Imperial College London

DrStathisGiotis

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Infectious Disease

Honorary Senior Research Fellow
 
 
 
//

Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 9057e.giotis

 
 
//

Location

 

Medical SchoolSt Mary's Campus

//

Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

51 results found

Zhang Z, Penn R, Barclay WS, Giotis Eet al., 2022, Naïve human macrophages are refractory to SARS-CoV-2 infection and exhibit a modest inflammatory response early in infection, Viruses, Vol: 14, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 1999-4915

Involvement of macrophages in the SARS-CoV-2-associated cytokine storm, the excessive secretion of inflammatory/anti-viral factors leading to the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients, is unclear. In this study, we sought to characterize the interplay between the virus and primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). MDM were stimulated with recombinant IFN- and/or infected with either live or UV-inactivated SARS-CoV- 2 or with two reassortant influenza viruses containing external genes from the H1N1 PR8 strain and heterologous internal genes from a highly pathogenic avian H5N1 or a low pathogenic human seasonal H1N1 strain. Virus replication was monitored by qRT-PCR for the E viral gene for SARS- CoV-2 or M gene for influenza and TCID50 or plaque assay, and cytokine levels were assessed semiquantitatively with qRT-PCR and a proteome cytokine array. We report that MDM are not susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 whereas both influenza viruses replicated in MDM, albeit abortively. We observed a modest cytokine response in SARS-CoV-2 exposed MDM with notable absence of IFN-β induction, which was instead strongly induced by the influenza viruses. Pre-treatment of MDM with IFN-α enhanced proinflammatory cytokine expression upon exposure to virus. Together, the findings concur that the hyperinflammation observed in SARS-CoV-2 infection is not driven by macrophages.

Journal article

Zhang Z, Penn R, Barclay WS, Giotis ESet al., 2022, Primary macrophages exhibit a modest inflammatory response early in SARS-CoV-2 infection

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Involvement of macrophages in the SARS-CoV-2-associated cytokine storm, the excessive secretion of inflammatory/anti-viral factors leading to the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients, is unclear. In this study, we sought to characterize the interplay between the virus and primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). MDM were stimulated with recombinant IFN-α and/or infected with either live or UV-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 or with two reassortant influenza viruses containing external genes from the H1N1 PR8 strain and heterologous internal genes from a highly pathogenic avian H5N1 or a low pathogenic human seasonal H1N1 strain. Virus replication was monitored by qRT-PCR for the <jats:italic>E</jats:italic> viral gene for SARS-CoV-2 or <jats:italic>M</jats:italic> gene for influenza and TCID<jats:sub>50</jats:sub> or plaque assay, and cytokine levels were assessed semiquantitatively with qRT-PCR and a proteome cytokine array. We report that MDM are not susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 whereas both influenza viruses replicated in MDM, albeit abortively. We observed a modest cytokine response in SARS-CoV-2 infected MDM with notable absence of IFN-β induction, which was instead strongly induced by the influenza viruses. Pre-treatment of MDM with IFN-α enhanced proinflammatory cytokine expression upon infection. Together, the findings concur that the hyperinflammation observed in SARS-CoV-2 infection is not driven by macrophages.</jats:p>

Journal article

Oliveira M, Rodrigues DR, Guillory V, Kut E, Giotis ES, Skinner MA, Guabiraba R, Bryant CE, Ferguson BJet al., 2021, Chicken cGAS is a key DNA sensor for antiviral immunity and regulation of macrophage effector functions, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 322-322, ISSN: 0014-2980

Conference paper

Leach DA, Mohr A, Giotis ES, Cil E, Isac AM, Yates LL, Barclay WS, Zwacka RM, Bevan C, Brooke GNet al., 2021, The antiandrogen enzalutamide downregulates TMPRSS2 and reduces cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2 in human lung cells, Nature Communications, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 2041-1723

SARS-CoV-2 attacks various organs, most destructively the lung, and cellular entry requires two host cell surface proteins: ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Downregulation of one or both of these is thus a potential therapeutic approach for COVID-19. TMPRSS2 is a known target of the androgen receptor, a ligand-activated transcription factor; androgen receptor activation increases TMPRSS2 levels in various tissues, most notably prostate. We show here that treatment with the antiandrogen enzalutamide – a well-tolerated drug widely used in advanced prostate cancer – reduces TMPRSS2 levels in human lung cells and in mouse lung. Importantly, antiandrogens significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 entry and infection in lung cells. In support of this experimental data, analysis of existing datasets shows striking co-expression of AR and TMPRSS2, including in specific lung cell types targeted by SARS-CoV-2. Together, the data presented provides strong evidence to support clinical trials to assess the efficacy of antiandrogens as a treatment option for COVID-19.

Journal article

Asfor AS, Nazki S, Reddy VRAP, Campbell E, Dulwich KL, Giotis ES, Skinner MA, Broadbent AJet al., 2021, Transcriptomic analysis of inbred chicken lines reveals infectious bursal disease severity is associated with greater bursal inflammation in vivo and more rapid induction of pro-inflammatory responses in primary bursal cells stimulated ex vivo, Viruses-Basel, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-19, ISSN: 1999-4915

In order to better understand differences in the outcome of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection, we inoculated a very virulent (vv) strain into White Leghorn chickens of inbred line W that was previously reported to experience over 24% flock mortality, and three inbred lines (15I, C.B4 and 0) that were previously reported to display no mortality. Within each experimental group, some individuals experienced more severe disease than others but line 15I birds experienced milder disease based on average clinical scores, percentage of birds with gross pathology, average bursal lesion scores and average peak bursal virus titre. RNA-Seq analysis revealed that more severe disease in line W was associated with significant up-regulation of pathways involved in inflammation, cytoskeletal regulation by Rho GTPases, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signaling, and Wnt signaling in the bursa compared to line 15I. Primary bursal cell populations isolated from uninfected line W birds contained a significantly greater percentage of KUL01+ macrophages than cells isolated from line 15I birds (p < 0.01) and, when stimulated ex vivo with LPS, showed more rapid up-regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression than those from line 15I birds. We hypothesize that a more rapid induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine responses in bursal cells following IBDV infection leads to more severe disease in line W birds than in line 15I.

Journal article

Asfor AS, Nazki S, Reddy VRAP, Campbell E, Dulwich KL, Giotis ES, Skinner MA, Broadbent AJet al., 2021, Transcriptomic analysis reveals that severity of infectious bursal disease in White Leghorn inbred chicken lines is associated with greater bursal inflammation <i>in vivo</i> and more rapid induction of pro-inflammatory responses in primary bursal cells stimulated <i>ex vivo</i>

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>In order to better understand differences in the outcome of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection, we inoculated a very virulent (vv) strain into White Leghorn chickens of inbred line W that was previously reported to experience over 24% flock mortality, and three inbred lines (15I, C.B4 and 0) that were previously reported to display no mortality. Within each experimental group, some individuals experienced more severe disease than others but line 15I birds experienced milder disease based on average clinical scores, percentage of birds with gross pathology, average bursal lesion scores and average peak bursal virus titre. RNA-Seq analysis revealed that more severe disease in line W was associated with significant up-regulation of pathways involved in inflammation, cytoskeletal regulation by Rho GTPases, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signaling, and Wnt signaling in the bursa compared to line 15I. Primary bursal cell populations isolated from uninfected line W birds contained a significantly greater percentage of KUL01+ macrophages than cells isolated from line 15I birds (p&lt;0.01) and, when stimulated <jats:italic>ex vivo</jats:italic> with LPS, showed more rapid up-regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression than those from line 15I birds. We hypothesize that a more rapid induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine responses in bursal cells following IBDV infection leads to more severe disease in line W birds than in line 15I.</jats:p>

Journal article

Giotis ES, Skinner M, 2021, Fowlpox Virus and Other Avipoxviruses (Poxviridae), Encyclopedia of Virology, Publisher: Academic Press, ISBN: 9780128145166

Encyclopedia of Virology, Fourth Edition, builds on the solid foundation laid by the previous editions, expanding its reach with new and timely topics.

Book chapter

Giotis ES, Matthews DA, Smith J, 2021, Editorial: host innate immune responses to infection by avian- and bat-borne viruses, Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-3, ISSN: 2235-2988

Journal article

Herrera C, Gallagher A, Ferguson D, Fen Y, Stein M, Ham C, Giotis ES, Skinner MA, Kempster S, Hall J, Giles E, Almond N, Diez J, Berry Net al., 2021, Mucosal responses to HIV-1 co-infection with an emerging pathogen, Zika virus, Publisher: JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD

Conference paper

Oliveira M, Rodrigues DR, Guillory V, Kut E, Giotis ES, Skinner MA, Guabiraba R, Bryant CE, Ferguson BJet al., 2021, Chicken cGAS senses fowlpox virus infection and regulates macrophage effector functions, Frontiers in Immunology, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1664-3224

The anti-viral immune response is dependent on the ability of infected cells to sense foreign nucleic acids. In multiple species, the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) senses viral DNA as an essential component of the innate response. cGAS initiates a range of signaling outputs that are dependent on generation of the second messenger cGAMP that binds to the adaptor protein stimulator of interferon genes (STING). Here we show that in chicken macrophages, the cGAS/STING pathway is essential not only for the production of type-I interferons in response to intracellular DNA stimulation, but also for regulation of macrophage effector functions including the expression of MHC-II and co-stimulatory molecules. In the context of fowlpox, an avian DNA virus infection, the cGAS/STING pathway was found to be responsible for type-I interferon production and MHC-II transcription. The sensing of fowlpox virus DNA is therefore essential for mounting an anti-viral response in chicken cells and for regulation of a specific set of macrophage effector functions.

Journal article

Giotis E, Laidlaw S, Bidgood S, Albrecht D, Burden J, Robey R, Mercer J, Skinner Met al., 2020, Modulation of early host innate immune response by an avipox vaccine virus’ lateral body protein, Biomedicines, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-21, ISSN: 2227-9059

The avian pathogen fowlpox virus (FWPV) has been successfully used as a vaccine vector in poultry and humans, but relatively little is known about its ability to modulate host antiviral immune responses in these hosts, which are replication-permissive and nonpermissive, respectively. FWPV is highly resistant to avian type I interferon (IFN) and able to completely block the host IFN-response. Microarray screening of host IFN-regulated gene expression in cells infected with 59 different, nonessential FWPV gene knockout mutants revealed that FPV184 confers immunomodulatory capacity. We report that the FPV184-knockout virus (FWPVΔ184) induces the cellular IFN response as early as 2 h postinfection. The wild-type, uninduced phenotype can be rescued by transient expression of FPV184 in FWPVΔ184-infected cells. Ectopic expression of FPV184 inhibited polyI:C activation of the chicken IFN-β promoter and IFN-α activation of the chicken Mx1 promoter. Confocal and correlative super-resolution light and electron microscopy demonstrated that FPV184 has a functional nuclear localisation signal domain and is packaged in the lateral bodies of the virions. Taken together, these results provide a paradigm for a late poxvirus structural protein packaged in the lateral bodies, capable of suppressing IFN induction early during the next round of infection.

Journal article

Liu PJ, Harris JM, Marchi E, DArienzo V, Michler T, Wing PAC, Magri A, Ortega-Prieto AM, van de Klundert M, Wettengel J, Durantel D, Dorner M, Klenerman P, Protzer U, Giotis ES, McKeating JAet al., 2020, Author Correction: Hypoxic gene expression in chronic hepatitis B virus infected patients is not observed in state-of-the-art in vitro and mouse infection models, Scientific Reports, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2045-2322

<jats:p>An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.</jats:p>

Journal article

Giotis E, Laidlaw S, Bidgood S, Albrecht D, Burden J, Robey R, Mercer J, Skinner Met al., 2020, Modulation of early host innate immune response by a Fowlpox virus (FWPV) lateral body protein, Publisher: bioRxiv

Abstract The avian pathogen, fowlpox virus (FWPV) has been successfully used as vaccine vector in poultry and humans but relatively little is known about its ability to modulate host antiviral immune responses in these hosts, which are replication permissive and non-permissive, respectively. FWPV is highly resistant to avian type I interferon (IFN) and able to completely block the host IFN-response. Microarray screening of host IFN-regulated gene expression in cells infected with 59 different, non-essential FWPV gene knock-out mutants revealed that FPV184 confers immunomodulatory capacity. We report that FPV184 -knockout virus (FWPVΔ184) induces the cellular IFN response as early as 2 hours post-infection. The wild-type, uninduced phenotype can be rescued by transient expression of FPV184 in FWPVΔ184-infected cells. Ectopic expression of FPV184 inhibited polyI:C activation of the chicken IFN-β promoter and IFN-α activation of the chicken Mx promoter. Confocal and correlative super-resolution light and electron microscopy demonstrated that FPV184 has a functional nuclear localisation signal domain and is packaged in the lateral bodies of the virions. Taken together, these results provide a paradigm for a late poxvirus structural protein packaged in the lateral bodies and capable of supressing IFN induction early during the next round of infection.

Working paper

Oliveira M, Rodrigues DR, Guillory V, Kut E, Giotis E, Skinner M, Guabiraba R, Bryant C, Ferguson Bet al., 2020, Chicken cGAS senses fowlpox virus infection and regulates macrophage effector functions, bioRxiv

Abstract The anti-viral immune response is dependent on the ability of infected cells to sense foreign nucleic acids. In multiple species, the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) senses viral DNA as an essential component of the innate response. cGAS initiates a range of signalling outputs that are dependent on generation of the second messenger cGAMP that binds to the adaptor protein stimulator of interferon genes (STING). Here we show that in chicken macrophages, the cGAS/STING pathway is essential not only for the production of type-I interferons in response to intracellular DNA stimulation, but also for regulation of macrophage effector functions including the expression of MHC-II and co-stimulatory molecules. In the context of fowlpox, an avian DNA virus infection, the cGAS/STING pathway was found to be responsible for type-I interferon production and MHC-II transcription. The sensing of fowlpox virus DNA is therefore essential for mounting an anti-viral response in chicken cells and for regulation of a specific set of macrophage effector functions.

Journal article

Liu PJ, Harris JM, Marchi E, D'Arienzo V, Michler T, Wing PAC, Magri A, Ortega-Prieto AM, van de Klundert M, Wettengel J, Durantel D, Dorner M, Klenerman P, Protzer U, Giotis ES, McKeating JAet al., 2020, Hypoxic gene expression in chronic hepatitis B virus infected patients is not observed in state-of-the-art in vitro and mouse infection models, Scientific Reports, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2045-2322

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. The prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD)-hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway is a key mammalian oxygen sensing pathway and is frequently perturbed by pathological states including infection and inflammation. We discovered a significant upregulation of hypoxia regulated gene transcripts in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in the absence of liver cirrhosis. We used state-of-the-art in vitro and in vivo HBV infection models to evaluate a role for HBV infection and the viral regulatory protein HBx to drive HIF-signalling. HBx had no significant impact on HIF expression or associated transcriptional activity under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, we found no evidence of hypoxia gene expression in HBV de novo infection, HBV infected human liver chimeric mice or transgenic mice with integrated HBV genome. Collectively, our data show clear evidence of hypoxia gene induction in CHB that is not recapitulated in existing models for acute HBV infection, suggesting a role for inflammatory mediators in promoting hypoxia gene expression.

Journal article

Dulwich KL, Asfor A, Gray A, Giotis ES, Skinner MA, Broadbent AJet al., 2020, The stronger downregulation of in vitro and in vivo innate antiviral responses by a very virulent strain of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV), compared to a classical strain, is mediated, in part, by the VP4 protein, Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2235-2988

IBDV is economically important to the poultry industry. Very virulent (vv) strains cause higher mortality rates than other strains for reasons that remain poorly understood. In order to provide more information on IBDV disease outcome, groups of chickens (n = 18) were inoculated with the vv strain, UK661, or the classical strain, F52/70. Birds infected with UK661 had a lower survival rate (50%) compared to F52/70 (80%). There was no difference in peak viral replication in the bursa of Fabricius (BF), but the expression of chicken IFNα, IFNβ, MX1, and IL-8 was significantly lower in the BF of birds infected with UK661 compared to F52/70 (p < 0.05) as quantified by RTqPCR, and this trend was also observed in DT40 cells infected with UK661 or F52/70 (p < 0.05). The induction of expression of type I IFN in DF-1 cells stimulated with polyI:C (measured by an IFN-β luciferase reporter assay) was significantly reduced in cells expressing ectopic VP4 from UK661 (p < 0.05), but was higher in cells expressing ectopic VP4 from F52/70. Cells infected with a chimeric recombinant IBDV carrying the UK661-VP4 gene in the background of PBG98, an attenuated vaccine strain that induces high levels of innate responses (PBG98-VP4UK661) also showed a reduced level of IFNα and IL-8 compared to cells infected with a chimeric virus carrying the F52/70-VP4 gene (PBG98-VP4F52/70) (p < 0.01), and birds infected with PBG98-VP4UK661 also had a reduced expression of IFNα in the BF compared to birds infected with PBG98-VP4F52/70 (p < 0.05). Taken together, these data demonstrate that UK661 induced the expression of lower levels of anti-viral type I IFN and proinflammatory genes than the classical strain in vitro and in vivo and this was, in part, due to strain-dependent differences in the VP4 protein.

Journal article

Giotis E, 2020, Inferring the urban transmission potential of bat influenza viruses, Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, section Virus and Host, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-6, ISSN: 2235-2988

Bats are considered natural reservoirs of various, potentially zoonotic viruses, exemplified by the influenza A-like viruses H17N10and H18N11 in asymptomatic Neotropical bats. These influenza viruses are evolutionarily distinct, are poorly adapted to laboratory mice and ferrets and cannot reassort in vitro with conventional strains to form new influenza subtypes. However, they have attracted renewed attention following reports that their entry in host cells is mediated by the trans-species conserved MHC-II proteins, suggesting that they hold zoonotic potential. Despite the recent studies, the viruses’ epidemiology and public health significance remain incompletely understood. Delineating the mechanistic basis of the interactions with their hosts and assessing their global distribution are essential in order to fully assess the zoonotic threat that these strains pose.

Journal article

Liu PJ, Harris JM, Marchi E, DArienzo V, Michler T, Wing PAC, Magri A, Ortega-Prieto AM, van de Klundert M, Wettengel J, Durantel D, Dorner M, Klenerman P, Protzer U, Giotis S, McKeating JAet al., 2020, Hypoxic gene expression in chronic hepatitis B infected patients is not observed in state-of-art <i>in vitro</i> and mouse infection models, Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

<jats:title>ABSTRACT</jats:title><jats:p>Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. The prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD)-hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway is a key mammalian oxygen sensing pathway and is frequently perturbed by pathological states including infection and inflammation. We discovered a significant upregulation of hypoxia regulated gene transcripts in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in the absence of liver cirrhosis. We used state-of-the-art <jats:italic>in vitro</jats:italic> and <jats:italic>in vivo</jats:italic> HBV infection models to evaluate a role for HBV infection and the viral regulatory protein HBx to drive HIF-signalling. HBx had no significant impact on HIF expression or associated transcriptional activity under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, we found no evidence of hypoxia gene expression in HBV <jats:italic>de novo</jats:italic> infection, HBV infected human liver chimeric mice or transgenic mice with integrated HBV genome. Collectively, our data show clear evidence of hypoxia gene induction in CHB that is not recapitulated in existing models for acute HBV infection, suggesting a role for inflammatory mediators in promoting hypoxia gene expression.</jats:p>

Working paper

Dulwich KL, Asfor AS, Gray AG, Giotis ES, Skinner MA, Broadbent AJet al., 2019, The stronger downregulation of in vitro and in vivo innate antiviral responses by a very virulent strain of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), compared to a classical strain, is mediated, in part, by the VP4 protein, Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, ISSN: 2235-2988

Abstract IBDV is economically important to the poultry industry. Very virulent (vv) strains cause higher mortality rates than other strains for reasons that remain poorly understood. In order to provide more information on IBDV disease outcome, groups of chickens (n=18) were inoculated with the vv strain, UK661, or the classical strain, F52/70. Birds infected with UK661 had a lower survival rate (50%) compared to F52/70 (80%). There was no difference in peak viral replication in the bursa of Fabricius (BF), but the expression of chicken IFNβ, MX1 and IL-8 was significantly lower in the BF of birds infected with UK661 compared to F52/70 (p<0.05) as quantified by RTqPCR, and this trend was also observed in DT40 cells infected with UK661 or F52/70 (p<0.05). The induction of expression of type I IFN in DF-1 cells stimulated with polyI:C (measured by an IFN-β luciferase reporter assay) was significantly reduced in cells expressing ectopic VP4 from UK661 (p<0.05), but was higher in cells expressing ectopic VP4 from F52/70. Cells infected with a chimeric recombinant IBDV carrying the UK661-VP4 gene in the background of PBG98, an attenuated vaccine strain that induces high levels of innate responses (PBG98-VP4 UK661 ) also showed a reduced level of IFNα and IL-8 compared to cells infected with a chimeric virus carrying the F52/70-VP4 gene (PBG98-VP4 F52/70 ), and birds infected with PBG98-VP4 UK661 also had a reduced expression of IFNα in the BF compared to birds infected with PBG98-VP4 F52/70 . Taken together, these data demonstrate that UK661 induced the expression of lower levels of anti-viral type I IFN and proinflammatory genes than the classical strain in vitro and in vivo and this was, in part, due to strain-dependent differences in the VP4 protein.

Journal article

Giotis ES, Carnell G, Young EF, Ghanny S, Soteropoulos P, Wang L-F, Barclay WS, Skinner MA, Temperton Net al., 2019, Entry of the bat influenza H17N10 virus into mammalian cells is enabled by the MHC class II HLA-DR receptor., Nature Microbiology, Vol: 4, Pages: 2035-2038, ISSN: 2058-5276

Haemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface glycoproteins of the bat influenza H17N10 virus neither bind to nor cleave sialic acid receptors, indicating that this virus employs cell entry mechanisms distinct from those of classical influenza A viruses. We observed that certain human haematopoietic cancer cell lines and canine MDCK II cells are susceptible to H17-pseudotyped viruses. We identified the human HLA-DR receptor as an entry mediator for H17 pseudotypes, suggesting that H17N10 possesses zoonotic potential.

Journal article

Giotis E, Montillet G, Pain B, Skinner Met al., 2019, Chicken embryonic-stem cells are permissive to poxvirus recombinant vaccine vectors, Genes, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2073-4425

The discovery of mammalian pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESC) has revolutionised cell research and regenerative medicine. More recently discovered chicken ESC (cESC), though less intensively studied, are increasingly popular as vaccine substrates due to a dearth of avian cell lines. Information on the comparative performance of cESC with common vaccine viruses is limited. Using RNA-sequencing, we compared cESC transcriptional programmes elicited by stimulation with chicken type I interferon or infection with vaccine viruses routinely propagated in primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF). We used poxviruses (fowlpox virus (FWPV) FP9, canarypox virus (CNPV), and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)) and a birnavirus (infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) PBG98). Interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) were induced in cESC to levels comparable to those in CEF and immortalised chicken fibroblast DF-1 cells. cESC are permissive (with distinct host transcriptional responses) to MVA, FP9, and CNPV but, surprisingly, not to PBG98. MVA, CNPV, and FP9 suppressed innate immune responses, while PBG98 induced a subset of ISGs. Dysregulation of signalling pathways (i.e., NFκB, TRAF) was observed, which might affect immune responses and viral replication. In conclusion, we show that cESC are an attractive alternative substrate to study and propagate poxvirus recombinant vaccine vectors.

Journal article

Giotis E, Carnell G, Young E, Ghanny S, Soteropoulos P, Barclay W, Skinner M, Temperton Net al., 2019, The MHC class-II HLA-DR receptor mediates bat influenza A-like H17N10 virus entry into mammalian cells

Bats are notorious reservoirs of diverse, potentially zoonotic viruses, exemplified by the evolutionarily distinct, influenza A-like viruses H17N10 and H18N11 (BatIVs). The surface glycoproteins [haemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N)] of BatIVs neither bind nor cleave sialic acid receptors, which suggests that these viruses employ cell attachment and entry mechanisms that differ from those of classical influenza A viruses (IAVs). Identifying the cellular factors that mediate entry and determine susceptibility to infection will help assess the host range of BatIVs. Here, we investigated a range of cell lines from different species for their susceptibility to infection by pseudotyped viruses bearing bat H17 and/or N10 envelope proteins. We show that a number of human haematopoietic cancer cell lines and the canine kidney MDCK II (but not MDCK I) cells are susceptible to H17-pseudotypes (H17-PV). We observed with microarrays and qRT-PCR that the dog leukocyte antigen DLA-DRA mRNA is overexpressed in late passaged parental MDCK and commercial MDCK II cells, compared to early passaged parental MDCK and MDCK I cells, respectively. The human orthologue HLA-DRA encodes the alpha subunit of the MHC class II HLA-DR antigen-binding heterodimer. Small interfering RNA- or neutralizing antibody-targeting HLA-DRA, drastically reduced the susceptibility of Raji B cells to H17-PV. Conversely, overexpression of HLA-DRA and its paralogue HLA-DRB1 on the surface of the unsusceptible HEK293T/17 cells conferred susceptibility to H17-PV. The identification of HLA-DR as an H17N10 entry mediator will contribute to a better understanding of the tropism of the virus and will elucidate its zoonotic transmission.

Working paper

Mariatulqabtiah AR, Majid NN, Giotis ES, Omar AR, Skinner MAet al., 2019, Inoculation of fowlpox viruses coexpressing avian influenza H5 and chicken IL-15 cytokine gene stimulates diverse host immune responses, Asia-Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Vol: 27, Pages: 84-94, ISSN: 0128-7451

© 2019, University of Malaya. All rights reserved. Fowlpox virus (FWPV) has been used as a recombinant vaccine vector to express antigens from several important avian pathogens. Attempts have been made to improve vaccine strains induced-host immune responses by coexpressing cytokines. This study describes the construction of recombinant FWPV (rFWPV) strain FP9 and immunological responses in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, coexpressing avian influenza virus (AIV) H5 of A/Chicken/Malaysia/5858/2004, and chicken IL-15 cytokine genes. Expression of H5 (50 kD) was confirmed by western blotting. Anti-H5 antibodies, which were measured by the haemagglutinin inhibition test, were at the highest levels at Week 3 post-inoculation in both rFWPV/H5-and rFWPV/H5/IL-15-vaccinated chickens, but decreased to undetectable levels from Week 5 onwards. CD3+/CD4+ or CD3+/CD8+T cell populations, assessed using flow cytometry, were significantly increased in both WT FP9-and rFWPV/H5-vaccinated chickens and were also higher than in rFWPV/H5/IL-15-vaccinated chickens, at Week 2. Gene expression analysis using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) demonstrated upregulation of IL-15 expression in all vaccinated groups with rFWPV/H5/IL-15 having the highest fold change, at day 2 (117±51.53). Despite showing upregulation, fold change values of the IL-18 expression were below 1.00 for all vaccinated groups at day 2, 4 and 6. This study shows successful construction of rFWPV/H5 co-expressing IL-15, with modified immunogenicity upon inoculation into SPF chickens.

Journal article

Giotis ES, Skinner M, 2019, Spotlight on avian pathology: fowlpox virus, Avian Pathology, Vol: 48, Pages: 87-90, ISSN: 0307-9457

Fowlpox virus is the type species of an extensive and poorly-defined group of viruses isolated from more than 200 species of birds, together comprising the avipoxvirus genus of the poxvirus family. Long known as a significant poultry pathogen, vaccines developed in the early and middle years of the 20th century led to its effective eradication as a problem to commercial production in temperate climes in developed western countries (such that vaccination there is now far less common). Transmitted mechanically by biting insects, it remains problematic, causing significant losses to all forms of production (from back-yard, through extensive to intensive commercial flocks), in tropical climes where control of biting insects is difficult. In these regions, vaccination (via intra-dermal or subcutaneous, and increasingly in ovo, routes) remains necessary. Although there is no evidence that more than a single serotype exists, there are poorly-described reports of outbreaks in vaccinated flocks. Whether this is due to inadequate vaccination or penetrance of novel variants remains unclear. Some such outbreaks have been associated with strains carrying endogenous, infectious proviral copies of the retrovirus, reticulo-endotheliosis virus (REV), which might represent a pathotypic (if not newly emerging) variant in the field. Until more is known about the phylogenetic structure of the avipoxvirus genus (by more widespread genome sequencing of isolates from different species of birds) it remains difficult to ascertain the risk of novel avipoxviruses emerging from wild birds (and/or by recombination/mutation) to infect farmed poultry.

Journal article

Carnell G, Giotis E, Grehan K, Ferrara F, Mather S, Molesti E, Scott S, Pessi A, Lacek K, Temperton Net al., 2018, The bat influenza H17N10 can be neutralized by broadly-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and its neuraminidase can facilitate viral egress., BioRxiv

The diversity of subtypes within the Influenza A virus genus has recently expanded with the identification of H17N10 and H18N11 from bats. In order to further study the tropism and zoonotic potential of these viruses, we have successfully produced lentiviral pseudotypes bearing both H17 and N10. These pseudotypes were shown to be efficiently neutralized by the broadly-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies CR9114 and FI6. Our studies also confirm previous reports that H17 does not use sialic acid as its cellular receptor, as pseudotypes bearing the H17 envelope glycoprotein are released into the cell supernatant in the absence of neuraminidase. However, we demonstrate that N10 facilitates heterosubtypic (H5 and H7) influenza hemagglutinin-bearing pseudotype release in the absence of another source of neuraminidase, significantly increasing luciferase pseudotype production titres. Despite this, N10 shows no activity in the enzyme-linked lectin assay used for traditional sialidases. These findings suggest that this protein plays an important role in viral egress, but is perhaps involved in further accessory roles in the bat influenza lifecycle that are yet to be discovered. Thus we show the lentiviral pseudotype system is a useful research tool, and amenable for investigation of bat influenza tropism, restriction and sero-epidemiology, without the constraints or safety issues with producing a replication-competent virus, to which the human population is naive.

Journal article

Giotis ES, Scott A, Rothwell L, Hu T, Talbot R, Todd D, Burt DW, Glass EJ, Kaiser Pet al., 2018, Chicken anaemia virus evades host immune responses in transformed lymphocytes., Journal of General Virology, Vol: 99, Pages: 321-327, ISSN: 1465-2099

Chicken anaemia virus (CAV) is a lymphotropic virus that causes anaemia and immunosuppression in chickens. Previously, we proposed that CAV evades host antiviral responses in vivo by disrupting T-cell signalling, but the precise cellular targets and modes of action remain elusive. In this study, we examined gene expression in Marek's disease virus-transformed chicken T-cell line MSB-1 after infection with CAV using both a custom 5K immune-focused microarray and quantitative real-time PCR at 24, 48 and 72 h post-infection. The data demonstrate an intricate equilibrium between CAV and the host gene expression, displaying subtle but significant modulation of transcripts involved in the T-cell, inflammation and NF-κB signalling cascades. CAV efficiently blocked the induction of type-I interferons and interferon-stimulated genes at 72 h. The cell expression pattern implies that CAV subverts host antiviral responses and that the transformed environment of MSB-1 cells offers an opportunistic advantage for virus growth.

Journal article

Giotis ES, Ross CS, Robey RC, Nohturfft A, Goodbourn S, Skinner MAet al., 2017, Constitutively elevated levels of SOCS1 suppress innate responses in DF-1 immortalised chicken fibroblast cells, Scientific Reports, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2045-2322

The spontaneously immortalised DF-1 cell line is rapidly replacing its progenitor primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) for studies on avian viruses such as avian influenza but no comprehensive study has as yet been reported comparing their innate immunity phenotypes. We conducted microarray analyses of DF-1 and CEFs, under both normal and stimulated conditions using chicken interferon-α (chIFNα) and the attenuated infectious bursal disease virus vaccine strain PBG98. We found that DF-1 have an attenuated innate response compared to CEFs. Basal expression levels of Suppressor of Cytokine Signalling 1 (chSOCS1), a negative regulator of cytokine signalling in mammals, are 16-fold higher in DF-1 than in CEFs. The chSOCS1 “SOCS box” domain (which, in mammals, interacts with an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex) is not essential for the inhibition of cytokine-induced JAK/STAT signalling activation in DF-1. Overexpression of SOCS1 in chIFNα-stimulated DF-1 led to a relative decrease in expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs; MX1 and IFIT5) and increased viral yield in response to PBG98 infection. Conversely, knockdown of SOCS1 enhanced induction of ISGs and reduced viral yield in chIFNα-stimulated DF-1. Consequently, SOCS1 reduces induction of the IFN signalling pathway in chicken cells and can potentiate virus replication.

Journal article

Dulwich KL, Giotis ES, Gray A, Nair V, Skinner MA, Broadbent AJet al., 2017, Differential gene expression in chicken primary B cells infected ex vivo with attenuated and very virulent strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)., Journal of General Virology, Vol: 98, Pages: 2918-2930, ISSN: 1465-2099

Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) belongs to the family Birnaviridae and is economically important to the poultry industry worldwide. IBDV infects B cells in the bursa of Fabricius (BF), causing immunosuppression and morbidity in young chickens. In addition to strains that cause classical Gumboro disease, the so-called 'very virulent' (vv) strain, also in circulation, causes more severe disease and increased mortality. IBDV has traditionally been controlled through the use of live attenuated vaccines, with attenuation resulting from serial passage in non-lymphoid cells. However, the factors that contribute to the vv or attenuated phenotypes are poorly understood. In order to address this, we aimed to investigate host cell-IBDV interactions using a recently described chicken primary B-cell model, where chicken B cells are harvested from the BF and cultured ex vivo in the presence of chicken CD40L. We demonstrated that these cells could support the replication of IBDV when infected ex vivo in the laboratory. Furthermore, we evaluated the gene expression profiles of B cells infected with an attenuated strain (D78) and a very virulent strain (UK661) by microarray. We found that key genes involved in B-cell activation and signalling (TNFSF13B, CD72 and GRAP) were down-regulated following infection relative to mock, which we speculate could contribute to IBDV-mediated immunosuppression. Moreover, cells responded to infection by expressing antiviral type I IFNs and IFN-stimulated genes, but the induction was far less pronounced upon infection with UK661, which we speculate could contribute to its virulence.

Journal article

Dulwich K, Giotis E, Gray A, Nair V, Skinner M, Broadbent Aet al., 2017, Differential gene expression in chicken primary B cells infected ex vivo with attenuated and very virulent strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Journal of General Virology, ISSN: 1465-2099

Abstract Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) belongs to the family Birnaviridae and is economically important to the poultry industry worldwide. IBDV infects B cells in the bursa of Fabricius (BF), causing immunosuppression and morbidity in young chickens. In addition to strains that cause classical Gumboro disease, the so-called ‘very virulent’ (vv) strain, also in circulation, causes more severe disease and increased mortality. IBDV has traditionally been controlled through the use of live attenuated vaccines, with attenuation resulting from serial passage in non-lymphoid cells. However, the factors that contribute to the vv or attenuated phenotypes are poorly understood. In order to address this, we aimed to investigate host cell-IBDV interactions using a recently described chicken primary B cell model, where chicken B cells are harvested from the BF and cultured ex vivo in the presence of chicken CD40L. We demonstrated that these cells could support the replication of IBDV when infected ex vivo in the laboratory. Furthermore, we evaluated the gene expression profiles of B cells infected with an attenuated strain (D78) and a very virulent strain (UK661) by microarray. We found that key genes involved in B cell activation and signaling (TNFSF13B, CD72 and GRAP) were down-regulated following infection relative to mock, which we speculate could contribute to IBDV-mediated immunosuppression. Moreover, cells responded to infection by expressing antiviral type I IFNs and IFN-stimulated genes, but the induction was far less pronounced upon infection with UK661, which we speculate could contribute to its virulence.

Journal article

Tierney M, Gallagher AM, Giotis ES, Pentieva Ket al., 2017, An online survey on consumer knowledge and understanding of added sugars, Nutrients, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2072-6643

Evidence of an association between added sugars (AS) and the risk of obesity has triggered public health bodies to develop strategies enabling consumers to manage their AS intake. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has strongly recommended a reduction of free sugars to 10% of total dietary energy (TE) and conditionally recommended a reduction to 5% TE to achieve health benefits. Despite food labelling being a policy tool of choice in many countries, there is no consensus on the mandatory addition of AS to the nutrition panel of food labels. An online survey was conducted to explore consumer ability to identify AS on food labels and to investigate consumer awareness of the WHO guidelines in relation to sugar intakes. The questionnaire was tested for participant comprehension using face-to-face interviews prior to conducting the online study. The online survey was conducted in Northern Ireland during May 2015 and was completed by a convenient sample of 445 subjects. Results showed that just 4% of respondents correctly classified 10 or more ingredients from a presented list of 13 items, while 65% of participants were unaware of the WHO guidelines for sugar intake. It may be timely to reopen dialogue on inclusion of AS on food product nutrition panels.

Journal article

This data is extracted from the Web of Science and reproduced under a licence from Thomson Reuters. You may not copy or re-distribute this data in whole or in part without the written consent of the Science business of Thomson Reuters.

Request URL: http://wlsprd.imperial.ac.uk:80/respub/WEB-INF/jsp/search-html.jsp Request URI: /respub/WEB-INF/jsp/search-html.jsp Query String: respub-action=search.html&id=00745111&limit=30&person=true