Imperial College London

Edmond Li

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Surgery & Cancer

Research Assistant in Patient Safety







1003Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother Wing (QEQM)St Mary's Campus





Publication Type

9 results found

Li E, Clarke J, Ashrafian H, Darzi A, Neves ALet al., 2022, Impact of electronic health record interoperability on safety and quality of care in high-income countries: A systematic review, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol: 24, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 1438-8871

Background: Electronic health records (EHR) and poor systems interoperability are well-known issues in the use of health information technologies worldwide in most high-income countries. Despite the abundance of literature exploring their relationship, its practical implications on patient safety and quality of care remain unclear.Objective: To examine how EHR interoperability affects patient safety, or other dimensions of care quality, in high-income healthcare settings. Methods: A systematic search was conducted using four online medical journal repositories and grey literature sources. Publications included were published in English between 2010-2022, pertaining to EHR use, interoperability, and patient safety or care quality in high-income settings. Screening was completed by three researchers in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) guidelines. Risk of bias assessments was performed using the Risk Of Bias In Non-randomised Studies - of Interventions (ROBINS-I) and the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2 (RoB2) tools. Findings were presented as a narrative synthesis and mapped based on the Institute of Medicine’s framework for healthcare quality.Results: Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria to be included in our review. Findings were categorised into six common outcome measure categories: patient safety events, medication safety, data accuracy and errors, care effectiveness, productivity, and cost-savings. EHR interoperability was found to positively influence medication safety, reduce patient safety events, and lower costs. Improvements to time-savings and clinical workflow are mixed. However, true measures of effect are difficult to determine with certainty due to the heterogeneity in outcome measures used and notable variation in study quality.Conclusion: The benefits of EHR interoperability on the quality and safety of care remain unclear and reflect the extensive heterogeneity in the interventions, designs, and outcome

Journal article

Li E, Neves AL, 2022, Lessons from remote antenatal care during the COVID-19 pandemic: how can we ensure equitable, safe, and patient-centred care?, BMJ Quality & Safety, ISSN: 2044-5415

Journal article

Teixeira F, Li E, Laranjo L, Collins C, Irving G, Fernandez MJ, Car J, Ungan M, Petek D, Hoffman R, Majeed A, Nessler K, Lingner H, Jimenez G, Darzi A, Jácome C, Neves ALet al., 2022, Digital maturity and its determinants in General Practice: a cross-sectional study in 20 countries, Publisher: medRxiv

Background The extension to which digital technologies are employed to promote the delivery of high-quality healthcare is known as Digital Maturity. Individuals’ and systems’ digital maturity are both necessary to ensure a successful, scalable and sustainable digital transformation in healthcare. Digital maturity in primary care has been scarcely evaluated.Objectives This study assessed the digital maturity - as a whole and in its dimensions - in General Practice and evaluated how participants’ demographic characteristics, practice characteristics and features of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) use are associated with digital maturity.Methods General Practitioners (GPs) across 20 countries completed an online questionnaire between June and September 2020. Demographic data, practice characteristics and features of EHRs use were collected. Digital maturity was evaluated through a framework built upon usage, resources and ability (divided in this study in its collective and individual components), interoperability, general evaluation methods and impact of digital technologies. Each dimension was rated as 1 or 0. The digital maturity score is the sum of the six dimensions and ranges from 0 to 6 (maximum digital maturity). Multivariable linear regression was used to model the total score, while multivariable logistic regression was used to model the probability of meeting each dimension of the score.Results 1,600 GPs (61% female, 68% Europeans) participated. GPs had a median digital maturity of 4 (P25-P75: 3-5). Positive associations with digital maturity were found for: being male (B=0.18 [95%CI 0.01;0.36]), use of EHRs for longer periods (B=0.45 [95%CI 0.35;0.54]) and higher frequencies of access to EHRs (B=0.33 [95%CI 0.17;0.48]). Practising in a rural setting was negatively associated with digital maturity (B=-0.25 [95%CI −0.43;-0.08]). Usage (90%) was the most acknowledged dimension while interoperability (47%) and use of best practice gener

Working paper

Li E, Tsopra R, Jimenez G, Serafini A, Gusso G, Lingner H, Fernandez MJ, Irving G, Petek D, Hoffman R, Lazic V, Memarian E, Koskela T, Collins C, Espitia SM, Clavería A, Nessler K, ONeill BG, Hoedebecke K, Ungan M, Laranjo L, Ghafur S, Fontana G, Majeed A, Car J, Darzi A, Neves ALet al., 2022, General practitioners’ perceptions of using virtual primary care during the COVID-19 pandemic: An international cross-sectional survey study, PLOS Digital Health, Vol: 1, Pages: 1-23, ISSN: 2767-3170

With the onset of COVID-19, general practitioners (GPs) and patients worldwide swiftly transitioned from face-to-face to digital remote consultations. There is a need to evaluate how this global shift has impacted patient care, healthcare providers, patient and carer experience, and health systems. We explored GPs’ perspectives on the main benefits and challenges of using digital virtual care. GPs across 20 countries completed an online questionnaire between June–September 2020. GPs’ perceptions of main barriers and challenges were explored using free-text questions. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. A total of 1,605 respondents participated in our survey. The benefits identified included reducing COVID-19 transmission risks, guaranteeing access and continuity of care, improved efficiency, faster access to care, improved convenience and communication with patients, greater work flexibility for providers, and hastening the digital transformation of primary care and accompanying legal frameworks. Main challenges included patients’ preference for face-to-face consultations, digital exclusion, lack of physical examinations, clinical uncertainty, delays in diagnosis and treatment, overuse and misuse of digital virtual care, and unsuitability for certain types of consultations. Other challenges include the lack of formal guidance, higher workloads, remuneration issues, organisational culture, technical difficulties, implementation and financial issues, and regulatory weaknesses. At the frontline of care delivery, GPs can provide important insights on what worked well, why, and how during the pandemic. Lessons learned can be used to inform the adoption of improved virtual care solutions and support the long-term development of platforms that are more technologically robust and secure.

Journal article

Neves AL, Li E, Serafini A, Gimenez GL, Lingner H, Koskela T, Hoffman RD, Collins C, Petek D, Claveria A, Tsopra R, Irving G, Gusso G, O'Neill BG, Hoedebecke K, Espitia SM, Ungan M, Nessler K, Lazic V, Laranjo L, Ensieh M, Fernandez MJ, Ghafur S, Fontana G, Majeed A, Car J, Darzi Aet al., 2021, Evaluating the impact of COVID-19 on the adoption of virtual care in general practice in 20 countries (inSIGHT): rationale and study protocol, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 1438-8871

Background: In recent decades, virtual care has emerged as a promising option to support primary care delivery. However, despite the potential, adoption rates remained low. With the outbreak of COVID-19, it has suddenly been pushed to the forefront of care delivery. As we progress into the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is a need and opportunity to review the impact remote care had in primary care settings and reassess its potential future role. This study aims to explore the perspectives of General Practitioners (GPs) / Family Doctors on a.) use of virtual care during the COVID-19 pandemic; b.) perceived impact on quality and safety of care; c.) essential factors for high-quality and sustainable use of virtual care in the future. Methods: Online cross-sectional questionnaire of GPs, distributed across 20 countries. The survey was hosted in Qualtrics and distributed using email, social media, and the researchers’ personal contact networks. General Practitioners were eligible for the survey if they were working mainly in primary care during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. Descriptive statistical analysis will be performed for quantitative variables, and relationships between the use of virtual care and perceptions on impact on quality and safety of care, and participants’ characteristics, may be explored. Qualitative data (free-text responses) will be analysed using framework analysis. Results: Data collection took place from June to September 2020. As of this manuscript’s submission, a total of 1,605 GP respondents participated in the questionnaire. Further data analysis is currently ongoing. Discussion: The study will provide a comprehensive overview of the availability of virtual care technologies, perceived impact on quality and safety of care and essential factors for high-quality future use. In addition, a description of the under

Journal article

Neves AL, Li E, Gupta PP, Fontana G, Darzi Aet al., 2021, Virtual primary care in high-income countries during the COVID-19 pandemic: policy responses and lessons for the future, European Journal of General Practice, Vol: 27, Pages: 241-247, ISSN: 1381-4788

Background: Telemedicine, once defined merely as the treatment of certain conditions remotely, has now often been supplanted in use by broader terms such as ‘virtual care’, in recognition of its increasing capability to deliver a diverse range of healthcare services from afar. With the unexpected onset of COVID-19, virtual care (e.g., telephone, video, online) has become essential to facilitating the continuation of primary care globally. Over several short weeks, existing healthcare policies have adapted quickly and empowered clinicians to use digital means to fulfil a wide range of clinical responsibilities which until then, have required face-to-face consultations. Objective: This paper aims to explore the virtual care policies and guidance material published during the initial months of the pandemic and examine their potential limitations and impact on transforming the delivery of primary care in high-income countries. Methods: A rapid review of publicly available national policies guiding the use of virtual care in General Practice was conducted. Documents were included if issued in the first six months of the pandemic (March to August of 2020) and focused primarily on high-income countries. Documents must have been issued by a national health authority, accreditation body, or professional organisation, and directly refer to the delivery of primary care. Results: We extracted six areas of relevance: primary care transformation during COVID-19, the continued delivery of preventative care, the delivery of acute care, remote triaging, funding & reimbursement, and security standards.Conclusion: Virtual care use in primary care saw a transformative change during the pandemic. However, despite the advances in the various governmental guidance offered, much work remains in addressing the shortcomings exposed during COVID-19 and strengthening viable policies so as to better incorporate novel technologies into the modern primary care clinical

Journal article

Li E, Clarke J, Neves AL, Ashrafian H, Darzi Aet al., 2021, Electronic health records, interoperability, and patient safety in health systems of high-income countries: a systematic review protocol, BMJ Open, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2044-6055

Introduction The availability and routine use of electronic health records (EHRs) have become commonplace in healthcare systems of many high-income countries. While there is an ever-growing body ofliterature pertaining to EHR use, evidence surrounding the importance of EHR interoperability and its impact on patient safety remains less clear. There is therefore a need and opportunity to evaluate the evidence available regarding this relationship so as to better inform health informatics development and policies in the years to come. This systematic review aims to evaluate the impact of EHR interoperability on patient safety in health systems of high-income countries. Methods and analysis A systematic literature review will be conducted via a computerised search through four databases: PubMed, Embase, HMIC, and PsycInfo for relevant articles published between 2010 and 2020. Outcomes of interest will include: impact on patient safety, and the broader effects on health systems. Quality of the randomised quantitative studies will be assessed using Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Non-randomised papers will be evaluated with the Risk of Bias In Non Randomised Studies - of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool. Drummond’s Checklist will be utilised for publications pertaining to economic evaluation. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) quality appraisal checklist will be used to assess qualitative studies. A narrative synthesis will be conducted for included studies, and the body of evidence will be summarised in a summary of findings table. Ethics and dissemination This review will summarise published studies with non-identifiable data and thus does not require ethical approval. Findings will be disseminated through preprints, open access peer reviewed publication, and conference presentations

Journal article

Li E, Dewez JE, Luu Q, Emonts M, Maconochie I, Nijman R, Yeung Set al., 2021, Role of point-of-care tests in the management of febrile children: a qualitative study of hospital-based doctors and nurses in England, BMJ Open, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2044-6055

Objectives The use of rapid point-of-care tests (POCTs) has been advocated for improving patient management and outcomes and for optimising antibiotic prescribing. However, few studies have explored healthcare workers’ views about their use in febrile children. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of hospital-based doctors and nurses regarding the use of POCTs in England.Study design Qualitative in-depth interviews with purposively selected hospital doctors and nurses. Data were analysed thematically.Setting Two university teaching hospitals in London and Newcastle.Participants 24 participants (paediatricians, emergency department doctors, trainee paediatricians and nurses).Results There were diverse views about the use of POCTs in febrile children. The reported advantages included their ease of use and the rapid availability of results. They were seen to contribute to faster clinical decision-making; the targeting of antibiotic use; improvements in patient care, flow and monitoring; cohorting (ie, the physical clustering of hospitalised patients with the same infection to limit spread) and enhancing communication with parents. These advantages were less evident when the turnaround for results of laboratory tests was 1–2 hours. Factors such as clinical experience and specialty, as well as the availability of guidelines recommending POCT use, were also perceived as influential. However, in addition to their perceived inaccuracy, participants were concerned about POCTs not resolving diagnostic uncertainty or altering clinical management, leading to a commonly expressed preference for relying on clinical skills rather than test results solely.Conclusion In this study conducted at two university teaching hospitals in England, participants expressed mixed opinions about the utility of current POCTs in the management of febrile children. Understanding the current clinical decision-making process and the specific needs and preferences of clinici

Journal article

Huda N, Faden L, Wilson C, Plouffe R, Li E, Kaur Saini M, Chahine Set al., 2020, The Ebb and Flow of Identity Formation and Competence Development in Sub-specialty Residents: Study of a Continuity Training Setting, BMC Medical Education, ISSN: 1472-6920

Journal article

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