215 results found
Williams D, Mahmoud M, Liu R, et al., 2022, Stable flow-induced expression of KLK10 inhibits endothelial inflammation and atherosclerosis., eLife, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-23, ISSN: 2050-084X
Atherosclerosis preferentially occurs in arterial regions exposed to disturbed blood flow (d-flow), while regions exposed to stable flow (s-flow) are protected. The proatherogenic and atheroprotective effects of d-flow and s-flow are mediated in part by the global changes in endothelial cell gene expression, which regulates endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. Previously, we identified Kallikrein-Related Peptidase 10 (Klk10, a secreted serine protease) as a flow-sensitive gene in mouse arterial endothelial cells, but its role in endothelial biology and atherosclerosis was unknown. Here, we show that KLK10 is upregulated under s-flow conditions and downregulated under d-flow conditions using in vivo& mouse models and in vitro studies with cultured endothelial cells (ECs). Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) and scATAC sequencing (scATACseq) study using the partial carotid ligation mouse model showed flow-regulated Klk10 expression at the epigenomic and transcription levels. Functionally, KLK10 protected against d-flow-induced permeability dysfunction and inflammation in human artery ECs (HAECs), as determined by NFkB activation, expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1) and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), and monocyte adhesion. Further, treatment of mice in vivo with rKLK10 decreased arterial endothelial inflammation in d-flow regions. Additionally, rKLK10 injection or ultrasound-mediated transfection of Klk10-expressing plasmids inhibited atherosclerosis in Apoe-/- mice. Moreover, KLK10 expression was significantly reduced in human coronary arteries with advanced atherosclerotic plaques compared to those with less severe plaques. KLK10 is a flow-sensitive endothelial protein that serves as an anti-inflammatory, barrier-protective, and anti-atherogenic factor.
Mondal M, Conole D, Nautiyal J, et al., 2022, UCHL1 as a novel target in breast cancer: emerging insights from cell and chemical biology, British Journal of Cancer, Vol: 126, Pages: 24-33, ISSN: 0007-0920
Breast cancer has the highest incidence and death rate among cancers in women worldwide. In particular, metastatic Estrogen Receptor negative (ER–) breast cancer and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) subtypes have very limited treatment options, with low survival rates. Ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1), a ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase belonging to the deubiquitinase (DUB) family of enzymes, is highly expressed in these cancer types, and several key reports have revealed emerging and important roles for UCHL1 in breast cancer. However, selective and potent small molecule UCHL1 inhibitors have been disclosed only very recently, alongside chemical biology approaches to detect regulated UHCL1 activity in cancer cells. These tools will enable novel insights into oncogenic mechanisms driven by UCHL1, and identification of substrate proteins deubiquitinated by UCHL1, with the ultimate goal of realizing the potential of UCHL1 as a drug target in breast cancer.
Andrei SA, Tate EW, Lanyon-Hogg T, 2022, Evaluating Hedgehog Acyltransferase Activity and Inhibition Using the Acylation-coupled Lipophilic Induction of Polarization (Acyl-cLIP) Assay., Methods Mol Biol, Vol: 2374, Pages: 13-26
Palmitoylation of the Hedgehog family of proteins is a critical step in the Hedgehog signaling pathway and is performed by the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase enzyme Hedgehog acyltransferase (HHAT). Measurement of HHAT activity has traditionally relied on radiolabeled fatty acid substrates, which imposes considerable constraints on throughput, cost, and safety, consequently hindering the efficient identification and development of small-molecule HHAT inhibitors. The Acylation-coupled Lipophilic Induction of Polarisation (Acyl-cLIP) assay was recently developed in our lab as a novel platform to evaluate lipidation of peptides in real time and high throughput. In this chapter, we describe the isolation of active HHAT from HEK293a cells and application of the Acyl-cLIP assay to characterize HHAT inhibitors. Our methodology uses standard chemical biology lab equipment and yields high-quality kinetic data from minimal sample volumes. The assay uses standard 384-well plates and is easily adapted to medium- or high-throughput screening formats.
Jamshidiha M, Lanyon-Hogg T, Sutherell C, et al., 2021, Identification of the first structurally validated covalent ligands of the small GTPase RAB27A, RSC Medicinal Chemistry, Vol: 13, Pages: 150-155, ISSN: 2632-8682
Rab27A is a small GTPase, which mediates transport and docking of secretory vesicles at the plasma membrane via protein–protein interactions (PPIs) with effector proteins. Rab27A promotes the growth and invasion of multiple cancer types such as breast, lung and pancreatic, by enhancing secretion of chemokines, metalloproteases and exosomes. The significant role of Rab27A in multiple cancer types and the minor role in adults suggest that Rab27A may be a suitable target to disrupt cancer metastasis. Similar to many GTPases, the flat topology of the Rab27A-effector PPI interface and the high affinity for GTP make it a challenging target for inhibition by small molecules. Reported co-crystal structures show that several effectors of Rab27A interact with the Rab27A SF4 pocket (‘WF-binding pocket’) via a conserved tryptophan–phenylalanine (WF) dipeptide motif. To obtain structural insight into the ligandability of this pocket, a novel construct was designed fusing Rab27A to part of an effector protein (fRab27A), allowing crystallisation of Rab27A in high throughput. The paradigm of KRas covalent inhibitor development highlights the challenge presented by GTPase proteins as targets. However, taking advantage of two cysteine residues, C123 and C188, that flank the WF pocket and are unique to Rab27A and Rab27B among the >60 Rab family proteins, we used the quantitative Irreversible Tethering (qIT) assay to identify the first covalent ligands for native Rab27A. The binding modes of two hits were elucidated by co-crystallisation with fRab27A, exemplifying a platform for identifying suitable lead fragments for future development of competitive inhibitors of the Rab27A-effector interaction interface, corroborating the use of covalent libraries to tackle challenging targets.
Coupland CE, Andrei SA, Ansell TB, et al., 2021, Structure, mechanism, and inhibition of Hedgehog acyltransferase, Molecular Cell, Vol: 81, Pages: 5025-+, ISSN: 1097-2765
The Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) morphogen pathway is fundamental for embryonic development and stem cell maintenance and is implicated in various cancers. A key step in signaling is transfer of a palmitate group to the SHH N terminus, catalyzed by the multi-pass transmembrane enzyme Hedgehog acyltransferase (HHAT). We present the high-resolution cryo-EM structure of HHAT bound to substrate analog palmityl-coenzyme A and a SHH-mimetic megabody, revealing a heme group bound to HHAT that is essential for HHAT function. A structure of HHAT bound to potent small-molecule inhibitor IMP-1575 revealed conformational changes in the active site that occlude substrate binding. Our multidisciplinary analysis provides a detailed view of the mechanism by which HHAT adapts the membrane environment to transfer an acyl chain across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. This structure of a membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) superfamily member provides a blueprint for other protein-substrate MBOATs and a template for future drug discovery.
Coupland CE, Andrei SA, Ansell TB, et al., 2021, Structure and Mechanism of Hedgehog Acyl Transferase, Molecular Cell, ISSN: 1097-2765
<jats:title>SUMMARY</jats:title><jats:p>The iconic Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) morphogen pathway is a fundamental orchestrator of embryonic development and stem cell maintenance, and is implicated in cancers in various organs. A key step in signalling is transfer of a palmitate group to the N-terminal cysteine residue of SHH, catalysed by the multi-pass transmembrane enzyme Hedgehog acyltransferase (HHAT) resident in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we present the high-resolution cryo-EM structure of HHAT bound to substrate analogue palmityl-coenzyme A and a SHH mimetic megabody. Surprisingly, we identified a heme group bound to an HHAT cysteine residue and show that this modification is essential for HHAT structure and function. A structure of HHAT bound to potent small molecule inhibitor IMP-1575 revealed conformational changes in the active site which occlude substrate binding. Our multidisciplinary analysis provides a detailed view of the novel mechanism by which HHAT adapts the membrane environment to transfer a long chain fatty acid across the ER membrane from cytosolic acyl-CoA to a luminal protein substrate. This structure of a member of the protein-substrate membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) superfamily provides a blueprint for other protein substrate MBOATs, such as WNT morphogen acyltransferase Porcupine and ghrelin <jats:italic>O</jats:italic>-acyltransferase GOAT, and a template for future drug discovery.</jats:p>
Manchanda Y, Ramchunder Z, Shchepinova MM, et al., 2021, Expression of mini-G proteins specifically halt cognate GPCR trafficking and intracellular signalling
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Mini-G proteins are engineered thermostable variants of Gα subunits designed to specifically stabilise G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in their active conformation for structural analyses. Due to their smaller size and ease of use, they have become popular tools in recent years to assess specific GPCR behaviours in cells, both as reporters of receptor coupling to each G protein subtype and for in-cell assays designed to quantify compartmentalised receptor signalling from a range of subcellular locations. Here, we describe a previously unappreciated consequence of the co-expression of mini-G proteins with their cognate GPCRs, namely a profound disruption in GPCR trafficking and intracellular signalling caused by the co-expression of the specific mini-G subtype coupled to the affected receptor. We studied the Gαs-coupled pancreatic beta cell class B GPCR glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) as a model to describe in detail the molecular consequences derived from this effect, including a complete halt in β-arrestin-2 recruitment and receptor internalisation, despite near-normal levels of receptor GRK2 recruitment and lipid nanodomain segregation, as well as the disruption of endosomal GLP-1R signalling by mini-G<jats:sub>s</jats:sub> co-expression. We also extend our analysis to a range of other prototypical GPCRs covering the spectrum of Gα subtype coupling preferences, to unveil a widely conserved phenomenon of GPCR internalisation blockage by specific mini-G proteins coupled to a particular receptor. Our results have important implications for the design of methods to assess intracellular GPCR signalling. We also present an alternative adapted bystander intracellular signalling assay for the GLP-1R in which we substitute the mini-G<jats:sub>s</jats:sub> by a nanobody, Nb37, with specificity for active Gαs:GPCR complexes and no deleterious effect o
Kallemeijn W, Lanyon-Hogg T, Panyain N, et al., 2021, Proteome-wide analysis of protein lipidation using chemical probes: in-gel fluorescence visualisation, identification and quantification of N-myristoylation, N- and S-acylation, Ocholesterylation, S-farnesylation and S-geranylgeranylation, Nature Protocols, ISSN: 1750-2799
Schlott AC, Knuepfer E, Green JL, et al., 2021, Inhibition of protein N-myristoylation blocks Plasmodium falciparum intraerythrocytic development, egress and invasion, PLoS Biology, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1544-9173
We have combined chemical biology and genetic modification approaches to investigate the importance of protein myristoylation in the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Parasite treatment during schizogony in the last 10 to 15 hours of the erythrocytic cycle with IMP-1002, an inhibitor of N-myristoyl transferase (NMT), led to a significant blockade in parasite egress from the infected erythrocyte. Two rhoptry proteins were mislocalized in the cell, suggesting that rhoptry function is disrupted. We identified 16 NMT substrates for which myristoylation was significantly reduced by NMT inhibitor (NMTi) treatment, and, of these, 6 proteins were substantially reduced in abundance. In a viability screen, we showed that for 4 of these proteins replacement of the N-terminal glycine with alanine to prevent myristoylation had a substantial effect on parasite fitness. In detailed studies of one NMT substrate, glideosome-associated protein 45 (GAP45), loss of myristoylation had no impact on protein location or glideosome assembly, in contrast to the disruption caused by GAP45 gene deletion, but GAP45 myristoylation was essential for erythrocyte invasion. Therefore, there are at least 3 mechanisms by which inhibition of NMT can disrupt parasite development and growth: early in parasite development, leading to the inhibition of schizogony and formation of "pseudoschizonts," which has been described previously; at the end of schizogony, with disruption of rhoptry formation, merozoite development and egress from the infected erythrocyte; and at invasion, when impairment of motor complex function prevents invasion of new erythrocytes. These results underline the importance of P. falciparum NMT as a drug target because of the pleiotropic effect of its inhibition.
Panyain N, Godinat A, Thawani AR, et al., 2021, Activity-based protein profiling reveals deubiquitinase and aldehyde dehydrogenase targets of a cyanopyrrolidine probe, RSC Medicinal Chemistry, Vol: 12, Pages: 1935-1943, ISSN: 2632-8682
Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1), a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB), is a potential drug target in various cancers, and liver and lung fibrosis. However, bona fide functions and substrates of UCHL1 remain poorly understood. Herein, we report the characterization of UCHL1 covalent inhibitor MT16-001 based on a thiazole cyanopyrrolidine scaffold. In combination with chemical proteomics, a closely related activity-based probe (MT16-205) was used to generate a comprehensive quantitative profile for on- and off-targets at endogenous cellular abundance. Both compounds are selective for UCHL1 over other DUBs in intact cells but also engage a range of other targets with good selectivity over the wider proteome, including aldehyde dehydrogenases, redox-sensitive Parkinson’s disease related protein PARK7, and glutamine amidotransferase. Taken together, these results underline the importance of robust profiling of activity-based probes as chemical tools and highlight the cyanopyrrolidine warhead as a versatile platform for liganding diverse classes of protein with reactive cysteine residues which can be used for further inhibitor screening, and as a starting point for inhibitor development.
De Vita E, Lucy D, Tate EW, 2021, Beyond targeted protein degradation: LD.ATTECs clear cellular lipid droplets, CELL RESEARCH, Vol: 31, Pages: 945-946, ISSN: 1001-0602
Goya Grocin A, Kallemeijn W, Tate E, 2021, Targeting methionine aminopeptidase 2 in cancer, obesity and autoimmunity, Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, ISSN: 0165-6147
Kennedy C, Goya Grocin A, Kovacic T, et al., 2021, A probe for NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor MCC950 identifies carbonic anhydrase 2 as a novel target, ACS Chemical Biology, Vol: 16, Pages: 982-990, ISSN: 1554-8929
Inhibition of inflammasome and pyroptotic pathways are promising strategies for clinical treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. MCC950, a potent inhibitor of the NLR-family inflammasome pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) protein, has shown encouraging results in animal models for a range of conditions; however, until now, no off-targets have been identified. Herein, we report the design, synthesis, and application of a novel photoaffinity alkyne-tagged probe for MCC950 (IMP2070) which shows direct engagement with NLRP3 and inhibition of inflammasome activation in macrophages. Affinity-based chemical proteomics in live macrophages identified several potential off-targets, including carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2) as a specific target of IMP2070, and independent cellular thermal proteomic profiling revealed stabilization of CA2 by MCC950. MCC950 displayed noncompetitive inhibition of CA2 activity, confirming carbonic anhydrase as an off-target class for this compound. These data highlight potential biological mechanisms through which MCC950 and derivatives may exhibit off-target effects in preclinical or clinical studies.
Lovell S, Zhang L, Kryza T, et al., 2021, A suite of activity-based probes to dissect the KLK activome in drug-resistant prostate cancer, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol: 143, Pages: 8911-8924, ISSN: 0002-7863
Kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) are a family of secreted serine proteases, which form a network (the KLK activome) with an important role in proteolysis and signaling. In prostate cancer (PCa), increased KLK activity promotes tumor growth and metastasis through multiple biochemical pathways, and specific quantification and tracking of changes in the KLK activome could contribute to validation of KLKs as potential drug targets. Herein we report a technology platform based on novel activity-based probes (ABPs) and inhibitors enabling simultaneous orthogonal analysis of KLK2, KLK3, and KLK14 activity in hormone-responsive PCa cell lines and tumor homogenates. Importantly, we identifed a significant decoupling of KLK activity and abundance and suggest that KLK proteolysis should be considered as an additional parameter, along with the PSA blood test, for accurate PCa diagnosis and monitoring. Using selective inhibitors and multiplexed fluorescent activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), we dissect the KLK activome in PCa cells and show that increased KLK14 activity leads to a migratory phenotype. Furthermore, using biotinylated ABPs, we show that active KLK molecules are secreted into the bone microenvironment by PCa cells following stimulation by osteoblasts suggesting KLK-mediated signaling mechanisms could contribute to PCa metastasis to bone. Together our findings show that ABPP is a powerful approach to dissect dysregulation of the KLK activome as a promising and previously underappreciated therapeutic target in advanced PCa.
Lanyon-Hogg T, Ritzefeld M, Zhang L, et al., 2021, Photochemical probe identification of the small-molecule binding site in a mammalian membrane-bound O-acyltransferase, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol: 60, Pages: 13542-13547, ISSN: 1433-7851
The mammalian membrane‐bound O ‐acyltransferase (MBOAT) superfamily is involved in biological processes including growth, development and appetite sensing. MBOATs are attractive drug targets in cancer and obesity; however, information on the binding site and molecular mechanisms underlying small‐molecule inhibition is elusive. This study reports rational development of a photochemical probe to interrogate a novel small‐molecule inhibitor binding site in the human MBOAT Hedgehog acyltransferase (HHAT). Structure‐activity relationship investigation identified single enantiomer IMP‐1575 , the most potent HHAT inhibitor reported to‐date, and guided design of photocrosslinking probes that maintained HHAT‐inhibitory potency. Photocrosslinking and proteomic sequencing of HHAT delivered identification of the first small‐molecule binding site in a mammalian MBOAT. Topology and homology data suggested a potential mechanism for HHAT inhibition which was confirmed via kinetic analysis. Our results provide an optimal HHAT tool inhibitor IMP‐1575 ( K i = 38 nM) and a strategy for mapping small molecule interaction sites in MBOATs.
LanyonHogg T, Ritzefeld M, Zhang L, et al., 2021, Photochemical Probe Identification of a Small‐Molecule Inhibitor Binding Site in Hedgehog Acyltransferase (HHAT)**, Angewandte Chemie, Vol: 133, Pages: 13654-13659, ISSN: 0044-8249
Tate E, 2021, PROTACs, molecular glues and bifunctionals from bench to bedside: Unlocking the clinical potential of catalytic drugs, Progress in medicinal chemistry, ISSN: 0079-6468
Kryza T, Khan T, Lovell S, et al., 2021, Substrate-biased activity-based probes identify proteases that cleave receptor CDCP1, Nature Chemical Biology, Vol: 17, Pages: 776-783, ISSN: 1552-4450
CUB domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1) is an oncogenic orphan transmembrane receptor and a promising target for the detection and treatment of cancer. Extracellular proteolysis of CDCP1 by poorly defined mechanisms induces pro-metastatic signaling. We describe a new approach for the rapid identification of proteases responsible for key proteolytic events using a substrate-biased activity-based probe (sbABP) that incorporates a substrate cleavage motif grafted onto a peptidyl diphenyl phosphonate warhead for specific target protease capture, isolation and identification. Using a CDCP1-biased probe, we identify urokinase (uPA) as the master regulator of CDCP1 proteolysis, which acts both by directly cleaving CDCP1 and by activating CDCP1-cleaving plasmin. We show that coexpression of uPA and CDCP1 is strongly predictive of poor disease outcome across multiple cancers and demonstrate that uPA-mediated CDCP1 proteolysis promotes metastasis in disease-relevant preclinical in vivo models. These results highlight CDCP1 cleavage as a potential target to disrupt cancer and establish sbABP technology as a new approach to identify disease-relevant proteases.
Benns HJ, Storch M, Falco J, et al., 2021, Prioritization of antimicrobial targets by CRISPR-based oligo recombineering
<jats:title>Summary</jats:title><jats:p>Nucleophilic amino acids are important in covalent drug development yet underutilized as antimicrobial targets. Over recent years, several chemoproteomic technologies have been developed to mine chemically-accessible residues via their intrinsic reactivity toward electrophilic probes. However, these approaches cannot discern which reactive sites contribute to protein function and should therefore be prioritized for drug discovery. To address this, we have developed a CRISPR-based Oligo Recombineering (CORe) platform to systematically prioritize reactive amino acids according to their contribution to protein function. Our approach directly couples protein sequence and function with biological fitness. Here, we profile the reactivity of >1,000 cysteines on ~700 proteins in the eukaryotic pathogen <jats:italic>Toxoplasma gondii</jats:italic> and prioritize functional sites using CORe. We competitively compared the fitness effect of 370 codon switches at 74 cysteines and identify functional sites in a diverse range of proteins. In our proof of concept, CORe performed >800 times faster than a standard genetic workflow. Reactive cysteines decorating the ribosome were found to be critical for parasite growth, with subsequent target-based screening validating the apicomplexan translation machinery as a target for covalent ligand development. CORe is system-agnostic, and supports expedient identification, functional prioritization, and rational targeting of reactive sites in a wide range of organisms and diseases.</jats:p>
Losada de la Lastra A, Hassan S, Tate EW, 2021, Deconvoluting the biology and druggability of protein lipidation using chemical proteomics, Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, Vol: 60, Pages: 97-112, ISSN: 1367-5931
Lipids are indispensable cellular building blocks, and their post-translational attachment to proteins makes them important regulators of many biological processes. Dysfunction of protein lipidation is also implicated in many pathological states, yet its systematic analysis presents significant challenges. Thanks to innovations in chemical proteomics, lipidation can now be readily studied by metabolic tagging using functionalized lipid analogs, enabling global profiling of lipidated substrates using mass spectrometry. This has spearheaded the first deconvolution of their full scope in a range of contexts, from cells to pathogens and multicellular organisms. Protein N-myristoylation, S-acylation, and S-prenylation are the most well-studied lipid post-translational modifications because of their extensive contribution to the regulation of diverse cellular processes. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the study of these post-translational modifications, with an emphasis on how novel mass spectrometry methods have elucidated their roles in fundamental biological processes.
Bickel JK, Voisin TB, Tate EW, et al., 2021, How Structures of Complement Complexes Guide Therapeutic Design., Subcell Biochem, Vol: 96, Pages: 273-295, ISSN: 0306-0225
The complement system is essential for immune defence against infection and modulation of proinflammatory responses. Activation of the terminal pathway of complement triggers formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC), a multi-protein pore that punctures membranes. Recent advances in structural biology, specifically cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM), have provided atomic resolution snapshots along the pore formation pathway. These structures have revealed dramatic conformational rearrangements that enable assembly and membrane rupture. Here we review the structural basis for MAC formation and show how soluble proteins transition into a giant β-barrel pore. We also discuss regulatory complexes of the terminal pathway and their impact on structure-guided drug discovery of complement therapeutics.
Kounde CS, Tate EW, 2020, Photoactive bifunctional degraders: precision tools to regulate protein stability., Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Vol: 63, Pages: 15483-15493, ISSN: 0022-2623
Targeted protein degradation with bifunctional degraders is positioned as a remarkable game-changing strategy to control cellular protein levels and promises a new therapeutic modality in drug discovery. Light activation of a degrader to achieve exquisite spatiotemporal control over protein stability in cells has attracted the interest of multiple research groups, with recent reports demonstrating optical control of proteolysis with chimeric molecules bearing photolabile or photoswitchable motifs. In this context of targeted proteolysis research spurring the emergence of innovative tools, we examine the design, synthesis, and properties of light-activated degraders. The significant impact of this approach in regulating disease-relevant protein levels in a light-dependent manner is highlighted with key examples, and future developments to fully harness the potential of light-induced protein degradation with photoactive bifunctional molecules are discussed.
Schlott AC, Knuepfer E, Green JL, et al., 2020, Inhibition of protein N-myristoylation blocks <i>Plasmodium falciparum</i> intraerythrocytic development, egress, and invasion
<jats:title>ABSTRACT</jats:title><jats:p>We have combined chemical biology and genetic modification approaches to investigate the importance of protein myristoylation in the human malaria parasite, <jats:italic>Plasmodium falciparum</jats:italic>. Parasite treatment during schizogony in the last ten to fifteen hours of the erythrocytic cycle with IMP-1002, an inhibitor of <jats:italic>N</jats:italic>-myristoyl transferase (NMT), led to a significant blockade in parasite egress from the infected erythrocyte. Two rhoptry proteins were mislocalized in the cell, suggesting that rhoptry function is disrupted. We identified sixteen NMT substrates for which myristoylation was significantly reduced by NMT inhibitor treatment, and of these, six proteins were substantially reduced in abundance. In a viability screen, we showed that for four of these proteins replacement of the N-terminal glycine with alanine to prevent myristoylation had a substantial effect on parasite fitness. In detailed studies of one NMT substrate, glideosome associated protein 45 (GAP45), loss of myristoylation had no impact on protein location or glideosome assembly, in contrast to the disruption caused by GAP45 gene deletion, but GAP45 myristoylation was essential for erythrocyte invasion. Therefore, there are at least three mechanisms by which inhibition of NMT can disrupt parasite development and growth: early in parasite development, leading to the inhibition of schizogony and formation of ‘pseudoschizonts’, which has been described previously; at the end of schizogony, with disruption of rhoptry formation, merozoite development and egress from the infected erythrocyte; and at invasion, when impairment of motor complex function prevents invasion of new erythrocytes. These results underline the importance of <jats:italic>P. falciparum</jats:italic> NMT as a drug target because of the pleiotropic effect of its inhibition.</jats:p>
Jones B, Fang Z, Chen S, et al., 2020, Ligand-specific factors influencing GLP-1 receptor post-endocytic trafficking and degradation in pancreatic beta cells, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol: 212, Pages: 1-24, ISSN: 1422-0067
The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is an important regulator of blood glucose homeostasis. Ligand-specific differences in membrane trafficking of the GLP-1R influence its signalling properties and therapeutic potential in type 2 diabetes. Here, we have evaluated how different factors combine to control the post-endocytic trafficking of GLP-1R to recycling versus degradative pathways. Experiments were performed in primary islet cells, INS-1 832/3 clonal beta cells and HEK293 cells, using biorthogonal labelling of GLP-1R to determine its localisation and degradation after treatment with GLP-1, exendin-4 and several further GLP-1R agonist peptides. We also characterised the effect of a rare GLP1R coding variant, T149M, and the role of endosomal peptidase endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1), in GLP1R trafficking. Our data reveal how treatment with GLP-1 versus exendin-4 is associated with preferential GLP-1R targeting towards a recycling pathway. GLP-1, but not exendin-4, is a substrate for ECE-1, and the resultant propensity to intra-endosomal degradation, in conjunction with differences in binding affinity, contributes to alterations in GLP-1R trafficking behaviours and degradation. The T149M GLP-1R variant shows reduced signalling and internalisation responses, which is likely to be due to disruption of the cytoplasmic region that couples to intracellular effectors. These observations provide insights into how ligand- and genotype-specific factors can influence GLP-1R trafficking.
Shackley M, Ma Y, Brown A, et al., 2020, Short chain fatty acids enhance expression and activity of the umami taste receptor in enteroendocrine cells via a Galphai/o pathway, Frontiers in Nutrition, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2296-861X
The short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, butyrate and propionate, are produced by fermentation of non-digestible carbohydrates by the gut microbiota and regulate appetite, adiposity, metabolism, glycemic control, and immunity. SCFAs act at two distinct G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), FFAR2 and FFAR3 and are expressed in intestinal enteroendocrine cells (EECs), where they mediate anorectic gut hormone release. EECs also express other GPCRs that act as nutrient sensors, thus SCFAs may elicit some of their health-promoting effects by altering GPCR expression in EECs and enhance gut sensitivity to dietary molecules. Here, we identify that exposure of the murine EEC STC-1 cell line or intestinal organoids to physiological concentrations of SCFAs enhances mRNA levels of the umami taste receptors TASR1 and TASR3, without altering levels of the SCFA GPCRs, FFAR2 and FFAR3. Treatment of EECs with propionate or butyrate, but not acetate, increased levels of umami receptor transcripts, while propionate also reduced CCK expression. This was reversed by inhibiting Gαi/o signaling with pertussis toxin, suggesting that SCFAs act through FFAR2/3 to alter gene expression. Surprisingly, neither a FFAR3 nor a FFAR2 selective ligand could increase TASR1/TASR3 mRNA levels. We assessed the functional impact of increased TASR1/TASR3 expression using unique pharmacological properties of the umami taste receptor; namely, the potentiation of signaling by inosine monophosphate. Activation of umami taste receptor induced inositol-1-phosphate and calcium signaling, and butyrate pretreatment significantly enhanced such signaling. Our study reveals that SCFAs may contribute to EEC adaptation and alter EEC sensitivity to bioactive nutrients.
Caengprasath N, Gonzalez Abuin N, Shchepinova M, et al., 2020, Internalization-dependent free fatty acid receptor 2 signaling is essential for propionate- induced anorectic gut hormone release, iScience, Vol: 23, ISSN: 2589-0042
The ability of propionate, a short-chain fatty acid produced from the fermentation of non-digestible carbohydrates in the colon, to stimulate the release of anorectic gut hormones, such as glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), is an attractive approach to enhance appetite regulation, weight management, and glycemic control. Propionate induces GLP-1 release via its G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2), a GPCR that activates Gαi and Gαq/11. However, how pleiotropic GPCR signaling mechanisms in the gut regulates appetite is poorly understood. Here, we identify propionate-mediated G protein signaling is spatially directed within the cell whereby FFA2 is targeted to very early endosomes. Furthermore, propionate activates a Gαi/p38 signaling pathway, which requires receptor internalization and is essential for propionate-induced GLP-1 release in enteroendocrine cells and colonic crypts. Our study reveals that intestinal metabolites engage membrane trafficking pathways and that receptor internalization could orchestrate complex GPCR pathways within the gut.
Panyain N, Godinat A, Lanyon-Hogg T, et al., 2020, Correction to “Discovery of a Potent and Selective Covalent Inhibitor and Activity-Based Probe for the Deubiquitylating Enzyme UCHL1, with Antifibrotic Activity”, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol: 142, Pages: 15199-15199, ISSN: 0002-7863
Supporting Information, pages S38 and S44. In the PDF Supporting Information, Schemes S1 and S3 contained errors in the synthetic conditions. The conditions for the steps 5 → 6 and 12 → 13 in the respective schemes should be “TFA, DCM, rt” (not “TMSI, K2CO3, CH2Cl2”).
De Vita E, Maneiro M, Tate EW, 2020, The missing link between (Un)druggable and degradable KRAS, ACS Central Science, Vol: 6, Pages: 1281-1284, ISSN: 2374-7943
Benns HJ, Wincott CJ, Tate EW, et al., 2020, Activity- and reactivity-based proteomics: Recent technological advances and applications in drug discovery., Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, Vol: 60, Pages: 20-29, ISSN: 1367-5931
Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is recognized as a powerful and versatile chemoproteomic technology in drug discovery. Central to ABPP is the use of activity-based probes to report the activity of specific enzymes or reactivity of amino acid types in complex biological systems. Over the last two decades, ABPP has facilitated the identification of new drug targets and discovery of lead compounds in human and infectious disease. Furthermore, as part of a sustained global effort to illuminate the druggable proteome, the repertoire of target classes addressable with activity-based probes has vastly expanded in recent years. Here, we provide an overview of ABPP and summarise the major technological advances with an emphasis on probe development.
Bell AS, Yu Z, Hutton JA, et al., 2020, Novel thienopyrimidine inhibitors of Leishmania N-myristoyltransferase with on-target activity in intracellular amastigotes, Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Vol: 14, Pages: 7740-7765, ISSN: 0022-2623
The leishmaniases, caused by Leishmania species of protozoan parasites, are neglected tropical diseases with 12-15 million cases worldwide. Current therapeutic approaches are limited by toxicity, resistance and cost. N-Myristoyltransferase (NMT), an enzyme ubiquitous and essential in all eukaryotes, has been validated via genetic and pharmacological methods as a promising antileishmanial target. Here we describe a comprehensive structure activity relationship study of a thienopyrimidine series previously identified in a high throughput screen against Leishmania NMT, across 68 compounds in enzyme- and cell-based assay formats. Using a chemical tagging target engagement biomarker assay we identify the first inhibitor in this series with on-target NMT activity in leishmania parasites. Furthermore, crystal structure analyses of 12 derivatives in complex with Leishmania major NMT revealed key factors important for future structure-guided optimization delivering IMP-105 (43), a compound with modest activity against L. donovani intracellular amastigotes and excellent selectivity (>660-fold) for Leishmania NMT over human NMTs.
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