Imperial College London


Business School

Assistant Professor of Economics



e.boler Website




482City and Guilds BuildingSouth Kensington Campus





Publication Type

7 results found

Bernard AB, Bøler EA, Dhingra S, 2018, Firm-to-firm connections in Colombian imports, Publisher: Centre for Economic Policy Research

The vast majority of world trade flows is between firms. Only recently has research in international trade started to emphasize the importance of the connections between exporters and importers both in aggregate trade flows and in the negative relationship between trade and geographic distance. This chapter documents the role of firm-to-firm connections in trade flows and the formation and duration of these importer-exporter relationships. Using customs data from Colombia for 1995-2014, we are able to identify both the Colombian importing firm and the foreign exporter in every Colombian import and export transaction. We document both the nature of these bilateral trading relationships and their evolution over time.

Working paper

Boler EA, Javorcik B, Ulltveit-Moe KH, 2018, Working across time zones: Exporters and the gender wage gap, JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS, Vol: 111, Pages: 122-133, ISSN: 0022-1996

This study argues that there is a systematic difference in the gender wage gap (GWG) between exporting firms and non-exporters. Exporters may require greater commitment from their employees, such as working particular hours to communicate with partners in different time zones or travelling at short notice, and may therefore disproportionately reward employee flexibility. If women are less flexible, or perceived as such, exporters will exhibit a higher GWG than non-exporters. This hypothesis is examined using matched employer-employee data from the Norwegian manufacturing sector for 1996–2010. The results suggest a firm's entry into exporting increases the GWG by about 3 percentage points for college educated workers. A lower overlap in business hours between the Norwegian exporter and its foreign markets and a greater need for interactions with foreign buyers are associated with a higher GWG.

Journal article

Bernard AB, Boler EAN, Massari R, Reyes JD, Taglioni Det al., 2017, Exporter dynamics and partial-year effects, American Economic Review, Vol: 107, Pages: 3211-3228, ISSN: 0002-8282

Two identical firms that start exporting in different months, one each in Januaryand December, will report dramatically different exports for the first calendar year.This partial-year effect biases down first year export levels and biases up first yearexport growth rates. For Peruvian exporters, the partial-year bias is large: first-year export levels are understated by 54 percent and the first year growth rate isoverstated by 112 percentage points. Correcting the partial-year effect dramaticallyreduces first year export growth rates, raises initial export levels and almost doublesthe contribution of net firm entry and exit to overall export growth.

Journal article

Boler EA, Moxnes A, Ulltveit-Moe KH, 2015, R&D, international sourcing, and the joint impact on firm performance, The American Economic Review, Vol: 105, Pages: 3704-3739, ISSN: 0002-8282

This paper studies the impact of an R&D cost shock on R&D investments, imported inputs, and their joint impact on firm performance. We introduce imported inputs into a model of R&D and endogenous productivity, and show that R&D and international sourcing are complementary activities. Exploiting the introduction of an R&D tax credit in Norway in 2002, we find that cheaper R&D stimulated not only R&D investments but also imports of intermediates, quantitatively consistent with the model. An implication of our work is that improved access to imported inputs promotes R&D investments and, ultimately, technological change. (JEL D92, F14, G31, H25, L25, O32, O33)

Journal article

Bøler EA, Javorcik BS, Ulltveit-Moe KH, 2015, Globalization: A Woman's Best Friend? Exporters and the Gender Wage Gap, CESifo Working Paper Series

Journal article

Bøler EA, Smarzynska Javorcik B, Ulltveit-Moe KH, 2015, Globalization: A Woman's Best Friend? Exporters and the Gender Wage Gap

Journal article

Bøler EA, Moxnes A, Ulltveit-Moe KH, 2012, Technological Change, Trade in Intermediates and the Joint Impact on Productivity

Journal article

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