212 results found
Anthony DB, Nguyen SN, Qian H, et al., 2023, Silica aerogel infused hierarchical glass fiber polymer composites, Composites Communications, Vol: 39, Pages: 101531-101531, ISSN: 2452-2139
Fujita Y, Noda S, Takahashi J, et al., 2023, Initiation and propagation fracture toughness of injection-moulded short fibre composites under different environmental conditions, Composites Science and Technology, Vol: 233, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 0266-3538
Injection-moulded short-fibre composites combine lightweight and manufacturability; however, their fracture behaviour and how it is affected by the microstructure and environmental conditions are yet to be fully characterised. The initiation and propagation fracture toughnesses of injection-moulded short glass-fibre reinforced polyamide 6.6 composites were characterised through compact tension testing under the combined effect of fibre orientation, moisture level and temperature. Full R-curves were calculated using either an FE-based compliance calibration method, or the J-integral method based on full-field measurements from Digital Image Correlation; both data reduction methods provided consistent propagation values for the fracture toughness, although only the J-integral method can characterise the initiation toughness and the shape of R-curves reliably. This work revealed that the material became tougher with increasing fibre orientation along the loading direction, increasing moisture content, and/or increasing temperature; the corresponding increase in toughness was related to changes in failure and toughening mechanisms, identified through fractography. FE simulations of the compact tension tests have demonstrated the need to consider both initiation and propagation values of fracture toughness to accurately predict the response of notched specimens. The thorough characterisation of fracture toughness presented in this paper can contribute to design safer and more efficient damage-tolerant IM-SFRP components.
Almousa H, De Luca H, Anthony D, et al., 2023, Robust continuous production of carbon nanotube-grafted structural fibres: a route to hierarchical fibre reinforced composites, ECCM20 - The 20th European Conference on Composite Materials, Publisher: Composite Construction Laboratory (CCLab), Pages: 1451-1456
Growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) onto the fibre surface by direct chemical vapour deposition (CVD) offers a convenient means to integrate synthesis with assembly. This method delivers the nanostructures where they have the greatest influence on fibre-matrix interface or interphase. However, CVD is usually limited to small batches of short fibre lengths, and can damage the primary properties. Here, we describe a robust process to produce carbon nanotube-grafted-fibres continuously at tow level with a uniform coverage of short (sub-500 nm length), 10-20 nm diameter CNTs. Different CNT growth conditions, such as temperature [650-950 °C], duration [0.72-50 min], line speed [0.6-10 m/h], potential difference [0-1000 V], and reactive gas flow/compositions were investigated. Following optimisation, the fabrication of an entirely “fuzzy” fibre reinforced hierarchical composite was achieved.
Anthony D, Woodgate C, Shaw C, et al., 2023, Hierarchical solutions to compressive problems in fibre-reinforced composites, ECCM20 - The 20th European Conference on Composite Materials, Publisher: Composite Construction Laboratory (CCLab), Pages: 1512-1517
Currently, the useable compressive properties of a composite are restricted by set design limits well below the expected intrinsic performance of the materials contained within. The next generation of high-performance fibre-reinforced polymer composites will need to address the challenge of improving the absolute performance of composites in compression. This task requires a rethink of the whole system; not only to address practical limitations of current materials, but their combination, interface, and their architecture. The mechanisms involved do not simply act over the nano-, macro-, or meso-level independently, but are mutually related at the system level, complicating the approach.
Senokos E, Anthony DB, Rubio N, et al., 2023, Robust single‐walled carbon nanotube‐infiltrated carbon fiber electrodes for structural supercapacitors: from reductive dissolution to high performance devices, Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN: 1616-301X
Multifunctional electrodes for structural supercapacitors are prepared by vacuum infiltration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) into woven carbon fibers (CFs); the use of reductive charging chemistry to form nanotubide solutions ensured a high degree of individualization. The route is highly versatile, as shown by comparing four different commercial nanotube feedstocks. In film form, the pure nanotubide networks (“buckypapers”) are highly conductive (up to 2000 S cm−1) with high surface area (>1000 m2 g−1) and great electrochemical performance (capacitance of 101 F g−1, energy density of 27.5 Wh kg−1 and power density of 135 kW kg−1). Uniformly integrating these SWCNT networks throughout the CF fabrics significantly increased electrical conductivity (up to 318 S cm−1), surface area (up to 196 m2 g−1), and in-plane shear properties, all simultaneously. The CNT-infiltrated CFs electrodes exhibited intrinsically high specific energy (2.6–4.2 Wh kg−1) and power (6.0–8.7 kW kg−1) densities in pure 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EMIM TFSI) electrolyte. Multifunctional structural supercapacitors based on CNT-coated CFs offer a substantial increase in capacitive performance while maintaining the tensile mechanical properties of the as-received CF-based composite. This non-damaging approach to modify CFs with highly graphitic, high surface area nanocarbons provides a new route to structural energy storage systems.
Yu B, Katafiasz TJ, Nguyen S, et al., 2023, Characterising and predicting the relationship between translaminar fracture toughness and pull-out length distributions under distinct temperatures, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol: 381, ISSN: 1364-503X
The translaminar fracture toughness reflects the damage tolerance of a fibre-reinforced composite under longitudinal tension, which often governs the final failure of structures. One of the main energy-dissipation mechanisms that contributes to the translaminar toughness of composites is the fibre pull-out process. The present study aims to quantify and model the statistical distribution of fibre pull-out lengths formed on the translaminar fracture surface of composites, for the first time in the literature; this is done under different temperatures, so that the relationship between pull-out length distributions, micromechanical properties and the translaminar fracture toughness can be established. The fracture surfaces of cross-ply compact tension specimens tested under three different temperatures have been scanned through X-ray computed tomography to quantify the extent of fibre pull-out on the fracture surfaces; the distribution of pull-out lengths showed alarger average and larger variability with an increase in temperature, which also lead to an increase in translaminar fracture toughness. A similar trend has been captured by the proposed analytical model, which predicts the pull-out length distribution based on the analysis of quasi-fractal idealizations of the fracture surface, yielding an overall accuracy of more than 85%.This article is part of the theme issue 'Ageing and durability of composite materials'.
Whitehouse A, Medeau V, Mencattelli L, et al., 2022, A novel profiling concept leading to a significant increase in the mechanical performance of metal to composite joints, ECCM20 - The 20th European Conference on Composite Materials, Publisher: Composite Construction Laboratory (CCLab)
In this work, we designed metal-CFRP joints with a profiled adherend termination to improve the mechanical performance. We have applied several profiles to the edge of titanium adherends which were adhesively bonded to CFRP substrates. We conducted finite element modelling and experimental 4PB (4-Point-Bend) testing to investigate how the geometry of the adherend edge profile effects the mechanical performance of the joint. This work shows that profiling of the metal adherend can result in increases of at least 27% in the peak load, and of at least 272% in the energy dissipated up to critical failure normalised by the mechanical energy.
Medeau V, Kazemi ME, Greenhalgh E, et al., 2022, Helicoidal layups and interleaved hybrids: a novel design methodology for impact-resistant composite structures, ECCM20 - The 20th European Conference on Composite Materials
Kazemi M, Medeau V, Greenhalgh E, et al., 2022, Implementing structural fuses in CFRP components via microstructurally-engineered crack paths, 20th European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM20. 26-30 June, 2022, Lausanne, Switzerland, Publisher: Composite Construction Laboratory (CCLab)
This study aims to develop and implement actual carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) solutions for realising structural fuses in real components. To this end, we have developed various concepts for structural fuses, applied to generic idealised components and aimed at engaging different in-plane and through-the-thickness damage propagation mechanisms. Micro-cut patterns (MCPs) / crack path combinations have been engraved on thin-ply CFRP prepregs (by using a laser cut machine) for manufacturing CFRP specimens. Afterwards, we have carried out a series of experimental studies to evaluate the fracture properties of various MCPs under three-point bending (3PB). Then, 3PB results were used to refine and down-select ourconcepts, for use in our generic idealised component design to test them under indentation test using a cantilever beam rig. The test results demonstrated that MCPs can provide significant control over the fracture locus and path, additionally allowing the failure initiation load and energy dissipation to be tailored.
Latham KG, Edathil AA, Rezaei B, et al., 2022, Challenges and opportunities in free-standing supercapacitors research, APL Materials, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2166-532X
The design of commercial supercapacitors has remained largely unchanged since the 1970s, comprising powdered electrodes housed in rigid metal cylinders or pouches. To power the next generation of integrated technologies, an evolution in supercapacitor materials and design is needed to create multifunctional materials that allow energy storage while imparting additional material properties (e.g., flexibility and strength). Conductive free-standing electrodes produced from fibers or 3D printed materials offer this opportunity as their intrinsic mechanical properties can be transferred to the supercapacitor. Additionally, their conductive nature allows for the removal of binders, conductive agents, and current collectors from the supercapacitor devices, lowering their economic and environmental cost. In this Perspective, we summarize the recent progress on free-standing supercapacitors from new methods to create free-standing electrodes to novel applications for these devices, together with a detailed discussion and analysis on their electrochemical performance and physicochemical and mechanical properties. Furthermore, the potential directions and prospects of future research in developing free-standing supercapacitors are proposed.
Abdullah SIBS, Iannucci L, Greenhalgh ES, et al., 2022, Impact on Vectran/Epoxy composites: Experimental and numerical analysis, AERONAUTICAL JOURNAL, ISSN: 0001-9240
Ishfaq A, Nguyen S, Greenhalgh ES, et al., 2022, Multifunctional design, feasibility and requirements for structural power composites in future electric air taxis, Journal of Composite Materials, ISSN: 0021-9983
This study investigates the viability of implementing multifunctional structural power composites in a four-seater air taxi, the CityAirbus. For a given specific energy of the power source, the cruise endurance can be approximately doubled by using structural power composites as opposed to conventional batteries. Replacing all the eligible composite mass and batteries with structural power composites can reduce the CityAirbus weight by 25%. To achieve the current design performance, the minimum required elastic modulus, strength, specific energy and power for the structural power composite are 54 GPa, 203 MPa, 74 Wh/kg and 376 W/kg, respectively: current state-of-the-art structural power composites are now approaching this level of performance. Hence, structural power composites are considered feasible for adoption in the urban air mobility sector and have the potential to improve endurance and facilitate commercialization. This paper also discusses several key challenges that must be addressed to realize the adoption of structural power composites in future electric air taxis.
Garulli T, Greenhalgh E, Pinho S, 2022, A novel bio-inspired microstructure for progressive compressive failure in multidirectional composite laminates, 20th European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM 2022, Publisher: Composite Construction Laboratory (CCLab)
n this study we take inspiration from biological materials to design a modified microstructure for laminated multidirectional (MD) carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP), with the objective of mitigating their compressive failure behavior. We introduce soft inclusions in the form of thin longitudinal strips of foam in 0° load bearing layers, aiming at arresting kinkband propagation. We conceived a bespoke stacking sequence and developed a tailored procedure for manufacturing the microstructure. We then performed in-situ tests on small scale notched specimens from a baseline laminate and a modified one. Results are presented and discussed.
Valkova M, Anthony DB, Kucernak ARJ, et al., 2022, Predicting the mechanical behaviour of structural supercapacitor composites, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol: 156, ISSN: 1359-835X
Multifunctional structural power composites may transform transport electrification, and other applications, but require performance and reliability improvements. Computational modelling has the potential to accelerate their development and deployment. This work addresses the lack of predictive models for the mechanical behaviour of structural supercapacitor composites exploiting carbon aerogel-modified carbon fabric electrodes. The elastic behaviour was investigated using finite element analysis of quasi-meso-scale periodic unit cell models, considering the effects of constituent properties, defects, stacking geometry, and boundary conditions. Nanoindentation was used to evaluate the Young’s modulus of carbon aerogel. Parametric modelling demonstrated a strong influence of the ply offset and matrix materials on the composite elastic properties. The initial numerical results overpredicted the actual performance measured from tensile and in-plane shear experiments in the literature. Optical, scanning electron and micro X-ray imaging revealed extensive pre-cracking and voidage in the physical laminates. Additional computational investigations showed that the pre-cracks were associated with a degradation of shear stiffness. The remaining performance gap was attributed to voidage. The present study highlights that challenges for mechanical performance and its prediction stem from the presence of processing defects and a lack of in-situ material data. Nevertheless, the models identify the potential of hierarchical laminates containing aerogels to generate sizable performance improvements, both in multifunctional and purely structural contexts.
Pernice MF, Qi G, Senokos E, et al., 2022, Mechanical, electrochemical and multifunctional performance of a CFRP/carbon aerogel structural supercapacitor and its corresponding monofunctional equivalents, Multifunctional Material, Vol: 5
Katafiasz TJ, Greenhalgh ES, 2022, FRACTOGRAPHY OF POLYMER COMPOSITES: FUTURE ADVANCES, Pages: 9-16
Fractography is a useful research tool which enables engineers to bridge the gap between numerical modelling and experimental testing, support material design development, and aid in the failure investigation of in-service (and laboratory-based) failures. This paper presents the current issues and direction of research for the fractography of polymer composites and highlights the future challenges. These include: fretting failures between delaminated neighbouring plies, gleaning environmental effects (i.e. the influence of moisture and/or temperature on fracture morphology), and the sequencing of physically isolated failures. The latter is addressed by the proposed new methodology in which fractography and numerical modelling are synergistically coupled. This methodology is becoming increasingly important across a range of industries as the uptake of composites becomes wider.
Fujita Y, Noda S, Takahashi J, et al., 2022, ANALYSING AND PREDICTING FAILURE OF INJECTION-MOULDED SHORT-FIBRE COMPOSITE COMPONENTS, Pages: 312-317
Injection-moulded short-fibre composites are lightweight materials suitable for highvolume applications; however, current simulation methods for these materials cannot yet predict failure accurately. This work proposes a methodology to predict failure of injection-moulded short-glass-fibre reinforced PA66 composite components, based on experimentally measured properties. The material's fracture toughness was characterized for different fibre orientations, and these values were used as the input for cohesive zone modelling in Finite Element analyses of the components, coupled with simulations of the injection-moulding process. The coupled process/structural simulations using cohesive zone modelling presented excellent agreement with the experimental data of the component tests, highlighting the importance of accounting for the finite fracture toughness of the material to accurately predict the ultimate failure of injection-moulded short-fibre reinforced PA66 composite components.
Anthony DB, De Luca HG, Almousa H, et al., 2022, Carbon Nanotube-grafted Carbon Fiber Production: A Scaling Challenge
Yu B, Katafiasz TJ, Nguyen S, et al., 2021, Hygrothermal effects on the translaminar fracture toughness of a highly toughened aerospace CFRP: Experimental characterisation and model prediction, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol: 150, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 1359-835X
The translaminar fracture toughness and its dependence on the environmental condition are key considerations in designing aerospace-grade composites with a high damage tolerance to severe service conditions in terms of temperature and moisture. The present work characterises and models the hygrothermal effects on the translaminar fracture toughness of an interlaminar toughened aerospace carbon/epoxy composite under six environmental conditions: −55 °C, 23 °C, and 90 °C, for both ‘dry’ (i.e. moisture free) and ‘wet’ (fully moisture-saturated) specimens. Cross-ply compact-tension experiments show that the translaminar fracture toughness increases with the rise of temperature for both dry and wet conditions with the latter exhibiting a much greater increase. A model to predict the effect of moisture and temperature on the translaminar fracture toughness is here proposed and developed. This approach yields good agreement with experimental results, and it allows an improved understanding of the complex synergistic effects of interfacial properties on the overall translaminar toughening mechanisms.
Abdullah SIBS, Iannucci L, Greenhalgh ES, et al., 2021, The delamination behaviour of Vectran/Epoxy composites having a novel Non-Crimp Fabric architecture, COMPOSITES PART B-ENGINEERING, Vol: 228, ISSN: 1359-8368
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 2
Mohsin M, Iannucci L, Greenhalgh E, 2021, Experimental and numerical analysis of low-velocity impact of carbon fibre based non-crimp fabric reinforced thermoplastic composites, Polymers, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-22, ISSN: 2073-4360
There has been a lot of interest in understanding the low-velocity impact (LVI) response of thermoplastic composites. However, little research has focussed on studying the impact behaviour of non-crimp fabric (NCF)-based fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the LVI responses of two types of non-crimp fabric (NCF) carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastic laminated composites that have been considered attractive in the automotive and aerospace industry: (i) T700/polyamide 6.6 (PA6.6) and (ii) T700/polyphenylene sulphide (PPS). Each carbon/thermoplastic type was impacted at three different energy levels (40, 100 and 160 J), which were determined to achieve three degrees of penetrability, i.e., no penetration, partial penetration and full penetration, respectively. Two distinct non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques ((i) ultrasonic C-scanning and (ii) X-ray tomography) were used to assess the extent of damage after impact. The laminated composite plates were subjected to an out-of-plane, localised impact using an INSTRON® drop-weight tower with a hemispherical impactor measuring 16 mm in diameter. The time histories of force, deflection and velocity are reported and discussed. A nonlinear finite element model of the LVI phenomenon was developed using a finite element (FE) solver LS-DYNA® and validated against the experimental observations. The extent of damage observed and level of impact energy absorption calculated on both the experiment and FE analysis are compared and discussed.
Karadotcheva E, Nguyen SN, Greenhalgh ES, et al., 2021, Structural Power Performance Targets for Future Electric Aircraft, Energies, Vol: 14, Pages: 6006-6006
The development of commercial aviation is being driven by the need to improve efficiency and thereby lower emissions. All-electric aircraft present a route to eliminating direct fuel burning emissions, but their development is stifled by the limitations of current battery energy and power densities. Multifunctional structural power composites, which combine load-bearing and energy-storing functions, offer an alternative to higher-energy-density batteries and will potentially enable lighter and safer electric aircraft. This study investigated the feasibility of integrating structural power composites into future electric aircraft and assessed the impact on emissions. Using the Airbus A320 as a platform, three different electric aircraft configurations were designed conceptually, incorporating structural power composites, slender wings and distributed propulsion. The specific energy and power required for the structural power composites were estimated by determining the aircraft mission performance requirements and weight. Compared to a conventional A320, a parallel hybrid-electric A320 with structural power composites >200 Wh/kg could potentially increase fuel efficiency by 15% for a 1500 km mission. For an all-electric A320, structural power composites >400 Wh/kg could halve the specific energy or mass of batteries needed to power a 1000 km flight.
Qi G, Nguyen S, Anthony DB, et al., 2021, The influence of fabrication parameters on the electrochemical performance of multifunctional structural supercapacitors, Multifunctional Materials, Vol: 4, ISSN: 2399-7532
Multifunctional structural supercapacitors based on carbon fibre electrodes (CF) and structural electrolytes (SEs) can realise multifunctionality by simultaneously bearing load and providing electrochemical energy storage. Structural supercapacitor constituents (i.e. electrodes and electrolytes) have undergone significant development to enhance their electrochemical and mechanical properties. However, the fabrication of fully functional devices presents a number of practical challenges to achieve optimal multifunctional properties, particularly those associated with assembly and lamination. This work investigated the effect of separator selection and processing parameters on the electrochemical performance of structural supercapacitors, as well as evaluating the repeatability of the SE filming process. Two layers of glass fibre fabrics were the most effective separator for preventing short-circuiting of the structural supercapacitors. The weight fraction of the SE matrix had a significant effect on the capacitance, energy and power of the structural supercapacitors. By addressing such fabrication challenges, high performance structural supercapacitors can be manufactured with greater reproducibility and at larger scales such that they are suitable for integration in industrial applications.
Lee C, Greenhalgh ES, Panesar A, 2021, Optimization of patch-wise laminated composite panels for enhanced dynamic characteristics, Composite Structures, Vol: 269, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 0263-8223
Fiber-reinforced laminated composites are widely utilized in the transportation industries due to their superior specific stiffness and strength over conventional metals. The most widely used forms of fiber-reinforced composites are in a laminated plate panel. The inherent anisotropy of composites and the associated dynamic loading characteristics make the design process for such a structure very challenging. In particular, the composite panels used for ship structures must be lightweight and robust enough to withstand external dynamic loads such as wave loads. In this study, we present a two-level optimization strategy to improve the modal dynamic stiffness of laminated composite panels utilising lamination parameters and a patch-wise lay-up approach. Numerical results showed a significant increase in fundamental natural frequency and specific dynamic stiffness compared to the quasi-isotropic design.
Greenhalgh ES, Canturri C, Katafiasz TJ, 2021, Fractographic study into the effect of drilling damage on bearing mechanisms and performance in carbon-fibre epoxy composites, Engineering Failure Analysis, Vol: 129, Pages: 1-29, ISSN: 1350-6307
With the widespread adoption of polymer composites in primary structures, understanding and prediction of the performance of composite to metal hybrid joints is now critical to engineering design of transport structures. This work investigated the damage processes associated with bearing failure of such composite joints, for both pristine holes and holes damaged during drilling. An aerospace grade composite was drilled under three different conditions, tested to failure under quasi-static double bearing loading, and then characterised using fractographic techniques. In the pristine condition, the initial damage process was 0° longitudinal splitting tangential to the lateral extents of the hole which then dictated the extent of the subsequent bearing damage development. Beneath the bearing face of the hole inclined lines of in-plane microbuckled fibres had developed whilst beyond the constraint of the washer there was considerable delamination and massive out-of-plane fibre microbuckling. As the degree of drilling damage increased, 0° longitudinal split development was inhibited, and the local pre-existing damage at the periphery of the hole had extended into the bearing damage zone, directly initiating out-of-plane fibre microbuckling. Consequently the bearing damage zone exhibited irregular distributions of fibre microbuckles, both across the thickness and depth beneath the bearing face of the hole. The observations in this work provide a means to validate predictive models and offer potential routes to improve bearing performance and the tolerance of laminates with drilling damage when under bearing loads.
Abdullah SIBS, Iannucci L, Greenhalgh ES, et al., 2021, A Plane-Stress Damage Model for Vectran Laminated Composite, APPLIED COMPOSITE MATERIALS, Vol: 28, Pages: 1255-1276, ISSN: 0929-189X
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 2
Nguyen S, Millereux A, Pouyat A, et al., 2021, Conceptual multifunctional design, feasibility and requirements for structural power in aircraft cabins, Journal of Aircraft: devoted to aeronautical science and technology, Vol: 58, Pages: 677-687, ISSN: 0021-8669
This paper presents a theoretical investigation into the potential use of structural power composites in regional aircraft passenger cabins and the corresponding challenges to widespread use, including fire-resistance, long-term cycling performance, and cost. This study focusses on adapting sandwich floor panels with structural power composite face sheets, designed to power the in-flight entertainment system. Using a simple mechanical model to define the structural requirements, based on state-of-the-art laminated structural power composites, a series of electrochemical energy storage performance targets were calculated: a specific energy > 144 Wh/kg, a specific power > 0.29 kW/kg, an in-plane elastic modulus > 28 GPa and in-plane tensile and compressive strengths > 219 MPa. Significantly, the use of a distributed energy storage system offered a significant range of other mass and cost savings, associated with a simplified power system, and the use of ground-generated electrical energy. For an Airbus A220-100, the analysis predicted potential mass and volume savings of approximately 260 kg and 510 land annual reductions in CO2and NOx emissions of approximately 280 tonnes and 1.2 tonnes respectively. This extended design analysis of a specific component highlights both the far-reaching implications of implementing structural power materials and the potential extensive systemic benefits.
Mohsin M, Iannucci L, Greenhalgh E, 2021, On the dynamic tensile behaviour of thermoplastic composite carbon/polyamide 6.6 using split Hopkinson pressure bar, Materials, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1996-1944
A dynamic tensile experiment was performed on a rectangular specimen of a non-crimp fabric (NCF) thermoplastic composite T700 carbon/polyamide 6.6 specimens using a split Hopkinson pressure (Kolsky) bar (SHPB). The experiment successfully provided useful information on the strain-rate sensitivity of the NCF carbon/thermoplastic material system. The average tensile strength at three varying strain rates: 700, 1400, and 2100/s was calculated and compared to the tensile strength measured from a standardized (quasi-static) procedure. The increase in tensile strength was found to be 3.5, 24.2, and 45.1% at 700, 1400, and 2100/s strain rate, respectively. The experimental findings were used as input parameters for the numerical model developed using a commercial finite element (FE) explicit solver LS-DYNA®. The dynamic FE model was validated against experimental gathering and used to predict the composite system’s behavior in various engineering applications under high strain-rate loading conditions. The SHPB tension test detailed in this study provided the enhanced understanding of the T700/polyamide 6.6 composite material’s behavior under different strain rates and allowed for the prediction of the material’s behavior under real-world, dynamic loading conditions, such as low-velocity and high-velocity impact.
Abdullah SIBS, Iannucci L, Greenhalgh ES, et al., 2021, The impact performance of Vectran/Epoxy composite laminates with a novel non-crimp fabric architecture, COMPOSITE STRUCTURES, Vol: 265, ISSN: 0263-8223
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 3
Katafiasz T, Greenhalgh ES, Allegri G, et al., 2021, The influence of temperature and moisture on the mode I fracture toughness and associated fracture morphology of a highly toughened aerospace CFRP, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol: 142, ISSN: 1359-835X
This paper addresses the characterisation of the mode I interlaminar fracture toughness of a carbon fibre/epoxy composite material, toughened with thermoplastic particles in the ply interlayers. The characterisation is undertaken at −55 °C, 19 °C, and 90 °C, on both dry and fully moisture saturated coupons. Fractographic observations of the delamination surfaces allows identification of the failure mechanisms. The mode I propagation fracture toughness tested at wet/90 °C exhibits a 176% increase compared to the dry/19 °C specimens, due to enhanced plastic deformation of the interlayers and more prominent fibre bridging. Moisture-saturated coupons tested at −55 °C suffered a 57% reduction of mode I fracture toughness compared to those under dry/19 °C conditions. This is due to the dis-bond and consequent plucking of the thermoplastic particles from the surrounding matrix. This observation points to the fact that wet/cold conditions may represent the worst-case scenario for the interlaminar fracture performance of composite systems toughened with thermoplastic interleaves.
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