with the pre-operative plan, and the mean errors were found to be approximately 2 mm and 2°, results which are in line with commercial computer assisted orthopedic systems today.
Yiallourides C, Moore AH, Auvinet E, et al., 2018, Acoustic Analysis and Assessment of the Knee in Osteoarthritis During Walking, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 281-285
We examine the relation between the sounds emitted by the knee joint during walking and its condition, with particular focus on osteoarthritis, and investigate their potential for noninvasive detection of knee pathology. We present a comparative analysis of several features and evaluate their discriminant power for the task of normal-abnormal signal classification. We statistically evaluate the feature distributions using the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Bhattacharyya distance. We propose the use of 11 statistics to describe the distributions and test with several classifiers. In our experiments with 249 normal and 297 abnormal acoustic signals from 40 knees, a Support Vector Machine with linear kernel gave the best results with an error rate of 13.9%.
Choudhury A, Lambkin R, Auvinet E, et al., 2018, P 004 - Patellofemoral arthroplasty improves gait in isolated patellofemoral arthritis, a prospective cohort gait analysis study., Gait Posture, Vol: 65 Suppl 1, Pages: 241-242
Logishetty K, Western L, Morgan R, et al., 2018, Augmented reality for arthroplasty training - a randomised controlled trial of simulator-based training for acetabular cup orientation skills, Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, ISSN: 0009-921X
Background:Accurate implant orientation reduces wear and increases stability in arthroplasty. This is a technically demanding skill. Augmented Reality headsets overlay digital information over the real world. We have developed an enhanced AR headset capable of tracking bony anatomy in relation to an implant. Questions/Purposes:The purpose of this study was to validate this enhanced AR headset in the training simulator setting as determined by (1) quantitative assessments accurately orientating an acetabular component, and (2) a questionnaire regarding the realism of the task, acceptability ofthe technology, and its potential role for surgical training. Methods:Twenty-four novice surgeons voluntarily participated in a simulation trial. Demographics and baseline performance in orientating an acetabular implant to six patient-specific values on the phantom pelvis, were collected prior to training. All participants received standardised educational lectures based around four clinical vignettes on hip surgery to normalise their knowledge. Participants were randomised to two groups, completing four, once-weekly sessions of baseline assessment, training, and re-assessment. One group trained using AR (with live holographic feedback of orientation), and the other received one-on-one tuition from an expert surgeon (ES). The solid-angle error in degrees between the planned and achieved orientations was measured. Participants completed baseline assessments, then training, and then assessment in this fashion after each weekly session, and a validated post-training questionnaire evaluating their experiences. Results:Novice surgeons of similar experience in both groups performed with a similar error prior to training (Baseline ES mean error 16° ± SD 7° compared to AR 14±7°, p>0.05). During training, participants achieved average errors in orientations of 1±1° using AR, and 6±4° when guided by the ES (p<0.001). At fin
Riviere C, Iranpoura F, Harris S, et al., 2018, Differences in trochlear parameters between native and prosthetic kinematically or mechanically aligned knees, Revue de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Traumatologique, Vol: 104, Pages: 124-130, ISSN: 1877-0517
Riviere C, Iranpour F, Harris S, et al., 2018, Differences in trochlear parameters between native and prosthetic kinematically or mechanically aligned knees, ORTHOPAEDICS & TRAUMATOLOGY-SURGERY & RESEARCH, Vol: 104, Pages: 165-170, ISSN: 1877-0568
Riviere C, Iranpour F, Harris S, et al., 2017, The kinematic alignment technique for TKA reliably aligns the femoral component with the cylindrical axis, ORTHOPAEDICS & TRAUMATOLOGY-SURGERY & RESEARCH, Vol: 103, Pages: 1069-1073, ISSN: 1877-0568
Riviere C, Iranpour F, Auvinet E, et al., 2017, Alignment options for total knee arthroplasty: A systematic review, ORTHOPAEDICS & TRAUMATOLOGY-SURGERY & RESEARCH, Vol: 103, Pages: 1047-1056, ISSN: 1877-0568
Rivière C, Iranpour F, Harris S, et al., 2017, The kinematic alignment technique for TKA reliably aligns the femoral component with the cylindrical axis, Revue de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Traumatologique, Vol: 103, Pages: 773-777, ISSN: 1877-0517
Rivière C, Iranpour F, Auvinet E, et al., 2017, Mechanical alignment technique for TKA: Are there intrinsic technical limitations?, Revue de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Traumatologique, Vol: 103, Pages: 762-772, ISSN: 1877-0517
Rivière C, FarhadIranpour, Auvinet E, et al., 2017, Mechanical Alignment Technique For TKA: Are there Intrinsic Technical Limitations?, Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Surgery and Research, ISSN: 1877-0568
BACKGROUND: Mechanically aligned (MA) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is affected by disappointing functional outcomes in spite of the recent improvements in surgical precision and implant designs. This might suggest the existence of intrinsic technical limitations. Our study aims to compare the prosthetic and native trochlear articular surfaces and to estimate the extent of collateral ligament imbalance which is technically un-correctable by collateral ligament release when TKA implants are mechanically aligned. STUDY HYPOTHESIS: conventional MA technique generates a high rate of prosthetic overstuffing of the distal groove, distal lateral trochlear facet and distal lateral femoral condyle (Hypothesis 1), and technically un-correctable collateral ligament imbalance (hypothesis 2)? Disregarding the distal femoral joint line obliquity (DFJLO) when performing femoral cuts explainsdistal lateral femoral prosthetic stuffing and un-correctable imbalance (hypothesis 3)? METHODS: Twenty patients underwent a conventional MA TKA. Pre-operative MRI-based 3D knee models were generated and MA TKA was simulated. Native and prosthetic trochlear articular surfaces were compared using in-house analysis software.Following the automatic determination by the planning software of the size of the extension and flexion gaps, an algorithm was applied to balance the gaps and the frequency and amplitude of technically un-correctable knee imbalance wereestimated. RESULTS: The conventional MA technique generateda significant slight distal lateral femoral prosthetic overstuffing (mean 0.6mm, 0.8mm, 1.25 mmfor the most distal lateral facet point, groove, and at the most distal point of lateral femoral condyle, respectively) and a high rate of type 1 and 2 un-corretable knee imbalance (30% and 40%, respectively). The incidence of distal lateral prosthetic overstuffing (trochlea and condyle) and un-correctable knee imbalance were strongly to very strongly correlated with the DFJLO (r=0.53 to 0.89).
Aframian A, Auvinet E, Iranpour F, et al., 2017, O95: An instrumented treadmill shows excellent reliability and repeatability at a range of speeds to maximal walking speedover a range of inclines and declines, Gait and Posture, Vol: 57, ISSN: 0966-6362
Polette A, Auvinet E, Mari JL, et al., 2017, Constructing average models of quasi-spherical objects: application to corneal topographies, Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering: Imaging and Visualization, Vol: 5, Pages: 241-250, ISSN: 2168-1163
© 2015 Taylor & Francis. In medical imaging, it is now common to create 3D models of organs by ‘averaging’ several specimens obtained from different subjects. This requires a registration step to align the organs before averaging their shapes. In this paper, we present the difficult case of a quasi-spherical organ: the cornea. To cope with the lack of anatomical anchor points, we use a registration algorithm based on the minimisation of a global factor: the volume between the two surfaces to be registered. The cornea is a thin tissue layered by two (anterior and posterior) surfaces. Therefore, we actually introduce a third virtual surface to drive the two others. After registration using an iterative optimisation algorithm, anterior and posterior average surfaces are computed. Our study demonstrates that this matching step is crucial to correctly build and compare surfaces. Several clinical applications of this methodology are also presented to illustrate its efficiency.
Rivière C, Lazennec J-Y, Van Der Straeten C, et al., 2017, The influence of spine-hip relations on total hip replacement: A systematic review., Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Surgery and Research, Vol: 103, Pages: 559-568, ISSN: 1877-0568
Sagittal pelvic kinematics along with spino-pelvic angular parameters have recently been studied by numerous investigators for their effect on total hip replacement (THR) clinical outcomes, but many issue of spine-hip relations (SHR) are currently unexplored. Therefore, our review aims at clarifying the following questions: is there any evidence of a relationship between articular impingement/dislocation risk in primary THR and (1) certain sagittal pelvic kinematics patterns, (2) pelvic incidence, and (3) types of SHRs? A systematic review of the existing literature utilising PubMed and Google search engines was performed in January 2017. Only clinical or computational studies published in peer-reviewed journals over the last five years in either English or French were reviewed. We identified 769 reports, of which 12 met our eligibility criteria. A review of literature shows that sagittal pelvic kinematics, but not the pelvic incidence, influences the risk of prosthetic impingement/dislocation. We found no study having assessed the relationship between this risk and the types of SHRs. Sagittal pelvic kinematics is highly variable among individuals and certain kinematic patterns substantially influences the risk of prosthetic impingement/dislocation. Recommendations for cup positioning are therefore switching from a systematic to a patient-specific approach, with the standing cup orientation Lewinneck safe zone progressively giving way to a new parameter of interest: the functional orientation of the cup. Based on a recently published classification for SHRs, We propose a new concept of "kinematically aligned THR" for the purposes of THR planning. Further studies are needed to investigate the relevance of such a classification towards the assumptions and hypothesis we have made. Level of evidence,- Level IV, systematic review of level III and IV studies.
Nazruzov T, Van Der Straeten C, Iranpour Boroujeni F, et al., 2017, REGISTRATION OF PRE- AND POST-OPERATIVE CT DATA USING ICP FOR PATIENTS UNDERGOING TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY (TKA), Bone & Joint Journal, ISSN: 2049-4394
Pouliot-Laforte A, Tousignant J, Lemay M, et al., 2017, Evaluation of visually guided weight-shifting ability using an active video game, International Conference on Virtual Rehabilitation (ICVR), Publisher: IEEE
Auvinet E, Multon F, Manning V, et al., 2016, Validity and sensitivity of the longitudinal asymmetry index to detect gait asymmetry using Microsoft Kinect data, Gait & Posture, Vol: 51, Pages: 162-168, ISSN: 1879-2219
Gait asymmetry information is a key point in disease screening and follow-up. Constant Relative Phase (CRP) has been used to quantify within-stride asymmetry index, which requires noise-free and accurate motion capture, which is difficult to obtain in clinical settings. This study explores a new index, the Longitudinal Asymmetry Index (ILong) which is derived using data from a low-cost depth camera (Kinect). ILong is based on depth images averaged over several gait cycles, rather than derived joint positions or angles. This study aims to evaluate (1) the validity of CRP computed with Kinect, (2) the validity and sensitivity of ILong for measuring gait asymmetry based solely on data provided by a depth camera, (3) the clinical applicability of a posteriorly mounted camera system to avoid occlusion caused by the standard front-fitted treadmill consoles and (4) the number of strides needed to reliably calculate ILong. The gait of 15 subjects was recorded concurrently with a marker-based system (MBS) and Kinect, and asymmetry was artificially reproduced by introducing a 5 cm sole attached to one foot. CRP computed with Kinect was not reliable. ILong detected this disturbed gait reliably and could be computed from a posteriorly placed Kinect without loss of validity. A minimum of five strides was needed to achieve a correlation coefficient of 0.9 between standard MBS and low-cost depth camera based ILong. ILong provides a clinically pragmatic method for measuring gait asymmetry, with application for improved patient care through enhanced disease, screening, diagnosis and monitoring.
Ong JA, Auvinet E, Forget KJ, et al., 2016, 3D corneal shape after implantation of a biosynthetic corneal stromal substitute, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Vol: 57, Pages: 2355-2365, ISSN: 1552-5783
Purpose: The current and projected shortage of transplantable human donor corneas has prompted the development of long-term alternatives to human donor tissue for corneal replacement. The biosynthetic stromal substitutes (BSS) characterized herein represent a potentially safe alternative to donor organ transplantation for anterior corneal stromal diseases. The goal of this phase 1 safety study was to characterize the three-dimensional (3D) corneal shape of the first 10 human patients implanted with a BSS and assess its stability over time. Methods: Ten patients underwent anterior lamellar keratoplasty using a biosynthetic corneal stromal implant for either advanced keratoconus or central corneal scarring. Surgeries were performed at Linköping University Hospital, between October and November 2007. Serial corneal topographies were performed on all eyes up to a 4-year follow-up when possible. Three-dimensional shape average maps were constructed for the 10 BSS corneas and for 10 healthy controls. Average 3D shape corneal elevation maps, difference maps, and statistics maps were generated. Results: The biosynthetic stromal substitutes implants remained stably integrated into the host corneas over the 4-year follow-up period, without signs of wound dehiscence or implant extrusion. The biosynthetic stromal substitutes corneas showed steeper surface curvatures and were more irregular than the healthy controls. Conclusions: Corneal astigmatism and surface steepness were observed 4 years after BSS implantation, while the implants remained stably integrated in the host corneas. Future studies will indicate if biomaterials technology will allow for the optimization of postoperative surface irregularity after anterior stromal replacement, a new window of opportunity that is not available with traditional corneal transplantation techniques.
Manning V, Yiallourides C, Brevadt M, et al., 2015, Knee sounds may predict osteoarthritis severity, symptoms and function: pilot investigation toward a novel dynamic imaging system, Arthritis & Rheumatology, Vol: 67, ISSN: 2326-5191
Durr GM, Auvinet E, Ong J, et al., 2015, Corneal shape, volume, and interocular symmetry: parameters to optimize the design of biosynthetic corneal substitutes, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Vol: 56, Pages: 4275-4282, ISSN: 1552-5783
PURPOSE: To characterize the three-dimensional (3D) shape, volume distribution, and mirror symmetry of the right and left corneas at the scale of a large population, based on the integrated analysis of 3D corneal shape average maps and topography parameters. METHODS: A total of 7670 Orbscan II corneal topographies from 3835 consenting subjects with no history of ocular disease were studied. Average topography maps were created using the right and left corneal topographies of all subjects. To quantify symmetry, left eye topographies were flipped horizontally into "right eye" topographies and statistics maps were generated, including difference and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) maps. RESULTS: The standard deviation of the anterior and posterior average elevation maps in the 3-mm radius central zone of the right and left corneas ranged within ± 8 μm and ± 44 μm, respectively. The ICC maps showed almost perfect interocular agreement for anterior elevation, posterior elevation, and pachymetry (all ICCs > 0.96). All studied shape parameters also showed excellent agreement (ICCs ≥ 0.80). Mirror symmetry was not affected by age, sex, or spherical equivalent. We also showed that this horizontal reflection (flip) of the right and left corneal shapes could not be replaced by a simple rotation. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that in normal eyes, the anterior elevation, posterior elevation, and pachymetry of the right and left corneas show remarkable symmetry. This comprehensive analysis was achieved with the purpose of guiding the development of future biosynthetic corneal substitutes.
Auvinet E, Multon F, Meunier J, 2015, New lower-limb gait asymmetry indices based on a depth camera, Sensors, Vol: 15, Pages: 4605-4623, ISSN: 1424-8239
BACKGROUND: Various asymmetry indices have been proposed to compare the spatiotemporal, kinematic and kinetic parameters of lower limbs during the gait cycle. However, these indices rely on gait measurement systems that are costly and generally require manual examination, calibration procedures and the precise placement of sensors/markers on the body of the patient. METHODS: To overcome these issues, this paper proposes a new asymmetry index, which uses an inexpensive, easy-to-use and markerless depth camera (Microsoft Kinect™) output. This asymmetry index directly uses depth images provided by the Kinect™ without requiring joint localization. It is based on the longitudinal spatial difference between lower-limb movements during the gait cycle. To evaluate the relevance of this index, fifteen healthy subjects were tested on a treadmill walking normally and then via an artificially-induced gait asymmetry with a thick sole placed under one shoe. The gait movement was simultaneously recorded using a Kinect™ placed in front of the subject and a motion capture system. RESULTS: The proposed longitudinal index distinguished asymmetrical gait (p < 0.001), while other symmetry indices based on spatiotemporal gait parameters failed using such Kinect™ skeleton measurements. Moreover, the correlation coefficient between this index measured by Kinect™ and the ground truth of this index measured by motion capture is 0.968. CONCLUSION: This gait asymmetry index measured with a Kinect™ is low cost, easy to use and is a promising development for clinical gait analysis.
Auvinet E, Multon F, Aubin C-E, et al., 2015, Detection of gait cycles in treadmill walking using a Kinect, GAIT & POSTURE, Vol: 41, Pages: 722-725, ISSN: 0966-6362
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