Imperial College London

Dr Enrique Castro Sánchez

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Infectious Disease

Honorary Lecturer



+44 (0)20 3313 2072e.castro-sanchez Website




8.N17Commonwealth BuildingHammersmith Campus





Enrique is currently combining an Early Career Research Fellowship exploring increased participation of nurses in antimicrobial stewardship decision-making and a position as Lead Research Nurse at the Health Protection Research Unit in AMR and HCAI. He works in the theme "Innovations in behaviour change, technology and patient safety to improve infection prevention and antimicrobial use", led by Prof Bryony Dean Franklin and Susan Hopkins.

The HPRU, which was established on 1 April 2014, is a partnership between Imperial College London, Public Health England, Cambridge University Veterinary School, the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and Imperial College Health Partners North West London Academic Health Science Network.

He was awarded a PhD in Nursing at the University of Alicante (Spain) in 2015. He trained in nursing and management of nursing services in Spain, followed by an MSc in Public Health at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in 2003. His research interests include health literacy in infectious diseases and healthcare-associated infections; the impact of health inequalities on infectious diseases; policy influence on management of infectious diseases; use of social networks on clinicians and patients’ attitudes to infection; and the implementation and evaluation of new roles for nurses.

Enrique has got a broad clinical experience in tropical and infectious diseases including malaria, leprosy, tuberculosis, HIV and sexually transmitted infections. His work as advanced nurse practitioner (developing and evaluating new models of care for people living with HIV) has received national awards. In 2007 he was the National Advisor for Sexual Health and HIV for the Royal College of Nursing, developing a national HIV awareness campaign.

Selected Publications

Journal Articles

Vila-Candel R, Soriano-Vidal FJ, Mena-Tudela D, et al., 2021, Health literacy of pregnant women and duration of breastfeeding maintenance: A feasibility study, Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol:77, ISSN:0309-2402, Pages:703-714

Castro-Sanchez E, Alexander CM, Atchison C, et al., 2020, Evaluation of a personal protective equipment (PPE) support programme ('PPE Helpers') for staff during the COVID-19 pandemic in London, Journal of Hospital Infection, Vol:109, ISSN:0195-6701, Pages:68-7

Santillan-Garcia A, Zaforteza-Lallemand C, Castro-Sanchez E, 2020, Nurses as political knowledge brokers, opportunities for growth in the Spanish context, International Journal of Nursing Studies, Vol:110, ISSN:0020-7489

Castro-Sánchez E, Sood A, Rawson TM, et al., 2019, Forecasting Implementation, Adoption and Evaluation Challenges For an Electronic Game-Based Antimicrobial Stewardship Intervention: Results of a Codesign Workshop with Experts (Preprint), Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol:21, ISSN:1438-8871

Courtenay M, Castro-Sanchez E, Fitzpatrick M, et al., 2019, Tackling antimicrobial resistance 2019–2024 – The UK's five-year national action plan, Journal of Hospital Infection, Vol:101, ISSN:0195-6701, Pages:426-427

Gea-Caballero V, Castro Sanchez EM, Diaz-Herrera MA, et al., 2019, Motivations, beliefs and expectations of Spanish nurses planning migration for economic reasons: a cross-sectional, web-based survey, Journal of Nursing Scholarship, Vol:51, ISSN:1527-6546, Pages:178-186

Charani E, Castro-Sanchez E, Bradley S, et al., 2019, Implementation of antibiotic stewardship in different settings - results of an international survey, Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, Vol:8, ISSN:2047-2994

Blanco-Mavillard I, Rodriguez-Calero MA, Castro Sanchez EM, et al., 2018, Appraising the quality standard underpinning international clinical practice guidelines for the selection and care of vascular access devices: a systematic review of reviews, Bmj Open, Vol:8, ISSN:2044-6055

Cabellos-Garcia AC, Martínez-Sabater A, Castro Sanchez EM, et al., 2018, Relation between health literacy, self-care and adherence to treatment with oral anticoagulants in adults: a narrative systematic review, BMC Public Health, Vol:18, ISSN:1471-2458

Courtenay M, Castro Sanchez EM, Deslandes R, et al., 2018, Defining antimicrobial stewardship competencies for undergraduate health professional education in the United Kingdom: a study protocol, Journal of Interprofessional Care, Vol:32, ISSN:1356-1820, Pages:638-640

Alividza V, Mariano V, Ahmad R, et al., 2018, Investigating the impact of poverty on colonization and infection with drug-resistant organisms in humans: a systematic review, Infectious Diseases of Poverty, Vol:7, ISSN:2049-9957

Castro Sanchez EM, Bennasar-Veny M, Smith M, et al., 2018, European Commission Guidelines for the prudent use of antimicrobials in human health: a missed opportunity to embrace nursing participation in stewardship, Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Vol:24, ISSN:1198-743X, Pages:914-915

Blanco-Mavillard I, Bennasar-Veny M, De Pedro-Gómez J, et al., 2018, Implementation of a knowledge mobilization model to prevent peripheral venous catheter-related adverse events. PREBACP study: A multicenter cluster randomized trial protocol, Implementation Science, Vol:13, ISSN:1748-5908

Castro Sanchez EM, Vila-Candel R, Soriano-Vidal F, et al., 2018, Influence of health literacy on acceptance of influenza and pertussis vaccinations: a cross-sectional study among Spanish pregnant women, Bmj Open, Vol:8, ISSN:2044-6055

Castro Sanchez EM, Iwami M, Ahmad R, et al., 2018, Articulating citizen participation in national antimicrobial resistance plans: a comparison of European countries, European Journal of Public Health, ISSN:1101-1262

Nellums LB, Thompson H, Holmes A, et al., 2018, Antimicrobial resistance among migrants in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol:18, ISSN:1473-3099, Pages:796-811

Rawson T, Castro Sanchez E, Charani E, et al., 2017, Involving citizens in priority setting for public health research: implementation in infection research, Health Expectations, Vol:21, ISSN:1369-7625, Pages:222-229

Castro Sanchez EM, Gilchrist M, McEwen J, et al., 2017, Antimicrobial stewardship: widening the collaborative approach, Journal of Antimicrobial Stewardship

Pereira N, Castro Sanchez EM, Nathwani D, 2017, How can multi-professional education support better stewardship?, Infectious Disease Reports, Vol:9, ISSN:2036-7449

Holmes AH, Boyd SE, Moore LSP, et al., 2017, Obtaining antibiotics online from within the UK: a cross-sectional study, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, ISSN:1460-2091

Vila-Candel R, Navarro-Illana P, Navarro-Illana E, et al., 2016, Determinants of seasonal influenza vaccination in pregnant women. A cross-sectional study in Valencia, Spain, BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol:16, ISSN:1471-2334

Rawson T, Moore L, Hernandez B, et al., 2016, Patient engagement with infection management in secondary care: a qualitative investigation of current experiences, Bmj Open, Vol:6, ISSN:2044-6055

Castro-Sanchez E, Kyratsis Y, Iwami M, et al., 2016, Serious electronic games as behavioural change interventions in healthcareassociated infections and infection prevention and control: a scoping review of the literature and future directions, Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, Vol:5, ISSN:2047-2994

Micallef C, Kildonavaciute K, Castro Sanchez EM, et al., 2016, Patient and public understanding and knowledge of antimicrobial resistance and stewardship: should public campaigns change focus?, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol:72, ISSN:1460-2091, Pages:311-314

Castro Sanchez EM, Moore LSP, Husson, et al., 2016, What are the factors driving antimicrobial resistance? Perspectives from a public event in London, England, BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol:16, ISSN:1471-2334

Micallef C, Kildonavaciute K, Castro Sanchez EM, et al., 2016, Is there a role for a bespoke app on antimicrobial stewardship targeting patients and the public?, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol:63, ISSN:1537-6591, Pages:140-141

Castro Sanchez EM, Drumright LN, Gharbi, et al., 2016, Mapping antimicrobial stewardship in undergraduate medical, dental, pharmacy, nursing and veterinary education in the United Kingdom, PLOS One, Vol:11, ISSN:1932-6203

Castro Sanchez E, Chang PW, Vila-Candel R, et al., 2016, Health literacy and infectious diseases: why does it matter?, International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol:43, ISSN:1878-3511, Pages:103-110

Zingg W, Castro Sanchez EM, Secci, et al., 2015, Innovative tools for quality assessment: integrated quality criteria for review of multiple study designs (ICROMS), Public Health, ISSN:0033-3506

Castro Sanchez EM, Spanoudakis E, Holmes A, 2015, Readability of Ebola information on websites of public health agencies, United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and Europe, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol:21, ISSN:1080-6059

Shah N, Castro-Sanchez E, Charani E, et al., 2015, Towards changing healthcare workers' behaviour: a qualitative study exploring non-compliance through appraisals of infection prevention and control practices, Journal of Hospital Infection, Vol:90, ISSN:0195-6701, Pages:126-134

Castro-Sanchez E, Holmes AH, 2015, Impact of organizations on healthcare-associated infections, Journal of Hospital Infection, Vol:89, ISSN:0195-6701, Pages:346-350

Dyar OJ, Castro Sanchez EM, Holmes A, 2014, What makes people talk about antibiotics on social media? A retrospective analysis of Twitter use, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol:69, ISSN:1460-2091, Pages:2568-2572

Castro Sanchez E, Charani E, Drumright LN, et al., 2014, Fragmentation of Care Threatens Patient Safety in Peripheral Vascular Catheter Management in Acute Care- A Qualitative Study, PLOS One, Vol:9, ISSN:1932-6203

Castro-Sanchez E, Holmes A, 2013, International implementation of WHO's hand hygiene strategy, Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol:13, ISSN:1473-3099, Pages:824-825

Charani E, Castro-Sanchez E, Sevdalis N, et al., 2013, Understanding the Determinants of Antimicrobial Prescribing within hospitals: The role of 'Prescribing Etiquette', Clinical Infectious Diseases

Sanchez EC, Holmes A, 2012, Public behaviour and the response to pandemic influenza, Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol:12, ISSN:1473-3099, Pages:819-820


Castro Sanchez EM, 2018, The role of the nurse in stewardship, Antimicrobial stewardship: from principles to practice

Castro Sanchez EM, Holmes A, Pittet D, 2017, Chapter 28: Institutional safety climate., Hand Hygiene: A Handbook for Medical Professionals, Editor(s): Wiley-Blackwell


Castro Sanchez EM, Iwami M, Ahmad R, et al., 2017, Articulating citizen participation in national policies for addressing antimicrobial resistance in European countries - an updated analysis, ECCMID 2017, European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Castro Sanchez EM, Spanoudakis E, Holmes A, 2015, Ebola information for the public: an assessment of suitability and readability of information available through US, UK, Canadian and European public health agencies, ECCMID 2015, ESCMID

Castro Sanchez EM, Charani E, Moore LSP, et al., 2014, “On call: antibiotics”- development and evaluation of a serious antimicrobial prescribing game for hospital care, 4th conference on gaming and playful interaction in healthcare, Springer, Pages:1-8

Castro Sanchez EM, 2014, Taking antimicrobial stewardship initiatives to the next level: development of a serious prescribing game for acute care

Castro Sanchez EM, 2013, Alfabetización en salud en emigrantes: revisión sistemática de la literatura, 17th International Nursing Research Conference


WHO, Castro Sanchez E, Holmes A, 2018, WHO competency framework for health workers’ education and training on antimicrobial resistance, WHO/HIS/HWF/AMR/2018.1, Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization

Castro Sanchez EM, 2016, Building Nursing Capacity In Antimicrobial Stewardship: Learning From Low- And Middle-Income Countries

Holmes A, Dixon-Woods M, Ahmad R, et al., 2015, Infection prevention and control: lessons from acute care in England. Towards a whole health economy approach, Infection prevention and control: lessons from acute care in England, Health Foundation

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