115 results found
Patel H, Burgner D, Whittaker E, 2023, Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: a longitudinal perspective on risk factors and future directions., Pediatr Res
Ladhani SN, Dowell AC, Jones S, et al., 2023, Early evaluation of the safety, reactogenicity, and immune response after a single dose of modified vaccinia Ankara-Bavaria Nordic vaccine against mpox in children: a national outbreak response., Lancet Infect Dis, Vol: 23, Pages: 1042-1050
BACKGROUND: In response to a national mpox (formerly known as monkeypox) outbreak in England, children exposed to a confirmed mpox case were offered modified vaccinia Ankara-Bavaria Nordic (MVA-BN), a third-generation smallpox vaccine, for post-exposure prophylaxis. We aimed to assess the safety and reactogenicity and humoral and cellular immune response, following the first reported use of MVA-BN in children. METHODS: This is an assessment of children receiving MVA-BN for post-exposure prophylaxis in response to a national mpox outbreak in England. All children receiving MVA-BN were asked to complete a post-vaccination questionnaire online and provide a blood sample 1 month and 3 months after vaccination. Outcome measures for the questionnaire included reactogenicity and adverse events after vaccination. Blood samples were tested for humoural, cellular, and cytokine responses and compared with unvaccinated paediatric controls who had never been exposed to mpox. FINDINGS: Between June 1 and Nov 30, 2022, 87 children had one MVA-BN dose and none developed any serious adverse events or developed mpox disease after vaccination. Post-vaccination reactogenicity questionnaires were completed by 45 (52%) of 87 children. Their median age was 5 years (IQR 5-9), 25 (56%) of 45 were male, and 22 (49%) of 45 were White. 16 (36%) reported no symptoms, 18 (40%) reported local reaction only, and 11 (24%) reported systemic symptoms with or without local reactions. Seven (8%) of 87 children provided a first blood sample a median of 6 weeks (IQR 6·0-6·5) after vaccination and five (6%) provided a second blood sample at a median of 15 weeks (14-15). All children had poxvirus IgG antibodies with titres well above the assay cutoff of OD450nm 0·1926 with mean absorbances of 1·380 at six weeks and 0·9826 at 15 weeks post-vaccination. Assessment of reactivity to 27 recombinant vaccina virus and monkeypox virus proteins showed humoral antigen recognition
Pinto Pereira SM, Mensah A, Nugawela MD, et al., 2023, Long COVID in children and young after infection or reinfection with the Omicron variant: a prospective observational study, Journal of Pediatrics, Vol: 259, Pages: 113463-113463, ISSN: 0022-3476
To describe the prevalence of long COVID in children infected for the first time (n = 332) or reinfected (n = 243) with Omicron compared with test-negative children (n = 311). Overall, 12%-16% of those infected with Omicron met the research definition of long COVID at 3 and 6 months after infection, with no evidence of difference between cases of first positive and reinfected (Pχ2 = 0.17).
Nesr G, Whittaker E, Bain BJ, 2023, Atypical lymphocytes - from chickenpox to monkey pox, American Journal of Hematology, Vol: 98, Pages: 1333-1334, ISSN: 0361-8609
Ward JL, Harwood R, Kenny S, et al., 2023, Pediatric Hospitalizations and ICU Admissions Due to COVID-19 and Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally Associated With SARS-CoV-2 in England., JAMA Pediatr, Vol: 177, Pages: 947-955
IMPORTANCE: Investigating how the risk of serious illness after SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents has changed as new variants have emerged is essential to inform public health interventions and clinical guidance. OBJECTIVE: To examine risk factors associated with hospitalization for COVID-19 or pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) among children and adolescents during the first 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic and change in risk factors over time. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This population-level analysis of hospitalizations after SARS-CoV-2 infection in England among children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years was conducted from February 1, 2020, to January 31, 2022. National data on hospital activity were linked with data on SARS-CoV-2 testing, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admissions, and mortality. Children and adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19 or PIMS-TS during this time were included. Maternal, elective, and injury-related hospitalizations were excluded. EXPOSURES: Previous medical comorbidities, sociodemographic factors, and timing of hospitalization when different SARS-CoV-2 variants (ie, wild type, Alpha, Delta, and Omicron) were dominant in England. MAIN OUTCOMES: PICU admission and death within 28 days of hospitalization with COVID-19 or PIMS-TS. RESULTS: A total of 10 540 hospitalizations due to COVID-19 and 997 due to PIMS-TS were identified within 1 125 010 emergency hospitalizations for other causes. The number of hospitalizations due to COVID-19 and PIMS-TS per new SARS-CoV-2 infections in England declined during the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Among 10 540 hospitalized children and adolescents, 448 (4.3%) required PICU admission due to COVID-19, declining from 162 of 1635 (9.9%) with wild type, 98 of 1616 (6.1%) with Alpha, and 129 of 3789 (3.4%) with Delta to 59 of 3500 (1.7%) with Omicron. Forty-eight children and adolescents
van der Velden FJS, Lim E, Gills L, et al., 2023, Biobanking and consenting to research: a qualitative thematic analysis of young people's perspectives in the North East of England, BMC Medical Ethics, Vol: 24, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 1472-6939
BACKGROUND: Biobanking biospecimens and consent are common practice in paediatric research. We need to explore children and young people's (CYP) knowledge and perspectives around the use of and consent to biobanking. This will ensure meaningful informed consent can be obtained and improve current consent procedures. METHODS: We designed a survey, in co-production with CYP, collecting demographic data, views on biobanking, and consent using three scenarios: 1) prospective consent, 2) deferred consent, and 3) reconsent and assent at age of capacity. The survey was disseminated via the Young Person's Advisory Group North England (YPAGne) and participating CYP's secondary schools. Data were analysed using a qualitative thematic approach by three independent reviewers (including CYP) to identify common themes. Data triangulation occurred independently by a fourth reviewer. RESULTS: One hundred two CYP completed the survey. Most were between 16-18 years (63.7%, N = 65) and female (66.7%, N = 68). 72.3% had no prior knowledge of biobanking (N = 73). Acceptability of prospective consent for biobanking was high (91.2%, N = 93) with common themes: 'altruism', 'potential benefits outweigh individual risk', 'frugality', and '(in)convenience'. Deferred consent was also deemed acceptable in the large majority (84.3%, N = 86), with common themes: 'altruism', 'body integrity' and 'sample frugality'. 76.5% preferred to reconsent when cognitively mature enough to give assent (N = 78), even if parental consent was previously in place. 79.2% wanted to be informed if their biobanked biospecimen is reused (N = 80). CONCLUSION: Prospective and deferred consent acceptability for biobanking is high among CYP in the UK. Altruism, frugality, body integrity, and privacy are the most important themes. Clear communication and justification are paramount to obtain consent. Any CYP with capacity
Swanepoel J, van der Zalm MM, Preiser W, et al., 2023, SARS-CoV-2 infection and pulmonary tuberculosis in children and adolescents: a case-control study, BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol: 23, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 1471-2334
BackgroundThe Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has had an impact on the global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic but evidence on the possible interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and TB, especially in children and adolescents, remains limited. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 and the risk of TB in children and adolescents.MethodsAn unmatched case-control study was conducted using SARS-CoV-2 unvaccinated children and adolescents recruited into two observational TB studies (Teen TB and Umoya), between November 2020 and November 2021, in Cape Town, South Africa. Sixty-four individuals with pulmonary TB (aged < 20 years) and 99 individuals without pulmonary TB (aged < 20 years) were included. Demographics and clinical data were obtained. Serum samples collected at enrolment underwent quantitative SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike immunoglobulin G (IgG) testing using the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant assay. Odds ratios (ORs) for TB were estimated using unconditional logistic regression.ResultsThere was no statistically significant difference in the odds of having pulmonary TB between those who were SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositive and those who were seronegative (adjusted OR 0.51; 95% CI: 0.23–1.11; n = 163; p = 0.09). Of those with positive SARS-CoV-2 serology indicating prior infection, baseline IgG titres were higher in individuals with TB compared to those without TB (p = 0.04) and individuals with IgG titres in the highest tertile were more likely to have pulmonary TB compared to those with IgG levels in the lowest tertile (OR: 4.00; 95%CI: 1.13– 14.21; p = 0.03).ConclusionsOur study did not find convincing evidence that SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was associated with subsequent pulmonary TB disease; however, the association between magnitude of SARS-CoV-2 IgG response and pulmonary TB warrants further investigat
Morfopoulou S, Buddle S, Torres Montaguth OE, et al., 2023, Genomic investigations of unexplained acute hepatitis in children, Nature, Vol: 617, Pages: 564-573, ISSN: 0028-0836
Since its first identification in Scotland, over 1,000 cases of unexplained paediatric hepatitis in children have been reported worldwide, including 278 cases in the UK1. Here we report an investigation of 38 cases, 66 age-matched immunocompetent controls and 21 immunocompromised comparator participants, using a combination of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and immunohistochemical methods. We detected high levels of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) DNA in the liver, blood, plasma or stool from 27 of 28 cases. We found low levels of adenovirus (HAdV) and human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) in 23 of 31 and 16 of 23, respectively, of the cases tested. By contrast, AAV2 was infrequently detected and at low titre in the blood or the liver from control children with HAdV, even when profoundly immunosuppressed. AAV2, HAdV and HHV-6 phylogeny excluded the emergence of novel strains in cases. Histological analyses of explanted livers showed enrichment for T cells and B lineage cells. Proteomic comparison of liver tissue from cases and healthy controls identified increased expression of HLA class 2, immunoglobulin variable regions and complement proteins. HAdV and AAV2 proteins were not detected in the livers. Instead, we identified AAV2 DNA complexes reflecting both HAdV-mediated and HHV-6B-mediated replication. We hypothesize that high levels of abnormal AAV2 replication products aided by HAdV and, in severe cases, HHV-6B may have triggered immune-mediated hepatic disease in genetically and immunologically predisposed children.
Ho A, Orton R, Tayler R, et al., 2023, Adeno-associated virus 2 infection in children with non-A-E hepatitis., Nature, Vol: 617, Pages: 555-563
An outbreak of acute hepatitis of unknown aetiology in children was reported in Scotland1 in April 2022 and has now been identified in 35 countries2. Several recent studies have suggested an association with human adenovirus with this outbreak, a virus not commonly associated with hepatitis. Here we report a detailed case-control investigation and find an association between adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) infection and host genetics in disease susceptibility. Using next-generation sequencing, PCR with reverse transcription, serology and in situ hybridization, we detected recent infection with AAV2 in plasma and liver samples in 26 out of 32 (81%) cases of hepatitis compared with 5 out of 74 (7%) of samples from unaffected individuals. Furthermore, AAV2 was detected within ballooned hepatocytes alongside a prominent T cell infiltrate in liver biopsy samples. In keeping with a CD4+ T-cell-mediated immune pathology, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II HLA-DRB1*04:01 allele was identified in 25 out of 27 cases (93%) compared with a background frequency of 10 out of 64 (16%; P = 5.49 × 10-12). In summary, we report an outbreak of acute paediatric hepatitis associated with AAV2 infection (most likely acquired as a co-infection with human adenovirus that is usually required as a 'helper virus' to support AAV2 replication) and disease susceptibility related to HLA class II status.
Wacks M, Wortley E, Gregorowski A, et al., 2023, Fifteen-minute consultation: Managing post-COVID-19 syndrome (long COVID) in children and young people., Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed
Post-COVID-19 syndrome is a new condition that can have a major impact on the physical and mental well-being of children and young people, affecting their ability to access activities including education. Paediatricians and general practitioners need to be able to assess and manage patients with this condition; making the diagnosis, excluding serious pathology, managing comorbidities and accessing appropriate management are crucial. This 15 minute consultation presents an approach to history taking, examination, investigations, management principles and referrals.
Channon-Wells S, Vito O, McArdle AJ, et al., 2023, Immunoglobulin, glucocorticoid, or combination therapy for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: a propensity-weighted cohort study, The Lancet Rheumatology, Vol: 5, Pages: e184-e199, ISSN: 2665-9913
BackgroundMultisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a hyperinflammatory condition associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, has emerged as a serious illness in children worldwide. Immunoglobulin or glucocorticoids, or both, are currently recommended treatments.MethodsThe Best Available Treatment Study evaluated immunomodulatory treatments for MIS-C in an international observational cohort. Analysis of the first 614 patients was previously reported. In this propensity-weighted cohort study, clinical and outcome data from children with suspected or proven MIS-C were collected onto a web-based Research Electronic Data Capture database. After excluding neonates and incomplete or duplicate records, inverse probability weighting was used to compare primary treatments with intravenous immunoglobulin, intravenous immunoglobulin plus glucocorticoids, or glucocorticoids alone, using intravenous immunoglobulin as the reference treatment. Primary outcomes were a composite of inotropic or ventilator support from the second day after treatment initiation, or death, and time to improvement on an ordinal clinical severity scale. Secondary outcomes included treatment escalation, clinical deterioration, fever, and coronary artery aneurysm occurrence and resolution. This study is registered with the ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN69546370.FindingsWe enrolled 2101 children (aged 0 months to 19 years) with clinically diagnosed MIS-C from 39 countries between June 14, 2020, and April 25, 2022, and, following exclusions, 2009 patients were included for analysis (median age 8·0 years [IQR 4·2–11·4], 1191 [59·3%] male and 818 [40·7%] female, and 825 [41·1%] White). 680 (33·8%) patients received primary treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, 698 (34·7%) with intravenous immunoglobulin plus glucocorticoids, 487 (24·2%) with glucocorticoids alone; 59 (2·9%) patients received other combinations, including biologica
Riordan A, Faust SN, Whittaker E, 2023, Where now for infection services in the NHS? What about children?, Clin Med (Lond), Vol: 23, Pages: 190-191
Cardoso Pinto A, Shariq S, Ranasinghe L, et al., 2023, Reasons for reductions in routine childhood immunisation uptake during the COVID-19 pandemic in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review, PLOS Global Public Health, Vol: 3, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 2767-3375
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in a substantial decline in routine immunisation coverage in children globally, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study summarises the reasons for disruptions to routine child immunisations in LMICs. A systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42021286386) was conducted following PRISMA 2020 guidelines. Six databases were searched: MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, CINAHL, Scopus and MedRxiv, on 11/02/2022. Observational and qualitative studies published from January 2020 onwards were included if exploring reasons for missed immunisations during the COVID-19 pandemic in LMICs. Study appraisal used National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tools. Reasons for disruption were defined with descriptive codes; cross-sectional (quantitative) data were summarised as mean percentages of responses weighted by study population, and qualitative data were summarised narratively. A total of thirteen studies were included describing reasons behind disruptions; 7 cross-sectional (quantitative), 5 qualitative and 1 mixed methods. Seventeen reasons for disruptions were identified. In quantitative studies (total respondents = 2,853), the most common reasons identified were fear of COVID-19 and consequential avoidance of health centres (41.2%, SD ±13.3%), followed by transport challenges preventing both families and healthcare professionals from reaching vaccination services (11.1% SD ±16.6%). Most reasons stemmed from reduced healthcare-seeking (83.4%), as opposed to healthcare-delivery issues (15.2%). Qualitative studies showed a more even balance of healthcare-seeking (49.5%) and healthcare-delivery issues (50.5%), with fear of COVID-19 remaining a major identified issue (total respondents = 92). The most common reasons for disruption were parental fear of COVID-19 and avoidance of health services. Health systems must therefore prioritise public health me
Bamford A, Whittaker E, 2023, Resurgence of group A streptococcal disease in children., BMJ, Vol: 380
Jayawardena-Thabrew H, Warris A, Ferreras-Antolin L, 2022, Nystatin is commonly prescribed as prophylaxis in children beyond the neonatal age, Medical Mycology, Vol: 61, ISSN: 1369-3786
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:p>The indications for nystatin as prophylaxis or treatment are limited. In the PASOAP (Pediatric Antifungal Stewardship Optimizing Antifungal Prescription) study, high use of nystatin in hospitalized children beyond the neonatal age was observed. In this report, we present the data on nystatin use in infants and children ≥ 3 months who participated in the PASOAP study. Nystatin was prescribed mainly for prophylaxis. Congenital heart disease, cystic fibrosis, and chronic renal disease were the most commonly reported conditions in children receiving prophylactic nystatin. There is sparse evidence supporting the use of nystatin prophylaxis beyond neonates; trials in specific pediatric patient groups are required.</jats:p>
Swanepoel J, Zimri K, van der Zalm MM, et al., 2022, Understanding the biology, morbidity and social contexts of adolescent tuberculosis: a prospective observational cohort study protocol (Teen TB), BMJ Open, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2044-6055
Introduction: A considerable burden of the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic is found in adolescents. The reasons for increased susceptibility to TB infection and higher incidence of TB disease in adolescence, compared with the 5–10 years old age group, are incompletely understood. Despite the pressing clinical and public health need to better understand and address adolescent TB, research in this field remains limited.Methods and analysis: Teen TB is an ongoing prospective observational cohort study that aims to better understand the biology, morbidity and social context of adolescent TB. The study plans to recruit 50 adolescents (10–19 years old) with newly diagnosed microbiologically confirmed pulmonary TB disease and 50 TB-exposed controls without evidence of TB disease in Cape Town, South Africa, which is highly endemic for TB. At baseline, cases and controls will undergo a detailed clinical evaluation, chest imaging, respiratory function assessments and blood collection for viral coinfections, inflammatory cytokines and pubertal hormone testing. At 2 weeks, 2 months and 12 months, TB disease cases will undergo further chest imaging and additional lung function testing to explore the patterns of respiratory abnormalities. At week 2, cases will complete a multicomponent quantitative questionnaire about psychological and social impacts on their experiences and longitudinal, in-depth qualitative data will be collected from a nested subsample of 20 cases and their families.Ethics and dissemination: The study protocol has received ethical approval from the Stellenbosch University Health Research Ethics Committee (N19/10/148). The study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, academic conferences and formal presentations to health professionals. Results will also be made available to participants and caregivers.
Carr JP, MacLennan JM, Plested E, et al., 2022, Impact of meningococcal ACWY conjugate vaccines on pharyngeal carriage in adolescents: evidence for herd protection from the UK MenACWY programme, CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY AND INFECTION, Vol: 28, ISSN: 1198-743X
Bertran M, Pinto Pereira SM, Nugawela MD, et al., 2022, The relationship between Post COVID symptoms in young people and their parents., J Infect, Vol: 85, Pages: 702-769
Ranasinghe L, Achar J, Groschel M, et al., 2022, The global impact of COVID-19 on childhood tuberculosis: analysis of notification data, The Lancet Global Health, Vol: 10, Pages: e1774-e1781, ISSN: 2214-109X
Background:There is concern that the Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has damaged global childhood tuberculosis management. Quantifying changes in child tuberculosis notifications could support more targeted interventions to restore child tuberculosis services.Methods: Annual case notification data reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) by 215 countries were used to calculate annual notification counts for 2014-2020 stratified by age groups (0-4, 5-14 and 15+ years) and sex. We used time series modelling to predict notification counts for 2020, and calculated differences from observed 2020 notifications at WHO region level and country-level for the 30 high tuberculosis-burden countries. We assessed association between these differences and the Oxford Government Response Tracker, a measure of COVID-19 social impact. Findings:Before 2020, annual notification counts increased across all age groups and WHO regions. More males than females 0-4 years were notified in all years and WHO regions. In 2020, global notifications for children 0-4 years were 35.4% lower than predicted (95% prediction interval [PI] -30.3 to -39.9), compared to 27.7% lower (95% PI: -23.4 to -31.5) in children 5-14 years and 18.8% lower (95%PI; -15.4 to -21.9) in 15+ years. The difference between predicted and observed notifications for 2020 were greater in males (-30.9%; 95%PI: -24.8 to -36.1) than females (-24.5%; 95%PI: -18.1 to –29.9%). No association was seen between severity of COVID-19 restrictions and change in notifications.Interpretation:Our findings suggest that COVID-19 has substantially impacted child tuberculosis services with the youngest children most affected. Although children suffered fewer severe health consequences from COVID-19 infection, they have been disproportionately affected by the consequences of the pandemic on tuberculosis care. As countries rebuild health systems post-COVID-19, it is vital that childhood tuberculosis services are placed centr
Jones CE, Bailey H, Bamford A, et al., 2022, Managing challenges in congenital CMV: current thinking, ARCHIVES OF DISEASE IN CHILDHOOD, ISSN: 0003-9888
Buonsenso D, Roland D, Yock-Corrales A, et al., 2022, The challenges of doing paediatric research during the first year of the covid-19 pandemic, BMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 379, ISSN: 0959-535X
Ladhani SN, Aiano F, Edwards DS, et al., 2022, Very low risk of monkeypox among staff and students after exposure to a confirmed case in educational settings, England, May to July 2022, EUROSURVEILLANCE, Vol: 27, Pages: 2-6, ISSN: 1025-496X
Harwood R, Rad L, Kelly C, et al., 2022, Lateral flow test performance in children for SARS-CoV-2 using anterior nasal and buccal swabbing: sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, ARCHIVES OF DISEASE IN CHILDHOOD, ISSN: 0003-9888
Hoste L, Soriano-Arandes A, Buddingh EP, et al., 2022, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Vaccination in Children with a History of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children: An International Survey, JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS, Vol: 248, Pages: 114-118, ISSN: 0022-3476
Cardoso Pinto A, Ranasinghe L, Dodd P, et al., 2022, Disruptions to routine childhood vaccinations in low- and middle-Income countries during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review, Frontiers in Pediatrics, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2296-2360
BackgroundThe COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted routine childhood vaccinations worldwide with low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) most affected. This study aims to quantify levels of disruption to routine vaccinations in LMICs. MethodsA systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42021286386) was conducted of MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, CINAHL, Scopus and MedRxiv, on the 11th of February 2022. Primary research studies published from January 2020 onwards were included if they reported levels of routine paediatric vaccinations before and after March 2020. Study appraisal was performed using NHLBI tool for cross-sectional studies. Levels of disruption were summarised using medians and interquartile ranges. ResultsA total of 39 cross-sectional studies were identified. These showed an overall relative median decline of 10.8% (interquartile range [IQR] -27.6%, -1.4%) across all vaccines. Upper-middle-income countries (upper-MICs) (-14.3%; IQR -24.3%, -2.4%) and lower-MICs (-18.0%; IQR 48.6%, 4.1%) showed greater declines than low-income countries (-3.1%; IQR -12.8%, 2.9%), as did vaccines administered at birth (-11.8%; IQR -27.7%, -3.5%) compared to those given after birth (-8.0%; IQR -28.6%, -0.4%). Declines during the first three months of the pandemic ( 8.1%; IQR -35.1%, -1.4%) were greater than during the remainder of 2020 (-3.9%; IQR 13.0%, 11.4%) compared to baseline. ConclusionThere has been a decline in routine paediatric vaccination, greatest in MICs and for vaccines administered at birth. Nations must prioritise catch-up programmes alongside public health messaging to encourage vaccine uptake.
Piccinelli E, Bautista-Rodriguez C, Herberg J, et al., 2022, Segmental and global longitudinal strain differences between Kawasaki disease and multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children, CARDIOLOGY IN THE YOUNG, ISSN: 1047-9511
Vivancos R, Anderson C, Blomquist P, et al., 2022, Community transmission of monkeypox in the United Kingdom, April to May 2022, EUROSURVEILLANCE, Vol: 27, ISSN: 1025-496X
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