Imperial College London

DrElizabethWhittaker

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Infectious Disease

Honorary Clinical Senior Lecturer
 
 
 
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e.whittaker

 
 
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PaediatricsNorfolk PlaceSt Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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120 results found

Skirrow H, Foley K, Bedford H, Lewis C, Whittaker E, Costelloe C, Saxena Set al., 2024, Impact of pregnancy vaccine uptake and socio-demographic determinants on subsequent childhood Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine uptake: a UK birth cohort study, Vaccine, Vol: 42, Pages: 322-331, ISSN: 0264-410X

BACKGROUND: We examined the association between socio-demographic determinants and uptake of childhood Measles, Mumps & Rubella (MMR) vaccines and the association between pregnant women's pertussis vaccine uptake and their children's MMR vaccine uptake. METHODS: We used nationally-representative linked mother-baby electronic records from the United Kingdom's Clinical-Practice-Research-Datalink. We created a birth cohort of children born between 01.01.2000 and 12.12.2020. We estimated the proportion vaccinated with first MMR vaccine by age 2 years and first and second MMR vaccines by age 5 years. We used survival-analysis and Cox proportional hazard models to examine the association between deprivation, ethnicity and maternal age and pertussis vaccination in pregnancy and children's MMR uptake. RESULTS: Overall, 89.4 % (710,797/795,497) of children had first MMR by age 2 years and 92.6 % (736,495/795,497) by age 5 years. Among children still in the cohort when second MMR was due, 85.9 % (478,480/557,050) had two MMRs by age 5 years. Children from the most-deprived areas, children of Black ethnicity and children of mothers aged < 20 years had increased risk of being unvaccinated compared with children from the least-deprived areas, White children and children of mothers aged 31-40 years: first MMR by 5 years, adjusted Hazard Ratios (HR):0.86 (CI:0.85-0.87), HR:0.87 (CI:0.85-0.88) & HR:0.89 (CI:0.88-0.90) respectively. Deprivation was the determinant associated with the greatest risk of missed second MMR: adjusted HR:0.82 (CI:0.81-0.83). Children of mothers vaccinated in pregnancy were more likely than children of unvaccinated mothers to have MMR vaccines after adjusting for ethnicity, deprivation, and maternal age (First and Second MMRs adjusted HRs:1.43 (CI:1.41-1.45), 1.49 (CI:1.45-1.53). CONCLUSION: Children from most-deprived areas are less likely to have MMR vaccines compared with childre

Journal article

Whittaker EA, 2023, Commentary: Post-COVID Condition in Children and Young People: Where Are We Now?, Pediatr Infect Dis J, Vol: 42, Pages: 1100-1101

Journal article

Newlands F, Goddings A-L, Juste M, Boyd H, Nugawela MD, Pinto Pereira SM, Whelan E, Whittaker E, Stephenson T, Heyman I, Chalder T, Dalrymple E, CLoCk Consortium, Segal T, Shafran Ret al., 2023, Children and Young People with Long COVID-Comparing Those Seen in Post-COVID Services with a Non-Hospitalised National Cohort: A Descriptive Study., Children (Basel), Vol: 10, ISSN: 2227-9067

BACKGROUND: Post-COVID services have been set up in England to treat children with ongoing symptoms of Long COVID. To date, the characteristics of children seeking treatment from these services has not been described. PURPOSE: (1) to describe the characteristics of children aged 11-17 referred to the Pan-London Post-COVID service and (2) to compare characteristics of these children with those taking part in the United Kingdom's largest research study of Long COVID in children (CLoCk). DESIGN: Data from 95 children seeking treatment from the Post-COVID service between May 2021 and August 2022 were included in the study. Their demographic characteristics, symptom burden and the impact of infection are described and compared to children from CLoCk. RESULTS: A high proportion of children from the Post-COVID service and CLoCk reported experiencing health problems prior to the pandemic. Almost all Post-COVID service children met the research Delphi definition of Long COVID (94.6%), having multiple symptoms that impacted their lives. Symptoms were notably more severe than the participants in CLoCk. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the characteristics of children seeking treatment for Long COVID compared to those identified in the largest longitudinal observational study to date. Post-COVID service children have more symptoms and are more severely affected by their symptoms following infection with COVID-19 than children in the CLoCk study. Research to understand predisposing factors for severity and prognostic indicators is essential to prevent this debilitating condition. Evaluation of short- and long-term outcomes of interventions by clinical services can help direct future therapy for this group.

Journal article

Skirrow H, Foley K, Lewis C, Bedford H, Whittaker E, Haque H, Choudary-Salter L, Costelloe C, Saxena Set al., 2023, ‘Why did nobody ask us?’, parents’ views on childhood vaccines: A co-production research study, European Public Health Conference

Conference paper

Skirrow H, Foley K, Bedford H, Lewis C, Whittaker E, Costelloe C, Saxena Set al., 2023, Maternal predictors of timeliness & uptake of Measles, Mumps & Rubella vaccine: A birth cohort study, 16th European Public Health Conference 2023, Publisher: Oxford University Press, ISSN: 1101-1262

Conference paper

Healy J, Longbottom K, Kent A, Whittaker E, Parks Tet al., 2023, On the lookout for post-streptococcal complications in the UK, ARCHIVES OF DISEASE IN CHILDHOOD, ISSN: 0003-9888

Journal article

Cooray S, Price-Kuehne F, Hong Y, Omoyinmi E, Burleigh A, Gilmour KC, Ahmad B, Choi S, Bahar MW, Torpiano P, Gagunashvili A, Jensen B, Bellos E, Sancho-Shimizu V, Herberg JA, Mankad K, Kumar A, Kaliakatsos M, Worth AJJ, Eleftheriou D, Whittaker E, Brogan PAet al., 2023, Neuroinflammation, autoinflammation, splenomegaly and anemia caused by bi-allelic mutations in <i>IRAK4</i>, FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1664-3224

Journal article

Patel H, Burgner D, Whittaker E, 2023, Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: a longitudinal perspective on risk factors and future directions, PEDIATRIC RESEARCH, ISSN: 0031-3998

Journal article

Ladhani SN, Dowell AC, Jones S, Hicks B, Rowe C, Begum J, Wailblinger D, Wright J, Owens S, Pickering A, Shilltoe B, Mcmaster P, Whittaker E, Zuo J, Powell A, Amirthalingam G, Mandal S, Lopez-Bernal J, Ramsay ME, Kissane N, Bell M, Watson H, Ho D, Hallis B, Otter A, Moss P, Cohen Jet al., 2023, Early evaluation of the safety, reactogenicity, and immune response after a single dose of modified vaccinia Ankara- Bavaria Nordic vaccine against mpox in children: a national outbreak response, LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol: 23, Pages: 1042-1050, ISSN: 1473-3099

Journal article

Nesr G, Whittaker E, Bain BJ, 2023, Atypical lymphocytes - from chickenpox to monkey pox, American Journal of Hematology, Vol: 98, Pages: 1333-1334, ISSN: 0361-8609

Journal article

Pinto Pereira SM, Mensah A, Nugawela MD, Stephenson T, Ladhani SN, Dalrymple E, Dudley J, McOwat K, Simmons R, Heyman I, Segal T, Semple MG, Xu L, CLoCk Consortium, Shafran Ret al., 2023, Long COVID in children and young after infection or reinfection with the Omicron variant: a prospective observational study, Journal of Pediatrics, Vol: 259, Pages: 113463-113463, ISSN: 0022-3476

To describe the prevalence of long COVID in children infected for the first time (n = 332) or reinfected (n = 243) with Omicron compared with test-negative children (n = 311). Overall, 12%-16% of those infected with Omicron met the research definition of long COVID at 3 and 6 months after infection, with no evidence of difference between cases of first positive and reinfected (Pχ2 = 0.17).

Journal article

Jones CE, Bailey H, Bamford A, Calvert A, Dorey RB, Drysdale SB, Khalil A, Heath PT, Lyall H, Ralph KMI, Sapuan S, Vandrevala T, Walter S, Whittaker E, Wood Set al., 2023, Managing challenges in congenital CMV: current thinking, ARCHIVES OF DISEASE IN CHILDHOOD, Vol: 108, Pages: 601-607, ISSN: 0003-9888

Journal article

Ward JL, Harwood R, Kenny S, Cruz J, Clark M, Davis PJ, Draper ES, Hargreaves D, Ladhani SN, Gent N, Williams HE, Luyt K, Turner S, Whittaker E, Bottle A, Fraser LK, Viner RMet al., 2023, Pediatric Hospitalizations and ICU Admissions Due to COVID-19 and Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally Associated With SARS-CoV-2 in England, JAMA PEDIATRICS, ISSN: 2168-6203

Journal article

van der Velden FJS, Lim E, Gills L, Broadey J, Hayes L, Roberts E, Courtney J, Ball J, Herberg J, Galassini R, Emonts M, DIAMONDS consortiumet al., 2023, Biobanking and consenting to research: a qualitative thematic analysis of young people's perspectives in the North East of England, BMC Medical Ethics, Vol: 24, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 1472-6939

BACKGROUND: Biobanking biospecimens and consent are common practice in paediatric research. We need to explore children and young people's (CYP) knowledge and perspectives around the use of and consent to biobanking. This will ensure meaningful informed consent can be obtained and improve current consent procedures. METHODS: We designed a survey, in co-production with CYP, collecting demographic data, views on biobanking, and consent using three scenarios: 1) prospective consent, 2) deferred consent, and 3) reconsent and assent at age of capacity. The survey was disseminated via the Young Person's Advisory Group North England (YPAGne) and participating CYP's secondary schools. Data were analysed using a qualitative thematic approach by three independent reviewers (including CYP) to identify common themes. Data triangulation occurred independently by a fourth reviewer. RESULTS: One hundred two CYP completed the survey. Most were between 16-18 years (63.7%, N = 65) and female (66.7%, N = 68). 72.3% had no prior knowledge of biobanking (N = 73). Acceptability of prospective consent for biobanking was high (91.2%, N = 93) with common themes: 'altruism', 'potential benefits outweigh individual risk', 'frugality', and '(in)convenience'. Deferred consent was also deemed acceptable in the large majority (84.3%, N = 86), with common themes: 'altruism', 'body integrity' and 'sample frugality'. 76.5% preferred to reconsent when cognitively mature enough to give assent (N = 78), even if parental consent was previously in place. 79.2% wanted to be informed if their biobanked biospecimen is reused (N = 80). CONCLUSION: Prospective and deferred consent acceptability for biobanking is high among CYP in the UK. Altruism, frugality, body integrity, and privacy are the most important themes. Clear communication and justification are paramount to obtain consent. Any CYP with capacity

Journal article

Piccinelli E, Bautista-Rodriguez C, Herberg J, Kang H, Krupickova S, Altamar IB, Moscatelli S, Sabatino J, Josen M, Paredes J, Whittaker E, Singh Y, Fraisse A, Di Salvo Get al., 2023, Segmental and global longitudinal strain differences between Kawasaki disease and multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children, CARDIOLOGY IN THE YOUNG, Vol: 33, Pages: 1177-1183, ISSN: 1047-9511

Journal article

Swanepoel J, van der Zalm MM, Preiser W, van Zyl G, Whittaker E, Hesseling AC, Moore DAJ, Seddon Jet al., 2023, SARS-CoV-2 infection and pulmonary tuberculosis in children and adolescents: a case-control study, BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol: 23, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 1471-2334

BackgroundThe Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has had an impact on the global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic but evidence on the possible interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and TB, especially in children and adolescents, remains limited. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 and the risk of TB in children and adolescents.MethodsAn unmatched case-control study was conducted using SARS-CoV-2 unvaccinated children and adolescents recruited into two observational TB studies (Teen TB and Umoya), between November 2020 and November 2021, in Cape Town, South Africa. Sixty-four individuals with pulmonary TB (aged < 20 years) and 99 individuals without pulmonary TB (aged < 20 years) were included. Demographics and clinical data were obtained. Serum samples collected at enrolment underwent quantitative SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike immunoglobulin G (IgG) testing using the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant assay. Odds ratios (ORs) for TB were estimated using unconditional logistic regression.ResultsThere was no statistically significant difference in the odds of having pulmonary TB between those who were SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositive and those who were seronegative (adjusted OR 0.51; 95% CI: 0.23–1.11; n = 163; p = 0.09). Of those with positive SARS-CoV-2 serology indicating prior infection, baseline IgG titres were higher in individuals with TB compared to those without TB (p = 0.04) and individuals with IgG titres in the highest tertile were more likely to have pulmonary TB compared to those with IgG levels in the lowest tertile (OR: 4.00; 95%CI: 1.13– 14.21; p = 0.03).ConclusionsOur study did not find convincing evidence that SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was associated with subsequent pulmonary TB disease; however, the association between magnitude of SARS-CoV-2 IgG response and pulmonary TB warrants further investigat

Journal article

Morfopoulou S, Buddle S, Torres Montaguth OE, Atkinson L, Guerra-Assunção JA, Moradi Marjaneh M, Zennezini Chiozzi R, Storey N, Campos L, Hutchinson JC, Counsell JR, Pollara G, Roy S, Venturini C, Antinao Diaz JF, Siam A, Tappouni LJ, Asgarian Z, Ng J, Hanlon KS, Lennon A, McArdle A, Czap A, Rosenheim J, Andrade C, Anderson G, Lee JCD, Williams R, Williams CA, Tutill H, Bayzid N, Martin Bernal LM, Macpherson H, Montgomery K-A, Moore C, Templeton K, Neill C, Holden M, Gunson R, Shepherd SJ, Shah P, Cooray S, Voice M, Steele M, Fink C, Whittaker TE, Santilli G, Gissen P, Kaufer BB, Reich J, Andreani J, Simmonds P, Alrabiah DK, Castellano S, Chikowore P, Odam M, Rampling T, Houlihan C, Hoschler K, Talts T, Celma C, Gonzalez S, Gallagher E, Simmons R, Watson C, Mandal S, Zambon M, Chand M, Hatcher J, De S, Baillie K, Semple MG, DIAMONDS Consortium, PERFORM Consortium, ISARIC4C Investigators, Martin J, Ushiro-Lumb I, Noursadeghi M, Deheragoda M, Hadzic N, Grammatikopoulos T, Brown R, Kelgeri C, Thalassinos K, Waddington SN, Jacques TS, Thomson E, Levin M, Brown JR, Breuer Jet al., 2023, Genomic investigations of unexplained acute hepatitis in children, Nature, Vol: 617, Pages: 564-573, ISSN: 0028-0836

Since its first identification in Scotland, over 1,000 cases of unexplained paediatric hepatitis in children have been reported worldwide, including 278 cases in the UK1. Here we report an investigation of 38 cases, 66 age-matched immunocompetent controls and 21 immunocompromised comparator participants, using a combination of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and immunohistochemical methods. We detected high levels of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) DNA in the liver, blood, plasma or stool from 27 of 28 cases. We found low levels of adenovirus (HAdV) and human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) in 23 of 31 and 16 of 23, respectively, of the cases tested. By contrast, AAV2 was infrequently detected and at low titre in the blood or the liver from control children with HAdV, even when profoundly immunosuppressed. AAV2, HAdV and HHV-6 phylogeny excluded the emergence of novel strains in cases. Histological analyses of explanted livers showed enrichment for T cells and B lineage cells. Proteomic comparison of liver tissue from cases and healthy controls identified increased expression of HLA class 2, immunoglobulin variable regions and complement proteins. HAdV and AAV2 proteins were not detected in the livers. Instead, we identified AAV2 DNA complexes reflecting both HAdV-mediated and HHV-6B-mediated replication. We hypothesize that high levels of abnormal AAV2 replication products aided by HAdV and, in severe cases, HHV-6B may have triggered immune-mediated hepatic disease in genetically and immunologically predisposed children.

Journal article

Makariou I, Richardson C, Segal T, Whittaker E, Sonnappa Set al., 2023, Pulmonary Function and Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Children and Young People With Post-COVID Persistent Dyspnoea, International Conference of the American-Thoracic-Society (ATS), Publisher: AMER THORACIC SOC, ISSN: 1073-449X

Conference paper

Ho A, Orton R, Tayler R, Asamaphan P, Herder V, Davis C, Tong L, Smollett K, Manali M, Allan J, Rawlik K, McDonald SE, Vink E, Pollock L, Gannon L, Evans C, McMenamin J, Roy K, Marsh K, Divala T, Holden MTG, Lockhart M, Yirrell D, Currie S, O'Leary M, Henderson D, Shepherd SJ, Jackson C, Gunson R, MacLean A, McInnes N, Bradley-Stewart A, Battle R, Hollenbach JA, Henderson P, Odam M, Chikowore P, Oosthuyzen W, Chand M, Hamilton MS, Estrada-Rivadeneyra D, Levin M, Avramidis N, Pairo-Castineira E, Vitart V, Wilkie C, DIAMONDS Consortium, ISARIC4C Investigators, Palmarini M, Ray S, Robertson DL, da Silva Filipe A, Willett BJ, Breuer J, Semple MG, Turner D, Baillie JK, Thomson ECet al., 2023, Adeno-associated virus 2 infection in children with non-A-E hepatitis., Nature, Vol: 617, Pages: 555-563

An outbreak of acute hepatitis of unknown aetiology in children was reported in Scotland1 in April 2022 and has now been identified in 35 countries2. Several recent studies have suggested an association with human adenovirus with this outbreak, a virus not commonly associated with hepatitis. Here we report a detailed case-control investigation and find an association between adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) infection and host genetics in disease susceptibility. Using next-generation sequencing, PCR with reverse transcription, serology and in situ hybridization, we detected recent infection with AAV2 in plasma and liver samples in 26 out of 32 (81%) cases of hepatitis compared with 5 out of 74 (7%) of samples from unaffected individuals. Furthermore, AAV2 was detected within ballooned hepatocytes alongside a prominent T cell infiltrate in liver biopsy samples. In keeping with a CD4+ T-cell-mediated immune pathology, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II HLA-DRB1*04:01 allele was identified in 25 out of 27 cases (93%) compared with a background frequency of 10 out of 64 (16%; P = 5.49 × 10-12). In summary, we report an outbreak of acute paediatric hepatitis associated with AAV2 infection (most likely acquired as a co-infection with human adenovirus that is usually required as a 'helper virus' to support AAV2 replication) and disease susceptibility related to HLA class II status.

Journal article

Wacks M, Wortley E, Gregorowski A, Segal TY, Whittaker Eet al., 2023, Fifteen-minute consultation: Managing post-COVID-19 syndrome (long COVID) in children and young people, ARCHIVES OF DISEASE IN CHILDHOOD-EDUCATION AND PRACTICE EDITION, ISSN: 1743-0585

Journal article

Channon-Wells S, Vito O, McArdle AJ, Seaby EG, Patel H, Shah P, Pazukhina E, Wilson C, Broderick C, D'Souza G, Keren I, Nijman RG, Tremoulet A, Munblit D, Ulloa-Gutierrez R, Carter MJ, Ramnarayan P, De T, Hoggart C, Whittaker E, Herberg JA, Kaforou M, Cunnington AJ, Blyuss O, Levin M, Chouli M, Hamadouche N, Ladj MS, Agrimbau Vázquez J, Carmona R, Collia AG, Ellis A, Natta D, Pérez L, Rubiños M, Veliz N, Yori S, Britton PN, Burgner DP, Carey E, Crawford NW, Giuliano H, McMinn A, Wong S, Wood N, Holter W, Krainz M, Ulreich R, Zurl C, Dehoorne J, Haerynck F, Hoste L, Schelstraete P, Vandekerckhove K, Willems J, Almeida Farias CG, Almeida FJ, Alves Leal I, Araujo da Silva AR, Araujo e Silva AE, Barreiro STA, Bomfim Prado da Silva DG, Cervi MC, dos Santos Naja Cardoso MV, Henriques Teixeira C, Jarovsky D, Martins Araujo J, Naaman Berezin E, Palazzi Sáfadi MA, Paternina-de la Ossa RA, Souza Vieira C, Dimitrova A, Ganeva M, Stefanov S, Telcharova-Mihaylovska A, Biggs CM, Lopez A, Scuccimarri R, Tan R, Wasserman S, Withington D, Ampuero C, Aravena J, Bustos B R, Casanova D, Cruces P, Diaz F, García-Salum T, Godoy L, Medina RA, Valenzuela Galaz G, Camacho-Moreno G, Avila-Aguero ML, Brenes-Chacón H, Camacho-Badilla K, Ivankovich-Escoto G, Naranjo-Zuniga G, Soriano-Fallas A, Ulloa-Gutierrez R, Yock-Corrales A, Amer MA, Abdelmeguid Y, Ahmed YHHZ, Badib A, Badreldin K, Elkhashab Y, Heshmat H, Hussein A, Mohamed Hussein AH, Ibrahim S, Shoman W, Yakout RM, Heinonen S, Angoulvant F, Belot A, Ouldali N, Beske F, Heep A, Masjosthusmann K, Reiter K, van den Heuvel I, von Both U, Agrafiotou A, Antachopoulos C, Charisi K, Eleftheriou I, Farmaki E, Fotis L, Kafetzis D, Koletsi P, Kourtesi K, Lampidi S, Liakopoulou T, Maritsi D, Michailidou E, Milioudi M, Mparmpounaki I, Papadimitriou E, Papaevangelou V, Roilides E, Tsiatsiou O, Tsolas G, Tsolia M, Vantsi P, Banegas Pineda LY, Borjas Aguilar KL, Cantillano Quintero EM, Ip P, Kwan MYW, Kwok J, Lau YL, To K, Wong JSC, David M, Farkas D, Kaet al., 2023, Immunoglobulin, glucocorticoid, or combination therapy for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: a propensity-weighted cohort study, The Lancet Rheumatology, Vol: 5, Pages: e184-e199, ISSN: 2665-9913

BackgroundMultisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a hyperinflammatory condition associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, has emerged as a serious illness in children worldwide. Immunoglobulin or glucocorticoids, or both, are currently recommended treatments.MethodsThe Best Available Treatment Study evaluated immunomodulatory treatments for MIS-C in an international observational cohort. Analysis of the first 614 patients was previously reported. In this propensity-weighted cohort study, clinical and outcome data from children with suspected or proven MIS-C were collected onto a web-based Research Electronic Data Capture database. After excluding neonates and incomplete or duplicate records, inverse probability weighting was used to compare primary treatments with intravenous immunoglobulin, intravenous immunoglobulin plus glucocorticoids, or glucocorticoids alone, using intravenous immunoglobulin as the reference treatment. Primary outcomes were a composite of inotropic or ventilator support from the second day after treatment initiation, or death, and time to improvement on an ordinal clinical severity scale. Secondary outcomes included treatment escalation, clinical deterioration, fever, and coronary artery aneurysm occurrence and resolution. This study is registered with the ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN69546370.FindingsWe enrolled 2101 children (aged 0 months to 19 years) with clinically diagnosed MIS-C from 39 countries between June 14, 2020, and April 25, 2022, and, following exclusions, 2009 patients were included for analysis (median age 8·0 years [IQR 4·2–11·4], 1191 [59·3%] male and 818 [40·7%] female, and 825 [41·1%] White). 680 (33·8%) patients received primary treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, 698 (34·7%) with intravenous immunoglobulin plus glucocorticoids, 487 (24·2%) with glucocorticoids alone; 59 (2·9%) patients received other combinations, including biologica

Journal article

Riordan A, Faust SN, Whittaker E, 2023, Where now for infection services in the NHS? What about children?, CLINICAL MEDICINE, Vol: 23, Pages: 190-191, ISSN: 1470-2118

Journal article

Harwood R, Rad L, Kelly C, Shelton C, Shepherd E, Roderick M, Whittaker E, Dyke S, Patel SV, Gent N, Kenny SEet al., 2023, Lateral flow test performance in children for SARS-CoV-2 using anterior nasal and buccal swabbing: sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, ARCHIVES OF DISEASE IN CHILDHOOD, Vol: 108, Pages: 137-140, ISSN: 0003-9888

Journal article

Cardoso Pinto A, Shariq S, Ranasinghe L, Budhathoki S, Skirrow H, Whittaker E, Seddon Jet al., 2023, Reasons for reductions in routine childhood immunisation uptake during the COVID-19 pandemic in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review, PLOS Global Public Health, Vol: 3, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 2767-3375

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in a substantial decline in routine immunisation coverage in children globally, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study summarises the reasons for disruptions to routine child immunisations in LMICs. A systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42021286386) was conducted following PRISMA 2020 guidelines. Six databases were searched: MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, CINAHL, Scopus and MedRxiv, on 11/02/2022. Observational and qualitative studies published from January 2020 onwards were included if exploring reasons for missed immunisations during the COVID-19 pandemic in LMICs. Study appraisal used National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tools. Reasons for disruption were defined with descriptive codes; cross-sectional (quantitative) data were summarised as mean percentages of responses weighted by study population, and qualitative data were summarised narratively. A total of thirteen studies were included describing reasons behind disruptions; 7 cross-sectional (quantitative), 5 qualitative and 1 mixed methods. Seventeen reasons for disruptions were identified. In quantitative studies (total respondents = 2,853), the most common reasons identified were fear of COVID-19 and consequential avoidance of health centres (41.2%, SD ±13.3%), followed by transport challenges preventing both families and healthcare professionals from reaching vaccination services (11.1% SD ±16.6%). Most reasons stemmed from reduced healthcare-seeking (83.4%), as opposed to healthcare-delivery issues (15.2%). Qualitative studies showed a more even balance of healthcare-seeking (49.5%) and healthcare-delivery issues (50.5%), with fear of COVID-19 remaining a major identified issue (total respondents = 92). The most common reasons for disruption were parental fear of COVID-19 and avoidance of health services. Health systems must therefore prioritise public health me

Journal article

Bamford A, Whittaker E, 2023, Resurgence of group A streptococcal disease in children, BMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 380, ISSN: 0959-535X

Journal article

Swann O, Pollock L, Holden KA, Munro APS, Bennett A, Williams TC, Turtle L, Fairfield CJ, Drake TM, Faust SN, Sinha IP, Roland D, Whittaker E, Ladhani SN, Nguyen-Van-Tam JS, Girvan M, Donohue C, Donegan C, Spencer RG, Hardwick HE, Openshaw PJM, Baillie JK, Harrison EM, Docherty AB, Semple MGet al., 2023, Comparison of UK paediatric SARS-CoV-2 admissions across the first and second pandemic waves, PEDIATRIC RESEARCH, Vol: 93, Pages: 207-216, ISSN: 0031-3998

Journal article

Jayawardena-Thabrew H, Warris A, Ferreras-Antolin L, 2022, Nystatin is commonly prescribed as prophylaxis in children beyond the neonatal age, MEDICAL MYCOLOGY, Vol: 61, ISSN: 1369-3786

Journal article

Swanepoel J, Zimri K, van der Zalm MM, Hoddinott G, Palmer M, Doruyter A, De Beer G, Kleynhans L, Johnson SM, Jongen V, Wademan D, Mcimeli K, Jacobs S, Swanepoel R, Van Zyl G, Allwood BW, Malherbe S, Heuvelings C, Griffith-Richards S, Whittaker E, Moore DAJ, Schaaf HS, Hesseling AC, Seddon JAet al., 2022, Understanding the biology, morbidity and social contexts of adolescent tuberculosis: a prospective observational cohort study protocol (Teen TB), BMJ Open, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2044-6055

Introduction: A considerable burden of the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic is found in adolescents. The reasons for increased susceptibility to TB infection and higher incidence of TB disease in adolescence, compared with the 5–10 years old age group, are incompletely understood. Despite the pressing clinical and public health need to better understand and address adolescent TB, research in this field remains limited.Methods and analysis: Teen TB is an ongoing prospective observational cohort study that aims to better understand the biology, morbidity and social context of adolescent TB. The study plans to recruit 50 adolescents (10–19 years old) with newly diagnosed microbiologically confirmed pulmonary TB disease and 50 TB-exposed controls without evidence of TB disease in Cape Town, South Africa, which is highly endemic for TB. At baseline, cases and controls will undergo a detailed clinical evaluation, chest imaging, respiratory function assessments and blood collection for viral coinfections, inflammatory cytokines and pubertal hormone testing. At 2 weeks, 2 months and 12 months, TB disease cases will undergo further chest imaging and additional lung function testing to explore the patterns of respiratory abnormalities. At week 2, cases will complete a multicomponent quantitative questionnaire about psychological and social impacts on their experiences and longitudinal, in-depth qualitative data will be collected from a nested subsample of 20 cases and their families.Ethics and dissemination: The study protocol has received ethical approval from the Stellenbosch University Health Research Ethics Committee (N19/10/148). The study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, academic conferences and formal presentations to health professionals. Results will also be made available to participants and caregivers.

Journal article

Bertran M, Pereira SMP, Nugawela MD, Stephenson T, Shafran R, Ford T, Buszewicz M, Whittaker E, Heyman I, Segal TY, Dalrymple E, Ladhani SNet al., 2022, The relationship between Post COVID symptoms in young people and their parents, JOURNAL OF INFECTION, Vol: 85, Pages: 727-729, ISSN: 0163-4453

Journal article

Ranasinghe L, Achar J, Groschel M, Whittaker E, Dodd P, Seddon Jet al., 2022, The global impact of COVID-19 on childhood tuberculosis: analysis of notification data, The Lancet Global Health, Vol: 10, Pages: e1774-e1781, ISSN: 2214-109X

Background:There is concern that the Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has damaged global childhood tuberculosis management. Quantifying changes in child tuberculosis notifications could support more targeted interventions to restore child tuberculosis services.Methods: Annual case notification data reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) by 215 countries were used to calculate annual notification counts for 2014-2020 stratified by age groups (0-4, 5-14 and 15+ years) and sex. We used time series modelling to predict notification counts for 2020, and calculated differences from observed 2020 notifications at WHO region level and country-level for the 30 high tuberculosis-burden countries. We assessed association between these differences and the Oxford Government Response Tracker, a measure of COVID-19 social impact. Findings:Before 2020, annual notification counts increased across all age groups and WHO regions. More males than females 0-4 years were notified in all years and WHO regions. In 2020, global notifications for children 0-4 years were 35.4% lower than predicted (95% prediction interval [PI] -30.3 to -39.9), compared to 27.7% lower (95% PI: -23.4 to -31.5) in children 5-14 years and 18.8% lower (95%PI; -15.4 to -21.9) in 15+ years. The difference between predicted and observed notifications for 2020 were greater in males (-30.9%; 95%PI: -24.8 to -36.1) than females (-24.5%; 95%PI: -18.1 to –29.9%). No association was seen between severity of COVID-19 restrictions and change in notifications.Interpretation:Our findings suggest that COVID-19 has substantially impacted child tuberculosis services with the youngest children most affected. Although children suffered fewer severe health consequences from COVID-19 infection, they have been disproportionately affected by the consequences of the pandemic on tuberculosis care. As countries rebuild health systems post-COVID-19, it is vital that childhood tuberculosis services are placed centr

Journal article

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