Imperial College London

DrEszterVamos

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Clinical Senior Lecturer
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 7457e.vamos

 
 
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Location

 

321Reynolds BuildingCharing Cross Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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110 results found

Parnham JC, Chang K, Millett C, Laverty A, von Hinke S, Pearson-Stuttard J, de Vocht F, White M, Vamos EPet al., 2022, The impact of the Universal Infant Free School Meal policy on dietary quality in English and Scottish primary school children: evaluation of a natural experiment, Nutrients, Vol: 14, ISSN: 2072-6643

The Universal Infant Free School Meal (UIFSM) policy was introduced in September 2014 in England and January 2015 in Scotland and offered all infant schoolchildren (ages 4-7 years) a free school lunch, regardless of income. Yet, impacts of UIFSM on dietary intakes and or social inequalities are not known. A difference-in-differences study using the National Diet and Nutrition Survey assessed pooled pre-UIFSM (2010-2014) and post-UIFSM (2014-2017) dietary data. English or Scottish infant schoolchildren (4-7 years; N=458) were the intervention group with junior schoolchildren (8-11 years; N=401) as controls. We found that implementation of UIFSM led to an increase in infant schoolchildren having a school meal. Impacts on key food groups such as fruit and vegetables or sweetened beverages were not seen. However, there was evidence that the UIFSM policy lowered consumption of foods associated with packed lunches, such as crisps, and some nutrients, such as total fat and sodium. Policy impacts differed by income group, with larger effect sizes in low-income children. In conclusion, evaluation of UIFSM demonstrated some improvements on dietary quality but the findings suggest school meal quality needs to be improved to fully realise the benefits of UIFSM.

Journal article

Kliemann N, Al Nahas A, Vamos EP, Touvier M, Kesse-Guyot E, Gunter MJ, Millett C, Huybrechts Iet al., 2022, Ultra-processed foods and cancer risk: from global food systems to individual exposures and mechanisms, BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER, ISSN: 0007-0920

Journal article

Sharma A, Lai H, Chang K, Sharabiani M, Bottle A, Valabhji J, Middleton L, Majeed A, Millett C, Vamos Eet al., 2022, A 20-year follow-up of cardiometabolic trajectories amongst individuals with type 2 diabetes before dementia diagnosis by ethnic group, DUK, Publisher: WILEY, ISSN: 0742-3071

Conference paper

Zheng B, Su B, Udeh-Momoh C, Price G, Tzoulaki I, Vamos EP, Majeed A, Riboli E, Ahmadi-Abhari S, Middleton LTet al., 2022, Associations of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular comorbidities with dementia risk in patients with diabetes: results from a large UK cohort study, JPAD-JOURNAL OF PREVENTION OF ALZHEIMERS DISEASE, Vol: 9, Pages: 86-91, ISSN: 2274-5807

BackgroundType 2 diabetes (T2D) is an established risk factor for dementia. However, it remains unclear whether the presence of comorbidities could further increase dementia risk in diabetes patients.ObjectivesTo examine the associations between cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular comorbidities and dementia risk in T2D patients.DesignPopulation-based cohort study.SettingThe UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD).Participants489,205 T2D patients aged over 50 years in the UK CPRD.MeasurementsMajor cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular comorbidities were extracted as time-varying exposure variables. The outcome event was dementia incidence based on dementia diagnosis or dementia-specific drug prescription.ResultsDuring a median of six years follow-up, 33,773 (6.9%) incident dementia cases were observed. Time-varying Cox regressions showed T2D patients with stroke, peripheral vascular disease, atrial fibrillation, heart failure or hypertension were at higher risk of dementia compared to those without such comorbidities (HR [95% CI] = 1.64 [1.59–1.68], 1.37 [1.34–1.41], 1.26 [1.22–1.30], 1.15 [1.11–1.20] or 1.10 [1.03–1.18], respectively). Presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or chronic kidney disease was also associated with increased dementia risk (HR [95% CI] = 1.05 [1.01–1.10] or 1.11 [1.07–1.14]).ConclusionsA range of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular comorbidities were associated with further increases of dementia risk in T2D patients. Prevention and effective management of these comorbidities may play a significant role in maintaining cognitive health in T2D patients.

Journal article

Pearson-Stuttard J, Cheng Y, Bennett J, Zhou B, Vamos E, Valabhji J, Cross A, Ezzati M, Gregg Eet al., 2022, Trends in leading causes of hospitalisation among adults with diabetes in England from 2003 to 2018: an epidemiological analysis of linked primary care records, The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, Vol: 10, Pages: 46-57, ISSN: 2213-8595

BackgroundDiabetes mellitus (DM) leads to a wide range of established vascular and metabolic complications which has resulted in specific prevention programmes being implemented across high-income countries. DM has been associated with increased risk of a broader set of conditions including cancers, liver disease and common infections. We aimed to examine the trends in a broad set of cause-specific hospitalisations in individuals with DM in England from 2003-2018.MethodsWe identified 309,874 individuals with DM in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a well described primary care database, linked to Hospital Episode Statistics inpatient data from 2003-2018. We generated a mixed prevalence and incident DM study population through serial cross sections and follow-up over time. We used a discretised Poisson regression model to estimate annual cause-specific hospitalisation rates in men and women with DM across 17 cause groupings. We generated a 1:1 age and sex matched non-DM population to compare findings. FindingsHospitalisation rates were higher for all causes in persons with DM compared to those without throughout the study period. DM itself and Ischaemic Heart Disease (IHD) were the leading causes of excess hospitalisation in 2003, but by 2018, respiratory conditions, cancers and IHD were the most common causes of excess hospitalisation across men and women. Hospitalisation rates declined in almost all traditional DM complication groupings (IHD, stroke, DM, amputations) whilst generally increasing across broader conditions (cancers, infections, respiratory conditions). These differing trends resulted in a diversification in the cause of hospitalisation, such that the traditional DM complications accounted for more than 50% of hospitalisations in 2003, but only approximately 30% in 2018. In contrast, the portion of hospitalisations that broader conditions accounted for increased including respiratory infections being attributable for 12% of hospitalisations in 2

Journal article

Parnham J, Millett C, Chang K, Laverty A, von Hinke S, Pearson-Stuttard J, Vamos Eet al., 2021, Is the Healthy Start scheme associated with increased food expenditure in low-income families with young children in the United Kingdom?, BMC Public Health, Vol: 21, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 1471-2458

Introduction: Healthy Start is a food assistance programme in the United Kingdom (UK) which aims to provide a nutritional safety-net and enable low-income families on welfare benefits to access a healthier diet through the provision of food vouchers. Healthy Start was launched in 2006 but remains under-evaluated. This study aims to determine whether participation in the Healthy Start scheme is associated with differences in food expenditure in a nationally representative sample of households in the UK. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of the Living Costs and Food Survey dataset (2010-2017). All households with a child (0-3 years) or pregnant woman were included in the analysis (n=4,869). Multivariable quantile regression compared the expenditure and quantity of fruit and vegetables (FV), infant formula and total food purchases. Four exposure groups were defined based on eligibility, participation and income (Healthy Start Participating, Eligible Non-participating, Nearly Eligible low-income and Ineligible high-income households).Results: Of 876 eligible households, 54% participated in Healthy Start. No significant differences were found in FV or total food purchases between participating and eligible non-participating households, but infant formula purchases were lower in Healthy Start participating households. Ineligible higher-income households had higher purchases of FV. Conclusion: This study did not find evidence of an association between Healthy Start participation and FV expenditure. Moreover, inequalities in FV purchasing persist in the UK. Higher participation and increased voucher value may be needed to improve programme performance and counteract the harmful effects of poverty on diet.

Journal article

Vamos E, Khunti K, 2021, The indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with type 2 diabetes - time to urgently move into a recovery phase, BMJ Quality & Safety, ISSN: 2044-5415

Journal article

Jenkins RH, Mason KE, Vamos EP, Taylor-Robinson D, Laverty AAet al., 2021, Impacts of local area public sector spending and food purchasing in England: a panel study, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, ISSN: 1101-1262

Conference paper

Chang K, Khandpur N, Neri D, Touvier M, Huybrechts I, Millett C, Vamos EPet al., 2021, Childhood consumption of ultra-processed foods and adiposity trajectories: a UK birth cohort study, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, ISSN: 1101-1262

Conference paper

Jawad M, Hone T, Vamos EP, Cetorelli V, Millett Cet al., 2021, Implications of armed conflict for maternal and child health: A regression analysis of data from 181 countries for 2000-2019, PLoS Medicine, Vol: 18, ISSN: 1549-1277

BACKGROUND: Armed conflicts have major indirect health impacts in addition to the direct harms from violence. They create enduring political instability, destabilise health systems, and foster negative socioeconomic and environmental conditions-all of which constrain efforts to reduce maternal and child mortality. The detrimental impacts of conflict on global maternal and child health are not robustly quantified. This study assesses the association between conflict and maternal and child health globally. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data for 181 countries (2000-2019) from the Uppsala Conflict Data Program and World Bank were analysed using panel regression models. Primary outcomes were maternal, under-5, infant, and neonatal mortality rates. Secondary outcomes were delivery by a skilled birth attendant and diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) and measles vaccination coverage. Models were adjusted for 10 confounders, country and year fixed effects, and conflict lagged by 1 year. Further lagged associations up to 10 years post-conflict were tested. The number of excess deaths due to conflict was estimated. Out of 3,718 country-year observations, 522 (14.0%) had minor conflicts and 148 (4.0%) had wars. In adjusted models, conflicts classified as wars were associated with an increase in maternal mortality of 36.9 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births (95% CI 1.9-72.0; 0.3 million excess deaths [95% CI 0.2 million-0.4 million] over the study period), an increase in infant mortality of 2.8 per 1,000 live births (95% CI 0.1-5.5; 2.0 million excess deaths [95% CI 1.6 million-2.5 million]), a decrease in DPT vaccination coverage of 4.9% (95% CI 1.5%-8.3%), and a decrease in measles vaccination coverage of 7.3% (95% CI 2.7%-11.8%). The long-term impacts of war were demonstrated by associated increases in maternal mortality observed for up to 7 years, in under-5 mortality for 3-5 years, in infant mortality for up to 8 years, in DPT vaccination coverage for up to 3 years, and in

Journal article

Misra S, Barron E, Vamos E, Thomas S, Dhatariya K, Kar P, Young B, Khunti K, Valabhji Jet al., 2021, Temporal trends in emergency admissions for diabetic ketoacidosis in people with diabetes in England before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a population-based study, The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, ISSN: 2213-8595

BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has been reported to be increasing in frequency during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to examine the rates of DKA hospital admissions and the patient demographics associated with DKA during the pandemic compared with in prepandemic years. METHODS: Using a comprehensive, multiethnic, national dataset, the Secondary Uses Service repository, we extracted all emergency hospital admissions in England coded with DKA from March 1 to June 30, 2020 (first wave of the pandemic), July 1 to Oct 31, 2020 (post-first wave), and Nov 1, 2020, to Feb 28, 2021 (second wave), and compared these with DKA admissions in the equivalent periods in 2017-20. We also examined baseline characteristics, mortality, and trends in patients who were admitted with DKA. FINDINGS: There were 8553 admissions coded with DKA during the first wave, 8729 during the post-first wave, and 10 235 during the second wave. Compared with preceding years, DKA admissions were 6% (95% CI 4-9; p<0·0001) higher in the first wave of the pandemic (from n=8048), 6% (3-8; p<0·0001) higher in the post-first wave (from n=8260), and 7% (4-9; p<0·0001) higher in the second wave (from n=9610). In the first wave, DKA admissions reduced by 19% (95% CI 16-21) in those with pre-existing type 1 diabetes (from n=4965 to n=4041), increased by 41% (35-47) in those with pre-existing type 2 diabetes (from n=2010 to n=2831), and increased by 57% (48-66) in those with newly diagnosed diabetes (from n=1072 to n=1681). Compared with prepandemic, type 2 diabetes DKA admissions were similarly common in older individuals and men but were higher in those of non-White ethnicities during the first wave. The increase in newly diagnosed DKA admissions occurred across all age groups and these were significantly increased in men and people of non-White ethnicities. In the post-first wave, DKA admissions did not return to the baseline level of previous years; DKA admissions w

Journal article

Chang K, Khandpur N, Neri D, Touvier M, Huybrechts I, Millett C, Vamos Eet al., 2021, CHILDHOOD CONSUMPTION OF ULTRA-PROCESSED FOODS AND LONG-TERM ADIPOSITY TRAJECTORIES: FINDINGS FROM A UK BIRTH COHORT STUDY, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A17-A18, ISSN: 0143-005X

Conference paper

Lai H, Chang K, Sharabiani M, Valabhji J, Middleton L, Majeed A, Millett C, Bottle A, Vamos Eet al., 2021, 19-YEAR TRAJECTORIES OF CARDIO-METABOLIC FACTORS AMONG PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES BY DEMENTIA STATUS IN ENGLAND, EDC, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A12-A12, ISSN: 0143-005X

Conference paper

Chang K, Khandpur N, Neri D, Touvier M, Huybrechts I, Millett C, Vamos Eet al., 2021, Association between childhood consumption of ultraprocessed food and adiposity trajectories in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort, JAMA Pediatrics, Vol: 175, ISSN: 2168-6211

Importance Reports of associations between higher consumption of ultraprocessed foods (UPF) and elevated risks of obesity, noncommunicable diseases, and mortality in adults are increasing. However, associations of UPF consumption with long-term adiposity trajectories have never been investigated in children.Objective To assess longitudinal associations between UPF consumption and adiposity trajectories from childhood to early adulthood.Design, Setting, and Participants This prospective birth cohort study included children who participated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in Avon County, southwest England. Children were followed up from 7 to 24 years of age during the study period from September 1, 1998, to October 31, 2017. Data were analyzed from March 1, 2020, to January 31, 2021.Exposures Baseline dietary intake data were collected using 3-day food diaries. Consumption of UPF (applying the NOVA food classification system) was computed as a percentage of weight contribution in the total daily food intake for each participant and categorized into quintiles.Main Outcomes and Measures Repeated recordings of objectively assessed anthropometrics (body mass index [BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared], weight, and waist circumference) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements (fat and lean mass indexes [calculated as fat and lean mass, respectively, divided by height in meters squared] and body fat percentage). Associations were evaluated using linear growth curve models and were adjusted for study covariates.Results A total of 9025 children (4481 [49.7%] female and 4544 [50.3%] male) were followed up for a median of 10.2 (interquartile range, 5.2-16.4) years. The mean (SD) UPF consumption at baseline was 23.2% (5.0%) in quintile 1, 34.7% (2.5%) in quintile 2, 43.4% (2.5%) in quintile 3, 52.7% (2.8%) in quintile 4, and 67.8% (8.1%) in quintile 5. Among those in the highest quintile of UPF

Journal article

Cordova R, Kliemann N, Huybrechts I, Rauber F, Vamos EP, Levy RB, Wagner K-H, Viallon V, Casagrande C, Nicolas G, Dahm CC, Zhang J, Halkjær J, Tjønneland A, Boutron-Ruault M-C, Mancini FR, Laouali N, Katzke V, Srour B, Jannasch F, Schulze MB, Masala G, Grioni S, Panico S, van der Schouw YT, Derksen JWG, Rylander C, Skeie G, Jakszyn P, Rodriguez-Barranco M, Huerta JM, Barricarte A, Brunkwall L, Ramne S, Bodén S, Perez-Cornago A, Heath AK, Vineis P, Weiderpass E, Monteiro CA, Gunter MJ, Millett C, Freisling Het al., 2021, Consumption of ultra-processed foods associated with weight gain and obesity in adults: A multi-national cohort study, Clinical Nutrition, Vol: 40, Pages: 5079-5088, ISSN: 0261-5614

BackgroundThere is a worldwide shift towards increased consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) with concurrent rising prevalence of obesity. We examined the relationship between the consumption of UPF and weight gain and risk of obesity.MethodsThis prospective cohort included 348 748 men and women aged 25–70 years. Participants were recruited between 1992 and 2000 from 9 European countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Two body weight measures were available, at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5 years. Foods and drinks were assessed at baseline by dietary questionnaires and classified according to their degree of processing using NOVA classification. Multilevel mixed linear regression was used to estimate the association between UPF consumption and body weight change (kg/5 years). To estimate the relative risk of becoming overweight or obese after 5 years we used Poisson regression stratified according to baseline body mass index (BMI).ResultsAfter multivariable adjustment, higher UPF consumption (per 1 SD increment) was positively associated with weight gain (0·12 kg/5 years, 95% CI 0·09 to 0·15). Comparing highest vs. lowest quintile of UPF consumption was associated with a 15% greater risk (95% CI 1·11, 1·19) of becoming overweight or obese in normal weight participants, and with a 16% greater risk (95% CI 1·09, 1·23) of becoming obese in participants who were overweight at baseline.ConclusionsThese results are supportive of public health campaigns to substitute UPF for less processed alternatives for obesity prevention and weight management.

Journal article

Valabhji J, Barron E, Vamos EP, Dhatariya K, Game F, Kar P, Weaver A, Verma S, Young B, Khunti Ket al., 2021, Temporal Trends in Lower-Limb Major and Minor Amputation and Revascularization Procedures in People With Diabetes in England During the COVID-19 Pandemic, DIABETES CARE, Vol: 44, Pages: E133-E135, ISSN: 0149-5992

Journal article

McKay AJ, Gunn LH, Nugawela MD, Sathish T, Majeed A, Vamos E, Molina G, Sivaprasad Set al., 2021, Associations between attainment of incentivized primary care indicators and incident sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in England: A population-based historical cohort study, Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism: a journal of pharmacology and therapeutics, Vol: 23, Pages: 1322-1330, ISSN: 1462-8902

AimTo examine the impact of attainment of primary care diabetes clinical indicators on progression to sight‐threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) among those with mild non‐proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR).Materials and MethodsAn historical cohort study of 18,978 adults (43.63% female) diagnosed with type 2 diabetes before 1 April 2010 and mild NPDR before 1 April 2011 was conducted. The data were obtained from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink during 2010‐2017, provided by 330 primary care practices in England. Exposures included attainment of the Quality and Outcomes Framework HbA1c (≤59 mmol/mol [≤7.5%]), blood pressure (≤140/80 mmHg) and cholesterol (≤5 mmol/L) indicators in the financial year 2010‐2011, as well as the number of National Diabetes Audit processes completed in 2010‐2011. The outcome was time to incident STDR. Nearest neighbour propensity score matching was undertaken, and univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were then fitted using the matched samples. Concordance statistics were calculated for each model.ResultsA total of 1037 (5.5%) STDR diagnoses were observed over a mean follow‐up of 3.6 (SD 2.0) years. HbA1c, blood pressure and cholesterol indicator attainment were associated with lower rates of STDR (adjusted hazard ratios [95% CI] 0.64 [0.55‐0.74; p < .001], 0.83 [0.72‐0.94; p = .005] and 0.80 [0.66‐0.96; p = .015], respectively).ConclusionsOur findings provide support for meeting appropriate indicators for the management of type 2 diabetes in primary care to bring a range of benefits, including improved health outcomes—such as a reduction in the risk of STDR—for people with type 2 diabetes.

Journal article

Rauber F, Chang K, Vamos E, da Costa Louzada ML, Monteiro C, Millett C, Levy Ret al., 2021, Ultra-processed food consumption and risk of obesity: a prospective cohort study of UK Biobank, European Journal of Nutrition, Vol: 60, Pages: 2169-2180, ISSN: 0044-264X

Objective: To examine the associations between ultra-processed food consumption and risk of obesity among UK adults. Methods: Participants aged 40-69 years at recruitment in the UK Biobank (2006-2019) with dietary intakes collected using 24-hour recall and repeated measures of adiposity - body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and percentage of body fat (% BF) - were included (N=22,659; median follow-up: 5 years). Ultra-processed foods were identified using the NOVA classification and their consumption was expressed as a percentage of total energy intake. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of several indicators of obesity according to ultra-processed food consumption. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics.Results: 947 incident cases of overall obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2) and 1,900 incident cases of abdominal obesity (men: WC≥102cm, women: WC≥88cm) were identified during follow-up. Participants in the highest quartile of ultra-processed food consumption had significantly higher risk of developing overall obesity (HR: 1.79; 95%CI: 1.06─3.03) and abdominal obesity (HR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.14─1.48). They had higher risk of experiencing a ≥5% increase in BMI (HR: 1.31; 95%CI: 1.20─1.43), WC (HR: 1.35; 95%CI: 1.25─1.45) and %BF (HR: 1.14; 95%CI: 1.03─1.25), than those in the lowest quartile of consumption.Conclusions: Our findings provide evidence that higher consumption of ultra-processed food is strongly associated with a higher risk of multiple indicators of obesity in the UK adult population. Policy makers should consider actions that promote consumption of fresh or minimally processed foods and reduce consumption of ultra-processed foods.

Journal article

Levy RB, Rauber F, Chang K, Louzada MLDC, Monteiro CA, Millett C, Vamos EPet al., 2021, Ultra-processed food consumption and type 2 diabetes incidence: A prospective cohort study., Clinical Nutrition, Vol: 40, Pages: 3608-3614, ISSN: 0261-5614

BACKGROUND: Ultra-processed foods account for more than 50% of daily calories consumed in several high-income countries, with sales of ultra-processed foods soaring globally, especially in middle-income countries. The objective of this study is to investigate the association between ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a UK-based prospective cohort study. METHODS: Participants of the UK Biobank (2007-2019) aged 40-69 years without diabetes at recruitment who provided 24-h dietary recall and follow-up data were included. UPFs were defined using the NOVA food classification. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the association between UPF consumption and the risk of T2D adjusting for socio-demographic, anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 21,730 participants with a mean age of 55.8 years and mean UPF intake of 22.1% at baseline were included. During a mean follow-up of 5.4 years (116,956 person-years), 305 incident T2D cases were identified. In the fully adjusted model, compared with the group in the lowest quartile of UPF intake, the hazard ratio for T2D was 1.44, 1.04-2.02 in the group with the highest quartile of UPF consumption. A gradient of elevated risk of T2D associated with increasing quartiles of UPF intake was consistently observed (p value for trend < 0.028). A significantly increased risk of T2D was observed per 10 percentage points increment in UPF consumption ([adjusted HR]: 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.20). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that a diet high in UPFs is associated with a clinically important increased risk of T2D. Identifying and implementing effective public health actions to reduce UPF consumption in the UK and globally are urgently required.

Journal article

Jenkins RH, Vamos EP, Taylor-Robinson D, Millett C, Laverty AAet al., 2021, Impacts of the 2008 Great Recession on dietary intake: a systematic review and meta-analysis, International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, Vol: 18, ISSN: 1479-5868

BackgroundThe 2008 Great Recession significantly impacted economies and individuals globally, with potential impacts on food systems and dietary intake. We systematically reviewed evidence on the impact of the Great Recession on individuals’ dietary intake globally and whether disadvantaged individuals were disproportionately affected.MethodsWe searched seven databases and relevant grey literature through June 2020. Longitudinal quantitative studies with the 2008 recession as the exposure and any measure of dietary intake (energy intake, dietary quality, and food/macronutrient consumption) as the outcome were eligible for inclusion. Eligibility was independently assessed by two reviewers. The Newcastle Ottawa Scale was used for quality and risk of bias assessment. We undertook a random effects meta-analysis for changes in energy intake. Harvest plots were used to display and summarise study results for other outcomes. The study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42019135864).ResultsForty-one studies including 2.6 million people met our inclusion criteria and were heterogenous in both methods and results. Ten studies reported energy intake, 11 dietary quality, 34 food intake, and 13 macronutrient consumption. The Great Recession was associated with a mean reduction of 103.0 cal per adult equivalent per day (95% Confidence Interval: − 132.1, − 73.9) in high-income countries (5 studies) and an increase of 105.5 cal per adult per day (95% Confidence Interval: 72.8, 138.2) in middle-income countries (2 studies) following random effects meta-analysis. We found reductions in fruit and vegetable intake. We also found reductions in intake of fast food, sugary products, and soft drinks. Impacts on macronutrients and dietary quality were inconclusive, though suggestive of a decrease in dietary quality. The Great Recession had greater impacts on dietary intake for disadvantaged individuals.ConclusionsThe 2008 recession was associated

Journal article

Gunn LH, Vamos EP, Majeed A, Normahani P, Jaffer U, Molina G, Valabhji J, McKay AJet al., 2021, Associations between attainment of incentivised primary care indicators and incident lower limb amputation among those with type 2 diabetes: a population-based historical cohort study, BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2052-4897

Introduction England has invested considerably in diabetes care through such programs as the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) and National Diabetes Audit (NDA). Associations between program indicators and clinical endpoints, such as amputation, remain unclear. We examined associations between primary care indicators and incident lower limb amputation.Research design and methods This population-based retrospective cohort study, spanning 2010–2017, was comprised of adults in England with type 2 diabetes and no history of lower limb amputation. Exposures at baseline (2010–2011) were attainment of QOF glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure and total cholesterol indicators, and number of NDA processes completed. Propensity score matching was performed and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for disease-related, comorbidity, lifestyle, and sociodemographic factors, were fitted using matched samples for each exposure.Results 83 688 individuals from 330 English primary care practices were included. Mean follow-up was 3.9 (SD 2.0) years, and 521 (0.6%) minor or major amputations were observed (1.62 per 1000 person-years). HbA1c and cholesterol indicator attainment were associated with considerably lower risks of minor or major amputation (adjusted HRs; 95% CIs) 0.61 (0.49 to 0.74; p<0.0001) and 0.67 (0.53 to 0.86; p=0.0017), respectively). No evidence of association between blood pressure indicator attainment and amputation was observed (adjusted HR 0.88 (0.73 to 1.06; p=0.1891)). Substantially lower amputation rates were observed among those completing a greater number of NDA care processes (adjusted HRs 0.45 (0.24 to 0.83; p=0.0106), 0.67 (0.47 to 0.97; p=0.0319), and 0.38 (0.20 to 0.70; p=0.0022) for comparisons of 4–6 vs 0–3, 7–9 vs 0–3, and 7–9 vs 4–6 processes, respectively). Results for major-only amputations were similar for HbA1c and blood pressure, though cholesterol indicator a

Journal article

McKay AJ, Gunn LH, Sathish T, Vamos E, Nugawela M, Majeed A, Molina G, Sivaprasad Set al., 2021, Associations between attainment of incentivised primary care indicators and incident diabetic retinopathy in England: a population-based historical cohort study, BMC MEDICINE, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1741-7015

BackgroundThe associations between England’s incentivised primary care-based diabetes prevention activities and hard clinical endpoints remain unclear. We aimed to examine the associations between attainment of primary care indicators and incident diabetic retinopathy (DR) among people with type 2 diabetes.MethodsA historical cohort (n = 60,094) of people aged ≥ 18 years with type 2 diabetes and no DR at baseline was obtained from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Exposures included attainment of the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) HbA1c (≤ 7.5% or 59 mmol/mol), blood pressure (≤ 140/80 mmHg), and cholesterol (≤ 5 mmol/L) indicators, and number of National Diabetes Audit (NDA) care processes completed (categorised as 0–3, 4–6, or 7–9), in 2010–2011. Outcomes were time to development of DR and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR). Nearest neighbour propensity score matching was undertaken and Cox proportional hazards models then fitted using the matched samples. Concordance statistics were calculated for each model.Results8263 DR and 832 STDR diagnoses were observed over mean follow-up periods of 3.5 (SD 2.1) and 3.8 (SD 2.0) years, respectively. HbA1c and blood pressure (BP) indicator attainment were associated with lower rates of DR (adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) 0.94 (95% CI 0.89–0.99) and 0.87 (0.83–0.92), respectively), whereas cholesterol indicator attainment was not (aHR 1.03 (0.97–1.10)). All QOF indicators were associated with lower rates of STDR (aHRs 0.74 (0.62–0.87) for HbA1c, 0.78 (0.67–0.91) for BP, and 0.82 (0.67–0.99) for cholesterol). Completion of 7–9 vs. 0–3 NDA processes was associated with fewer STDR diagnoses (aHR 0.72 (0.55–0.94)).ConclusionsAttainment of key primary care indicators is associated with lower incidence of DR and STDR among patients with type 2 diabetes in England.

Journal article

Gunn LH, McKay AJ, Molokhia M, Valabhji J, Molina G, Majeed A, Vamos EPet al., 2021, Associations between attainment of incentivised primary care indicators and emergency hospital admissions among type 2 diabetes patients: a population-based historical cohort study., Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 0141-0768

OBJECTIVES: England has invested considerably in diabetes care over recent years through programmes such as the Quality and Outcomes Framework and National Diabetes Audit. However, associations between specific programme indicators and key clinical endpoints, such as emergency hospital admissions, remain unclear. We aimed to examine whether attainment of Quality and Outcomes Framework and National Diabetes Audit primary care diabetes indicators is associated with diabetes-related, cardiovascular, and all-cause emergency hospital admissions. DESIGN: Historical cohort study. SETTING: A total of 330 English primary care practices, 2010-2017, using UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 84,441 adults with type 2 diabetes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was emergency hospital admission for any cause. Secondary outcomes were (1) diabetes-related and (2) cardiovascular-related emergency admission. RESULTS: There were 130,709 all-cause emergency admissions, 115,425 diabetes-related admissions and 105,191 cardiovascular admissions, corresponding to unplanned admission rates of 402, 355 and 323 per 1000 patient-years, respectively. All-cause hospital admission rates were lower among those who met HbA1c and cholesterol indicators (incidence rate ratio = 0.91; 95% CI 0.89-0.92; p < 0.001 and 0.87; 95% CI 0.86-0.89; p < 0.001), respectively), with similar findings for diabetes and cardiovascular admissions. Patients who achieved the Quality and Outcomes Framework blood pressure target had lower cardiovascular admission rates (incidence rate ratio = 0.98; 95% CI 0.96-0.99; p = 0.001). Strong associations were found between completing 7-9 (vs. either 4-6 or 0-3) National Diabetes Audit processes and lower rates of all admission outcomes (p-values < 0.001), and meeting all nine National Diabetes Audit processes had significant associations with reductio

Journal article

Vamos EP, Lai H, Sharabiani M, Valabhji J, Middleton L, Majeed A, Millett C, Bottle Aet al., 2021, 20-year trajectories of cardiometabolic factors among patients with type 2 diabetes before diagnosis of dementia in England, DUK, Publisher: WILEY, ISSN: 0742-3071

Conference paper

McKay AJ, Gunn LH, Vamos EP, Valabhji J, Molina G, Molokhia M, Majeed Aet al., 2021, Associations between attainment of incentivised primary care diabetes indicators and mortality in an English cohort, Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, Vol: 174, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 0168-8227

AIMS: To describe associations between incentivised primary care clinical and process indicators and mortality, among patients with type 2 diabetes in England. METHODS: A historical 2010-2017 cohort (n = 84,441 adults) was derived from the UK CPRD. Exposures included English Quality and Outcomes Framework glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c; 7.5%, 59 mmol/mol), blood pressure (140/80 mmHg), and cholesterol (5 mmol/L) indicator attainment; and number of National Diabetes Audit care processes completed, in 2010-11. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Over median 3.9 (SD 2.0) years follow-up, 10,711 deaths occurred. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) indicated 12% (95% CI 8-16%; p < 0.0001) and 16% (11-20%; p < 0.0001) lower mortality rates among those who attained the HbA1c and cholesterol indicators, respectively. Rates were also lower among those who completed 7-9 vs. 0-3 or 4-6 care processes (aHRs 0.76 (0.71-0.82), p < 0.0001 and 0.61 (0.53-0.71), p < 0.0001, respectively), but did not obviously vary by blood pressure indicator attainment (aHR 1.04, 1.00-1.08; p = 0.0811). CONCLUSIONS: Cholesterol, HbA1c and comprehensive process indicator attainment, was associated with enhanced survival. Review of community-based care provision could help reduce the gap between indicator standards and current outcomes, and in turn enhance life expectancy.

Journal article

Jenkins R, Aliabadi S, Vamos E, Taylor-Robinson D, Wickham S, Millett C, Laverty Aet al., 2021, The relationship between austerity and food insecurity in the UK: a systematic review, EClinicalMedicine, Vol: 33, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2589-5370

Background: In 2010, the UK government implemented austerity measures, involving reductions to public spending and welfare reform. We aimed to systematically review the relationship of austerity policies with food insecurity including foodbank use in the UK.Methods: We undertook a narrative systematic review (CRD42020164508) and searched seven databases, grey literature, and reference lists through September 2020. Studies with austerity policies (including welfare reform) as exposure and food insecurity (including foodbank use as a proxy) as study outcome were included. We included quantitative longitudinal and cross-sectional studies. Two reviewers assessed eligibility, extracted data directly from studies, and undertook quality assessment.Findings: Eight studies were included: two individual-level studies totalling 4129 participants and six ecological studies. All suggested a relationship between austerity and increased food insecurity. Two studies found that austerity policies were associated with increased food insecurity in European countries including the UK. Six studies found that the welfare reform aspect of UK austerity policies was associated with increased food insecurity and foodbank use. Sanctions involving delays to benefits as a response to a claimant not actively seeking work may increase food insecurity, with studies finding that increases of 100 sanctions per 100,000 people may have led to increases of between 2 and 36 food parcels per 100,000 population.Interpretation: UK austerity policies were consistently linked to food insecurity and foodbank use. Policymakers should consider impacts of austerity on food insecurity when considering how to reduce budget deficits.

Journal article

Pearson-Stuttard J, Bennett J, Vamos E, Cross A, Ezzati M, Gregg Eet al., 2021, Trends in predominant causes of death in individuals with and without diabetes in England from 2001 to 2018: an epidemiological analysis of linked primary care records, The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, Vol: 9, Pages: 165-173, ISSN: 2213-8595

BackgroundThe prevalence of diabetes has increased in the UK and other high-income countries alongside a substantial decline in cardiovascular mortality. Yet data are scarce on how these trends have changed the causes of death in people with diabetes who have traditionally died primarily of vascular causes. We estimated how all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality in people with diabetes have changed over time, how the composition of the mortality burden has changed, and how this composition compared with that of the non-diabetes population.MethodsIn this epidemiological analysis of primary care records, we identified 313 907 individuals with diabetes in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a well described primary care database, between 2001 to 2018, and linked these data to UK Office for National Statistics mortality data. We assembled serial cross sections with longitudinal follow-up to generate a mixed prevalence and incidence study population of patients with diabetes. We used discretised Poisson regression models to estimate annual death rates for deaths from all causes and 12 specific causes for men and women with diabetes. We also identified age-matched and sex matched (1:1) individuals without diabetes from the same dataset and estimated mortality rates in this group.FindingsBetween Jan 1, 2001, and Oct 31, 2018, total mortality declined by 32% in men and 31% in women with diagnosed diabetes. Death rates declined from 40·7 deaths per 1000 person-years to 27·8 deaths per 1000 person-years in men and from 42·7 deaths per 1000 person-years to 29·5 deaths per 1000 person-years in women with diagnosed diabetes. We found similar declines in individuals without diabetes, hence the gap in mortality between those with and without diabetes was maintained over the study period. Cause-specific death rates declined in ten of the 12 cause groups, with exceptions in dementia and liver disease, which increased in both populations. Th

Journal article

Pearson-Stuttard J, Bennett J, Cheng Y, Vamos E, Cross A, Ezzati M, Gregg Eet al., 2021, Trends in predominant causes of death in those with and without diabetes in England from 2001 to 2018, The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, Vol: 9, Pages: 165-173, ISSN: 2213-8595

BackgroundThe prevalence of diabetes has increased in the UK and other high-income countries alongside a substantial decline in cardiovascular mortality. Yet data are scarce on how these trends have changed the causes of death in people with diabetes who have traditionally died primarily of vascular causes. We estimated how all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality in people with diabetes have changed over time, how the composition of the mortality burden has changed, and how this composition compared with that of the non-diabetes population.MethodsIn this epidemiological analysis of primary care records, we identified 313 907 individuals with diabetes in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a well described primary care database, between 2001 to 2018, and linked these data to UK Office for National Statistics mortality data. We assembled serial cross sections with longitudinal follow-up to generate a mixed prevalence and incidence study population of patients with diabetes. We used discretised Poisson regression models to estimate annual death rates for deaths from all causes and 12 specific causes for men and women with diabetes. We also identified age-matched and sex matched (1:1) individuals without diabetes from the same dataset and estimated mortality rates in this group.FindingsBetween Jan 1, 2001, and Oct 31, 2018, total mortality declined by 32% in men and 31% in women with diagnosed diabetes. Death rates declined from 40·7 deaths per 1000 person-years to 27·8 deaths per 1000 person-years in men and from 42·7 deaths per 1000 person-years to 29·5 deaths per 1000 person-years in women with diagnosed diabetes. We found similar declines in individuals without diabetes, hence the gap in mortality between those with and without diabetes was maintained over the study period. Cause-specific death rates declined in ten of the 12 cause groups, with exceptions in dementia and liver disease, which increased in both populations. Th

Journal article

Laverty AA, Vamos EP, Panter J, Millett Cet al., 2020, Road user charging: a policy whose time has finally arrived, The Lancet Planetary Health, Vol: 4, Pages: e499-e500, ISSN: 2542-5196

Journal article

Parnham JC, Laverty AA, Majeed A, Vamos EPet al., 2020, Half of children entitled to free school meals did not have access to the scheme during COVID-19 lockdown in the UK, Public Health, Vol: 187, Pages: 161-164, ISSN: 0033-3506

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to investigate access to free school meals (FSMs) among eligible children, to describe factors associated with uptake and to investigate whether receiving FSMs was associated with measures of food insecurity in the UK using the Coronavirus (COVID-19) wave of the UK Household Longitudinal Study. STUDY DESIGN: The study design was cross-sectional analyses of questionnaire data collected in April 2020. METHODS: Six hundred and thirty-five children who were FSM eligible with complete data were included in the analytic sample. Accessing a FSM was defined as receiving a FSM voucher or a cooked meal at school. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate (i) associations between characteristics and access to FSMs and (ii) associations between access to FSMs and household food insecurity measures. All analyses accounted for survey design and sample weights to ensure representativeness. RESULTS: Fifty-one percent of eligible children accessed a FSM. Children in junior schools or above (aged 8+ years) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 11.81; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.54, 25.19), who belonged to low-income families (AOR: 4.81; 95% CI: 2.10, 11.03) or still attending schools (AOR: 5.87; 95% CI: 1.70, 20.25) were more likely to receive FSMs. Children in Wales were less likely to access FSMs than those in England (AOR: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.43). Receiving a FSM was associated with increased odds of recently using a food bank but not reporting feeling hungry. CONCLUSIONS: In the month after the COVID-19 lockdown, 49% of eligible children did not receive any form of FSMs. The present analyses highlight that the voucher scheme did not adequately serve children who could not attend school during the lockdown. Moreover, more needs to be done to support families relying on income-related benefits, who still report needing to access a food bank. As the scheme may be continued in summer or in a potential second wave, large improve

Journal article

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