572 results found
Posma JM, Garcia Perez I, Frost G, et al., 2020, Nutriome-metabolome relationships provide insights into dietary intake and metabolism, Nature Food, Vol: 1, ISSN: 2662-1355
Dietary assessment traditionally relies on self-reported data which are often inaccurate and may result in erroneous diet-disease risk associations. We illustrate how urinary metabolic phenotyping can be used as alternative approach for obtaining information on dietary patterns. We used two multi-pass 24-hr dietary recalls, obtained on two occasions on average three weeks apart, paired with two 24-hr urine collections from 1,848 U.S. individuals; 67 nutrients influenced the urinary metabotype measured with ¹H-NMR spectroscopy characterized by 46 structurally identified metabolites. We investigated the stability of each metabolite over time and showed that the urinary metabolic profile is more stable within individuals than reported dietary patterns. The 46 metabolites accurately predicted healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns in a free-living U.S. cohort and replicated in an independent U.K. cohort. We mapped these metabolites into a host-microbial metabolic network to identify key pathways and functions. These data can be used in future studies to evaluate how this set of diet-derived, stable, measurable bioanalytical markers are associated with disease risk. This knowledge may give new insights into biological pathways that characterize the shift from a healthy to unhealthy metabolic phenotype and hence give entry points for prevention and intervention strategies.
Garcia Perez I, Posma JM, Chambers E, et al., 2020, Dietary metabotype modelling predicts individual responses to dietary interventions, Nature Food, Vol: 1, Pages: 355-364, ISSN: 2662-1355
Habitual consumption of poor quality diets is linked directly to risk factors for many non-communicable disease. This has resulted in the vast majority of countries globally and the World Health Organisation developing policies for healthy eating to reduce the prevalence of non communicable disease in the population. However, there is mounting evidence of variability in individual metabolic responses to any dietary intervention. We have developed a method for applying a pipeline for understanding inter-individual differences in response to diet, based on coupling data from highly-controlled dietary studies with deep metabolic phenotyping. In this feasibility study, we create an individual Dietary Metabotype Score (DMS) that embodies inter-individual variability in dietary response and captures consequent dynamic changes in concentrations of urinary metabolites. We find an inverse relationship between the DMS and blood glucose concentration. There is also a relationship between the DMS and urinary metabolic energy loss. Furthermore we employ a metabolic entropy approach to visualize individual and collective responses to dietary. Potentially, the DMS offers a method to target and to enhance dietary response at an individual level therefore reducing burden of non communicable diseases at a population level.
Garcia Perez I, Posma JM, Serrano Contreras JI, et al., Identifying unknown metabolites using NMR-based metabolic profiling techniques, Nature Protocols, ISSN: 1750-2799
Metabolic profiling of biological samples provides important insights into multiple physiological and pathological processes, but is hindered by a lack of automated annotation and standardised methods for structure elucidation of candidate disease biomarkers. Here, we describe a system for identifying molecular species derived from NMR spectroscopy based metabolic phenotyping studies, with detailed info on sample preparation, data acquisition, and data modelling. We provide eight different modular workflows to be followed in a recommended sequential order according to their level of difficulty. This multi-platform system involves the use of statistical spectroscopic tools such as STOCSY, STORM and RED-STORM to identify other signals in the NMR spectra relating to the same molecule. It also utilizes 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis, separation and pre-concentration techniques, multiple hyphenated analytical platforms and data extraction from existing databases. The complete system, using all eight workflows, would take up to a month, as it includes multidimensional NMR experiments that require prolonged experiment times. However, easier identification cases using fewer steps would take two or three days. This approach to biomarker discovery is efficient, cost-effective and offers increased chemical space coverage of the metabolome, resulting in faster and more accurate assignment of NMR-generated biomarkers arising from metabolic phenotyping studies. Finally, it requires basic understanding of Matlab in order to perform statistical spectroscopic tools and analytical skills to perform Solid Phase Extraction, LC-fraction collection, LC-NMR-MS and 1D and 2D NMR experiments.
Andreas NJ, Basu Roy R, Gomez-Romero M, et al., 2020, Performance of metabonomic serum analysis for diagnostics in paediatric tuberculosis., Sci Rep, Vol: 10
We applied a metabonomic strategy to identify host biomarkers in serum to diagnose paediatric tuberculosis (TB) disease. 112 symptomatic children with presumptive TB were recruited in The Gambia and classified as bacteriologically-confirmed TB, clinically diagnosed TB, or other diseases. Sera were analysed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). Multivariate data analysis was used to distinguish patients with TB from other diseases. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. Model performance was tested in a validation cohort of 36 children from the UK. Data acquired using 1H NMR demonstrated a sensitivity, specificity and Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 56-73%), 83% (95% CI, 73-93%), and 0.78 respectively, and correctly classified 20% of the validation cohort from the UK. The most discriminatory MS data showed a sensitivity of 67% (95% CI, 60-71%), specificity of 86% (95% CI, 75-93%) and an AUC of 0.78, correctly classifying 83% of the validation cohort. Amongst children with presumptive TB, metabolic profiling of sera distinguished bacteriologically-confirmed and clinical TB from other diseases. This novel approach yielded a diagnostic performance for paediatric TB comparable to that of Xpert MTB/RIF and interferon gamma release assays.
Ding NS, McDonald JAK, Perdones-Montero A, et al., 2020, Metabonomics and the gut microbiome associated with primary response to anti-TNF therapy in Crohn's disease., J Crohns Colitis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy is indicated for treatment of moderate to severe inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but has a primary non-response rate of around 30%. We aim to use metabonomic and metataxonomic profiling to identify predictive biomarkers of anti-TNF response in Crohn's disease. METHODS: Patients with luminal Crohn's disease commencing anti-TNF therapy were recruited with urine, faeces and serum samples being collected at baseline and 3 monthly. Primary response was defined according to a combination of clinical and objective markers of inflammation. Samples were measured using three UPLC-MS assays; lipid, bile acid and Hydrophillic Interaction Liquid Chromatography (HILIC) profiling with 16S rRNA gene sequencing of faeces. RESULTS: Samples were collected from 76 Crohn's disease who were anti-TNF naïve and 13 healthy controls. There were 11 responders, 37 non-responders and 28 partial responders in anti-TNF treated Crohn's patients. Histidine and cysteine were identified as biomarkers of response from polar metabolite profiling (HILIC) of serum and urine. Lipid profiling of serum and faeces found phosphocholines, ceramides, sphingomyelins and triglycerides while bile acid profiling identified primary bile acids to be associated with non-response to anti-TNF therapy, with higher levels of phase 2 conjugates in non responders. Receiver operating curves for treatment response demonstrated 0.94+/-0.10 (faecal lipid), 0.81+/-0.17 (faecal bile acid) and 0.74+/-0.15 (serum bile acid) predictive ability for anti-TNF response in Crohn's disease. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study of metabonomic and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis demonstrates that a range of metabolic biomarkers involving lipid, bile acid and amino acid pathways may contribute to prediction of response to anti-TNF therapy in Crohn's disease.
West K, Kanu C, Maric T, et al., Longitudinal metabolic and gut bacterial profiling of pregnant women with previous bariatric surgery, Gut, ISSN: 0017-5749
Due to the global increase in obesity rates and success of bariatric surgery in weight reduction, an increasing number of women now present pregnant with a previous bariatric procedure. This study investigates the extent of bariatric-associated metabolic and gut microbial alterations during pregnancy and their impact on fetal development.DesignA parallel metabonomic (1H NMR spectroscopy) and gut bacterial (16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing) profiling approach was used to determine maternal longitudinal phenotypes associated with malabsorptive/mixed (n=25) or restrictive (n=16) procedures, compared to women with similar early pregnancy body mass index but without bariatric surgery (n=70). Metabolic profiles of offspring at birth were also analysed.ResultsPrevious malabsorptive, but not restrictive, procedures induced significant changes in maternal metabolic pathways involving branched-chain and aromatic amino acids with decreased circulation of leucine, isoleucine and isobutyrate, increased excretion of microbial-associated metabolites of protein putrefaction (phenylacetlyglutamine, p-cresol sulfate, indoxyl sulfate and p-hydroxyphenylacetate), and a shift in the gut microbiota. Urinary concentration of phenylacetylglutamine was significantly elevated in malabsorptive patients relative to controls (P=0.001) and was also elevated in urine of neonates born from these mothers (P=0.021). Furthermore, the maternal metabolic changes induced by malabsorptive surgery were associated with reduced maternal insulin resistance and fetal/birth weight.ConclusionMetabolism is altered in pregnant women with a previous malabsorptive bariatric surgery. These alterations may be beneficial for maternal outcomes, but the effect of elevated levels of phenolic and indolic compounds on fetal and infant health should be investigated further.
Dumenci O, U AMR, Khan S, et al., 2020, Exploring metabolic consequences of CPS1 and CAD dysregulation in hepatocellular carcinoma by network reconstruction, Journal of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Vol: 7, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2253-5969
Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fourth commonest cause of cancer-related mortality; it is associated with various genetic alterations, some involved in metabolic reprogramming. This study aimed to explore the potential metabolic impact of Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthase I (CPS1) and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase/aspartate transcarbamoylase/dihydroorotase (CAD) dysregulation through the reconstruction of a network that integrates information from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) and Human Protein Atlas (HPA). Methods and Results: Existing literature was used to determine the roles of CPS1 and CAD in HCC. CPS1 downregulation is thought to play a role in hepatocarcinogenesis through an increased glutamine availability for de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, which CAD catalyzes the first three steps for. KEGG, HMDB and HPA were used to reconstruct a network of relevant pathways, demonstrating the relationships between genes and metabolites using the MetaboSignal package in R. The network was filtered to exclude any duplicates, and those greater than three steps away from CPS1 or CAD. Consequently, a network of 18 metabolites, 28 metabolic genes and 1 signaling gene was obtained, which indicated expression profiles and prognostic information of each gene in the network.Conclusion: Information from different databases was collated to form an informative network that integrated different ‘-omics’ approaches, demonstrating the relationships between genetic and metabolic components of urea cycle and the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway. This study paves the way for further research by acting as a template to investigate the relationships between genes and metabolites, explore their potential roles in various diseases and aid the development of new screening and treatment methods through network reconstruction.
Alsaleh M, Leftley Z, Barbera TA, et al., 2020, Characterisation of the serum metabolic signature of cholangiocarcinoma in a United Kingdom cohort, Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology, Vol: 10, Pages: 17-29, ISSN: 0973-6883
BackgroundA distinct serum metabonomic pattern has been previously revealed to be associated with various forms of liver disease. Here, we aimed to apply mass spectrometry to obtain serum metabolomic profiles from individuals with cholangiocarcinoma and benign hepatobiliary diseases to gain an insight into pathogenesis and search for potential early-disease biomarkers.MethodsSerum samples were profiled using a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography platform, coupled to a mass spectrometer. A total of 47 serum specimens from 8 cholangiocarcinoma cases, 20 healthy controls, 8 benign disease controls (bile duct strictures) and 11 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (as malignant disease controls) were included. Data analysis was performed using univariate and multivariate statistics.ResultsThe serum metabolome disparities between the metabolite profiles from healthy controls and patients with hepatobiliary disease were predominantly related to changes in lipid and lipid-derived compounds (phospholipids, bile acids and steroids) and amino acid metabolites (phenylalanine). A metabolic pattern indicative of inflammatory response due to cirrhosis and cholestasis was associated with the disease groups. The abundance of phospholipid metabolites was altered in individuals with liver disease, particularly cholangiocarcinoma, but no significant difference was seen between profiles from patients with benign biliary strictures and cholangiocarcinoma.ConclusionThe serum metabolome in cholangiocarcinoma exhibited changes in metabolites related to inflammation, altered energy production and phospholipid metabolism. This study serves to highlight future avenues for biomarker research in large-scale studies.
Parkinson JRC, Emsley R, Adkins JLT, et al., 2019, Clinical and molecular evidence of accelerated ageing following very preterm birth, Pediatric Research, Vol: 87, Pages: 1005-1010, ISSN: 0031-3998
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms responsible for the associations between very preterm birth and a higher risk of poor cardiovascular and metabolic health in adult life are unknown. METHODS: Here, we compare the clinical and molecular phenotypes of healthy, normal-weight young adults (18-27 years), born very preterm (<33 weeks gestational age (GA)) and at full-term (37-42 weeks GA). Outcomes included whole-body MRI, hepatic and muscle 1H MRS, blood pressure measurements and telomere length. RESULTS: We recruited 156 volunteers, 69 preterm (45 women; 24 men) and 87 born at full-term (45 women; 42 men). Preterm individuals had a significantly altered blood pressure profile, including higher systolic blood pressure (SBP mmHg: preterm men 133.4 ± 10.1, term men 23.0 ± 6.9; preterm women 124.3 ± 7.1, term women 118.4 ± 8.0, p < 0.01 for all). Furthermore, preterm men had fewer long telomeres (145-48.5 kb: preterm men 14.1 ± 0.9%, term men 17.8 ± 1.1%, p < 0.05; 48.5-8.6 kb: preterm men 28.2 ± 2.6, term men 37.0 ± 2.4%, p < 0.001) and a higher proportion of shorter telomeres (4.2-1.3 kb: preterm men 40.4 ± 3.5%, term men 29.9 ± 3.2%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that healthy young adults born very preterm manifest clinical and molecular evidence of accelerated ageing.
Gibson R, Lau C, Loo RL, et al., 2019, The association of fish consumption and its urinary metabolites with cardiovascular risk factors: The International Study of Macro-/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP), American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol: 111, Pages: 280-290, ISSN: 0002-9165
BackgroundResults from observational studies regarding associations between fish (including shellfish) intake and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including blood pressure (BP) and BMI, are inconsistent.ObjectiveTo investigate associations of fish consumption and associated urinary metabolites with BP and BMI in free-living populations.MethodsWe used cross-sectional data from the International Study of Macro-/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP), including 4680 men and women (40–59 y) from Japan, China, the United Kingdom, and United States. Dietary intakes were assessed by four 24-h dietary recalls and BP from 8 measurements. Urinary metabolites (2 timed 24-h urinary samples) associated with fish intake acquired from NMR spectroscopy were identified. Linear models were used to estimate BP and BMI differences across categories of intake and per 2 SD higher intake of fish and its biomarkers.ResultsNo significant associations were observed between fish intake and BP. There was a direct association with fish intake and BMI in the Japanese population sample (P trend = 0.03; fully adjusted model). In Japan, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and taurine, respectively, demonstrated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values of 0.81 and 0.78 in discriminating high against low fish intake, whereas homarine (a metabolite found in shellfish muscle) demonstrated an AUC of 0.80 for high/nonshellfish intake. Direct associations were observed between urinary TMAO and BMI for all regions except Japan (P < 0.0001) and in Western populations between TMAO and BP (diastolic blood pressure: mean difference 1.28; 95% CI: 0.55, 2.02 mmHg; P = 0.0006, systolic blood pressure: mean difference 1.67; 95% CI: 0.60, 2.73 mmHg; P = 0.002).ConclusionsUrinary TMAO showed a stronger association with fish intake in the Japanese compared with the Western population sample. Urinary TMAO was directly associated with BP in the Western but not the Japanese popula
Sabino AR, Tavares SS, Riffel A, et al., 2019, H-1 NMR metabolomic approach reveals chlorogenic acid as a response of sugarcane induced by exposure to Diatraea saccharalis, INDUSTRIAL CROPS AND PRODUCTS, Vol: 140, ISSN: 0926-6690
Kundu P, Lee HU, Garcia-Perez I, et al., 2019, Neurogenesis and prolongevity signaling in young germ-free mice transplanted with the gut microbiota of old mice., Science Translational Medicine, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1946-6234
The gut microbiota evolves as the host ages, yet the effects of these microbial changes on host physiology and energy homeostasis are poorly understood. To investigate these potential effects, we transplanted the gut microbiota of old or young mice into young germ-free recipient mice. Both groups showed similar weight gain and skeletal muscle mass, but germ-free mice receiving a gut microbiota transplant from old donor mice unexpectedly showed increased neurogenesis in the hippocampus of the brain and increased intestinal growth. Metagenomic analysis revealed age-sensitive enrichment in butyrate-producing microbes in young germ-free mice transplanted with the gut microbiota of old donor mice. The higher concentration of gut microbiota-derived butyrate in these young transplanted mice was associated with an increase in the pleiotropic and prolongevity hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). An increase in FGF21 correlated with increased AMPK and SIRT-1 activation and reduced mTOR signaling. Young germ-free mice treated with exogenous sodium butyrate recapitulated the prolongevity phenotype observed in young germ-free mice receiving a gut microbiota transplant from old donor mice. These results suggest that gut microbiota transplants from aged hosts conferred beneficial effects in responsive young recipients.
Onida S, Tan MKH, Kafeza M, et al., 2019, Metabolic phenotyping in venous disease: The need for standardization, Journal of Proteome Research, Vol: 18, Pages: 3809-3820, ISSN: 1535-3893
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), chronic venous disease (CVD), and venous leg ulceration (VLU) are clinical manifestations of a poorly functioning venous system. Though common, much is unknown of the pathophysiology and progression of these conditions. Metabolic phenotyping has been employed to explore mechanistic pathways involved in venous disease. A systematic literature review was performed: full text, primary research articles on the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) in human participants and animals were included for qualitative synthesis. Seventeen studies applying metabolic phenotyping to venous disease were identified: six on CVD, two on VLU, and nine on VTE; both animal (n = 6) and human (n = 10) experimental designs were reported, with one study including both. NMR, MS, and MS imaging were employed to characterize serum, plasma, urine, wound fluid, and tissue. Metabolites found to be upregulated in CVD included lipids, branched chain amino acids (BCAA), glutamate, taurine, lactate, and myo-inositol identified in vein tissue. Upregulated metabolites in VLU included lactate, BCAA, lysine, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and glutamate identified in wound fluid and ulcer biopsies. VTE cases were associated with reduced carnitine levels, upregulated aromatic amino acids, 3-hydroxybutyrate, BCAA, and lipids in plasma, serum, thrombus, and vein wall; kynurenine and tricarboxylic acid pathway dysfunction were reported. Future research should focus on targeted studies with internal and external validation.
Alsaleh M, Sithithaworn P, Khuntikeo N, et al., 2019, Characterisation of the urinary metabolic profile of liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma, Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology, Vol: 9, Pages: 657-675, ISSN: 0973-6883
Background Human infection with Opisthorchis viverrini, a carcinogenic liver ﬂuke inhabiting the biliary tree, is endemic in South-East Asia. Chronic infection is associated with a fatal complication, cholangiocarcinoma, a late-presenting and aggressive malignancy. Currently, annual mortality rates from cholangiocarcinoma mirror trends in incidence, due in part to limited availability of efﬁcient prognostic and early diagnostic biomarkers. With ability to detect thousands of urinary metabolites using metabonomics, the urine metabolome holds great potential in providing an insight into system-level alterations in carcinogenesis and in identifying metabolic markers altered in response to disturbed homeostasis. Methods Global molecular proﬁling using reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid-chomatography mass spectrometry (RP-UPLC-MS) was utilised to acquire the urinary spectral proﬁle of 137 Thai subjects (48 at high risk of infection, 41 with O. viverrini infection, 34 periportal ﬁbrosis and 14 cholangiocarcinoma) from Khon Kaen, Thailand.Results Multivariate statistical analysis identiﬁed perturbation in several molecular classes related to purine metabolism and lipid metabolism in the cholangiocarcinoma urine metabolome. These markers mainly reﬂect changes in energy metabolism to support proliferation (increased fatty acid oxidation and purine recycling), DNA methylation and hepatic injury.Conclusions Several metabolites of biological interest were discovered from this proof-of-principle dataset. Augmenting these ﬁndings is essential to accelerate the development of urinary metabolic markers in cholangiocarcinoma.
James K, Bottacini F, Contreras JIS, et al., 2019, Metabolism of the predominant human milk oligosaccharide fucosyllactose by an infant gut commensal, SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2045-2322
Everett JR, Holmes E, Veselkov KA, et al., 2019, A Unified Conceptual Framework for Metabolic Phenotyping in Diagnosis and Prognosis, TRENDS IN PHARMACOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 40, Pages: 763-773, ISSN: 0165-6147
Wilson T, Garcia-Perez I, Posma JM, et al., 2019, Spot and cumulative urine samples are suitable replacements for 24-hour urine collections for objective measures of dietary exposure in adults using metabolite biomarkers, Journal of Nutrition, Vol: 149, Pages: 1692-1700, ISSN: 0022-3166
BACKGROUND: Measurement of multiple food intake exposure biomarkers in urine may offer an objective method for monitoring diet. The potential of spot and cumulative urine samples that have reduced burden on participants as replacements for 24-h urine collections has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the utility of spot and cumulative urine samples for classifying the metabolic profiles of people according to dietary intake when compared with 24-h urine collections in a controlled dietary intervention study. METHODS: Nineteen healthy individuals (10 male, 9 female, aged 21-65 y, BMI 20-35 kg/m2) each consumed 4 distinctly different diets, each for 1 wk. Spot urine samples were collected ∼2 h post meals on 3 intervention days/wk. Cumulative urine samples were collected daily over 3 separate temporal periods. A 24-h urine collection was created by combining the 3 cumulative urine samples. Urine samples were analyzed with metabolite fingerprinting by both high-resolution flow infusion electrospray mass spectrometry (FIE-HRMS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR). Concentrations of dietary intake biomarkers were measured with liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry and by integration of 1H-NMR data. RESULTS: Cross-validation modeling with 1H-NMR and FIE-HRMS data demonstrated the power of spot and cumulative urine samples in predicting dietary patterns in 24-h urine collections. Particularly, there was no significant loss of information when post-dinner (PD) spot or overnight cumulative samples were substituted for 24-h urine collections (classification accuracies of 0.891 and 0.938, respectively). Quantitative analysis of urine samples also demonstrated the relation between PD spot samples and 24-h urines for dietary exposure biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that PD spot urine samples are suitable replacements for 24-h urine collections. Alternatively, cumulative samples collected overn
Seow WJ, Shu X, Nicholson J, et al., 2019, Association of untargeted urinary metabolomics and lung cancer risk among never-smoking women in China., JAMA Network Open, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2574-3805
Importance Chinese women have the highest rate of lung cancer among female never-smokers in the world, and the etiology is poorly understood.Objective To assess the association between metabolomics and lung cancer risk among never-smoking women.Design, Setting, and Participants This nested case-control study included 275 never-smoking female patients with lung cancer and 289 never-smoking cancer-free control participants from the prospective Shanghai Women’s Health Study recruited from December 28, 1996, to May 23, 2000. Validated food frequency questionnaires were used for the collection of dietary information. Metabolomic analysis was conducted from November 13, 2015, to January 6, 2016. Data analysis was conducted from January 6, 2016, to November 29, 2018.Exposures Untargeted ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomic profiles were characterized using prediagnosis urine samples. A total of 39 416 metabolites were measured.Main Outcomes and Measures Incident lung cancer.Results Among the 564 women, those who developed lung cancer (275 participants; median [interquartile range] age, 61.0 [52-65] years) and those who did not develop lung cancer (289 participants; median [interquartile range] age, 62.0 [53-66] years) at follow-up (median [interquartile range] follow-up, 10.9 [9.0-11.7] years) were similar in terms of their secondhand smoke exposure, history of respiratory diseases, and body mass index. A peak metabolite, identified as 5-methyl-2-furoic acid, was significantly associated with lower lung cancer risk (odds ratio, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.46-0.72]; P < .001; false discovery rate = 0.039). Furthermore, this peak was weakly correlated with self-reported dietary soy intake (ρ = 0.21; P < .001). Increasing tertiles of this metabolite were associated with lower lung cancer risk (in comparison with first tertile, odd
Tzoulaki I, Castagné R, Boulangé CL, et al., 2019, Serum metabolic signatures of coronary and carotid atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease, European Heart Journal, Vol: 40, Pages: 2883-2896, ISSN: 1522-9645
Aims: To characterise serum metabolic signatures associated with atherosclerosis in the coronary or carotid arteries and subsequently their association with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and Results: We used untargeted one-dimensional (1D) serum metabolic profiling by proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy among 3,867 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), with replication among 3,569 participants from the Rotterdam and LOLIPOP Studies. Atherosclerosis was assessed by coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). We used multivariable linear regression to evaluate associations between NMR features and atherosclerosis accounting for multiplicity of comparisons. We then examined associations between metabolites associated with atherosclerosis and incident CVD available in MESA and Rotterdam and explored molecular networks through bioinformatics analyses. Overall, 30 NMR measured metabolites were associated with CAC and/or IMT, P =1.3x10-14 to 6.5x10-6 (discovery), P =4.2x10-14 to 4.4x10-2 (replication). These associations were substantially attenuated after adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Metabolites associated with atherosclerosis revealed disturbances in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, branched-chain and aromatic amino acid metabolism, as well as oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways. Analyses of incident CVD events showed inverse associations with creatine, creatinine and phenylalanine, and direct associations with mannose, acetaminophen-glucuronide and lactate as well as apolipoprotein B (P <0.05). Conclusion: Metabolites associated with atherosclerosis were largely consistent between the two vascular beds (coronary and carotid arteries) and predominantly tag pathways that overlap with the known cardiovascular risk factors. We present an integrated systems network that highlights a series of inter-connected pathways underlying atherosclero
Mullish BH, McDonald JAK, Pechlivanis A, et al., 2019, Microbial bile salt hydrolases mediate the efficacy of faecal microbiota transplant in the treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection, Gut, Vol: 68, Pages: 1791-1800, ISSN: 0017-5749
Objective Faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) effectively treats recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI), but its mechanisms of action remain poorly defined. Certain bile acids affect C. difficile germination or vegetative growth. We hypothesised that loss of gut microbiota-derived bile salt hydrolases (BSHs) predisposes to CDI by perturbing gut bile metabolism, and that BSH restitution is a key mediator of FMT’s efficacy in treating the condition.Design Using stool collected from patients and donors pre-FMT/post-FMT for rCDI, we performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing, ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) bile acid profiling, BSH activity measurement, and qPCR of bsh/baiCD genes involved in bile metabolism. Human data were validated in C. difficile batch cultures and a C57BL/6 mouse model of rCDI.Results From metataxonomics, pre-FMT stool demonstrated a reduced proportion of BSH-producing bacterial species compared with donors/post-FMT. Pre-FMT stool was enriched in taurocholic acid (TCA, a potent C. difficile germinant); TCA levels negatively correlated with key bacterial genera containing BSH-producing organisms. Post-FMT samples demonstrated recovered BSH activity and bsh/baiCD gene copy number compared with pretreatment (p<0.05). In batch cultures, supernatant from engineered bsh-expressing E. coli and naturally BSH-producing organisms (Bacteroides ovatus, Collinsella aerofaciens, Bacteroides vulgatus and Blautia obeum) reduced TCA-mediated C. difficile germination relative to culture supernatant of wild-type (BSH-negative) E. coli. C. difficile total viable counts were ~70% reduced in an rCDI mouse model after administration of E. coli expressing highly active BSH relative to mice administered BSH-negative E. coli (p<0.05).Conclusion Restoration of gut BSH functionality contributes to the efficacy of FMT in treating rCDI.
Metabolic profiling, metabonomics and metabolomics are terms coined in the late 1990s as they emerged as the newest ‘omics’ technology at the time. This line of research enquiry uses spectroscopic analytical platforms, which are mainly nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS), to acquire a snapshot of metabolites, the end products of a complex biological system. Metabolic profiling enables the detection, quantification and characterisation of metabolites in biofluids, cells and tissues. The source of these compounds can be of endogenous, microbial or exogenous origin, such as dietary or xenobiotic. This results in generating extensive, multivariate spectroscopic data that require specific statistical manipulation, typically performed using chemometric and pattern recognition techniques to reduce its dimensions, facilitate its biological interpretation and allow sample classification and biomarker discovery. Consequently, it is possible to study the dynamic metabolic changes in response to disease, intervention or environmental conditions. In this review, we describe the fundamentals of MS so that clinicians can be literate in the field and are able to interrogate the right scientific questions.
Lahiri S, Kim H, Garcia-Perez I, et al., 2019, The gut microbiota influences skeletal muscle mass and function in mice, Science Translational Medicine, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1946-6234
The functional interactions between the gut microbiota and the host are important for host physiology, homeostasis, and sustained health. We compared the skeletal muscle of germ-free mice that lacked a gut microbiota to the skeletal muscle of pathogen-free mice that had a gut microbiota. Compared to pathogen-free mouse skeletal muscle, germ-free mouse skeletal muscle showed atrophy, decreased expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, and reduced transcription of genes associated with skeletal muscle growth and mitochondrial function. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry analysis of skeletal muscle, liver, and serum from germ-free mice revealed multiple changes in the amounts of amino acids, including glycine and alanine, compared to pathogen-free mice. Germ-free mice also showed reduced serum choline, the precursor of acetylcholine, the key neurotransmitter that signals between muscle and nerve at neuromuscular junctions. Reduced expression of genes encoding Rapsyn and Lrp4, two proteins important for neuromuscular junction assembly and function, was also observed in skeletal muscle from germ-free mice compared to pathogen-free mice. Transplanting the gut microbiota from pathogen-free mice into germ-free mice resulted in an increase in skeletal muscle mass, a reduction in muscle atrophy markers, improved oxidative metabolic capacity of the muscle, and elevated expression of the neuromuscular junction assembly genes <jats:italic>Rapsyn</jats:italic> and <jats:italic>Lrp4</jats:italic>. Treating germ-free mice with short-chain fatty acids (microbial metabolites) partly reversed skeletal muscle impairments. Our results suggest a role for the gut microbiota in regulating skeletal muscle mass and function in mice.</jats:p>
Chambers E, Byrne C, Morrison D, et al., 2019, Dietary supplementation with inulin-propionate ester or inulin improves insulin sensitivity in adults with overweight and obesity with distinct effects on the gut microbiota, plasma metabolome and systemic inflammatory responses: a randomised cross-over trial, Gut, Vol: 68, Pages: 1430-1438, ISSN: 0017-5749
Objective: To investigate the underlying mechanisms behind changes in glucose homeostasis with delivery of propionate to the human colon by comprehensive and coordinated analysis of gut bacterial composition, plasma metabolome and immune responses.Design: Twelve non-diabetic adults with overweight and obesity received 20g/day of inulin-propionate ester (IPE), designed to selectively deliver propionate to the colon, a high-fermentable fibre control (inulin) and a low-fermentable fibre control (cellulose) in a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover design. Outcome measurements of metabolic responses, inflammatory markers and gut bacterial composition were analysed at the end of each 42-day supplementation period.Results: Both IPE and inulin supplementation improved insulin resistance compared to cellulose supplementation, measured by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) 2 (Mean±SEM 1.23±0.17 IPE vs. 1.59±0.17 cellulose, P=0.001; 1.17±0.15 inulin vs. 1.59±0.17 cellulose, P=0.009), with no differences between IPE and inulin (P=0.272). Fasting insulin was only associated positively with plasma tyrosine and negatively with plasma glycine following inulin supplementation. IPE supplementation decreased pro-inflammatory IL-8 levels compared to cellulose, whilst inulin had no impact on the systemic inflammatory markers studied. Inulin promoted changes in gut bacterial populations at the class level (increased Actinobacteria and decreased Clostridia) and order level (decreased Clostridales) compared to cellulose, with small differences at the species level observed between IPE and cellulose. Conclusion: These data demonstrate a distinctive physiological impact of raising colonic propionate delivery in humans, as improvements in insulin sensitivity promoted by IPE and inulin were accompanied with different effects on the plasma metabolome, gut bacterial populations and markers of systemic inflammation.
Ovadia C, Perdones-Montero A, Spagou K, et al., 2019, Enhanced microbial bile acid deconjugation and impaired ileal uptake in pregnancy repress intestinal regulation of bile acid synthesis, Hepatology, Vol: 70, Pages: 276-293, ISSN: 0270-9139
Pregnancy is associated with progressive hypercholanemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, which can result in metabolic disease in susceptible women. Gut signals modify hepatic homeostatic pathways, linking intestinal content to metabolic activity. We sought to identify whether enteric endocrine signals contribute to raised serum bile acids observed in human and murine pregnancies, by measuring fibroblast growth factor (FGF)19/15 protein and mRNA levels, and 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one. Terminal ileal farnesoid X receptor(FXR)-mediated gene expression and apical sodium bile acid transporter (ASBT) protein concentration were measured by qPCR and western blotting. Shotgun whole genome sequencing and UPLC-MS were used to determine the cecal microbiome and metabonome. Targeted and untargeted pathway analyses were performed to predict the systemic effects of the altered metagenome and metabolite profiles. Dietary cholic acid supplementation was used to determine whether the observed alterations could be overcome by intestinal bile acids functioning as FXR agonists. Human and murine pregnancy were associated with reduced intestinal FXR signaling, with lower FGF19/15 and resultant increased hepatic bile acid synthesis. Terminal ileal ASBT protein was reduced in murine pregnancy. Cecal bile acid conjugation was reduced in pregnancy due to elevated bile salt hydrolase-producing Bacteroidetes. Cholic acid supplementation induced intestinal FXR signaling, which was not abrogated by pregnancy, with strikingly similar changes to the microbiota and metabonome as identified in pregnancy. CONCLUSION: the altered intestinal microbiota of pregnancy enhance bile acid deconjugation, reducing ileal bile acid uptake and lowering FXR induction in enterocytes. This exacerbates the effects mediated by reduced bile acid uptake transporters in pregnancy. Thus, in pregnant women and mice, there is reduced FGF19/15-mediated hepatic repression of hepatic bile acid synthesis
Wijeyesekera A, Wagner J, De Goffau M, et al., 2019, Multi-compartment profiling of bacterial and host metabolites identifies intestinal dysbiosis and its functional consequences in the critically ill child, Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 47, Pages: e727-e734, ISSN: 0090-3493
OBJECTIVES: Adverse physiology and antibiotic exposure devastate the intestinal microbiome in critical illness. Time and cost implications limit the immediate clinical potential of microbial sequencing to identify or treat intestinal dysbiosis. Here, we examined whether metabolic profiling is a feasible method of monitoring intestinal dysbiosis in critically ill children. DESIGN: Prospective multicenter cohort study. SETTING: Three U.K.-based PICUs. PATIENTS: Mechanically ventilated critically ill (n = 60) and age-matched healthy children (n = 55). INTERVENTIONS: Collection of urine and fecal samples in children admitted to the PICU. A single fecal and urine sample was collected in healthy controls. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Untargeted and targeted metabolic profiling using 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or urine and fecal samples. This was integrated with analysis of fecal bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA profiles and clinical disease severity indicators. We observed separation of global urinary and fecal metabolic profiles in critically ill compared with healthy children. Urinary excretion of mammalian-microbial co-metabolites hippurate, 4-cresol sulphate, and formate were reduced in critical illness compared with healthy children. Reduced fecal excretion of short-chain fatty acids (including butyrate, propionate, and acetate) were observed in the patient cohort, demonstrating that these metabolites also distinguished between critical illness and health. Dysregulation of intestinal bile metabolism was evidenced by increased primary and reduced secondary fecal bile acid excretion. Fecal butyrate correlated with days free of intensive care at 30 days (r = 0.38; p = 0.03), while urinary formate correlated inversely with vasopressor requirement (r = -0.2; p = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS: Disruption to the functional activity of the intestinal microbiome may result in worsening organ failure in the critically ill child. P
Gooderham N, Alkandari A, Ashrafian H, et al., 2019, Bariatric surgery modulates urinary levels of microRNAs involved in the regulation of renal function, Frontiers in Endocrinology, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1664-2392
Background: Obesity and diabetes cause chronic kidney disease with a common pathophysiology that is characterized by the accumulation of collagen in the extracellular matrix. Recent evidence has implicated the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as a key step in this pathology with regulation by microRNAs. Weight loss leads to improvements in renal function; therefore, this study hypothesized that bariatric-surgery aided weight loss would lead to changes in urinary microRNAs involved in the regulation of renal function.Materials and methods: Twenty-four bariatric patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy donated urine pre-operatively and at 2–6 months and 1–2 years post-operatively. Urine samples were also obtained from 10 healthy weight and 7 morbidly obese non-surgical controls. Expression levels of kidney microRNAs were assessed in urine and the function of microRNAs was assessed through the in vitro transfection of HK-2 cells, a kidney proximal tubule cell line.Results: Levels of miR 192, miR 200a, and miR 200b were upregulated in urine following bariatric surgery. This increase was consistent across surgical type and diabetes status and was maintained and enhanced with time. Bariatric surgery alters urinary miR 192 expression from levels seen in morbidly obese patients to levels seen in healthy weight control patients. In mechanistic studies, the transfection of miR 192 in HK-2 cells increased miR 200a expression and decreased ZEB2, a key transcriptional promoter of kidney fibrosis.Conclusions: Bariatric surgery increased miR 192 and miR 200 urinary levels, key anti-fibrotic microRNAs that could contribute to a renal-protective mechanism and may be of value as urinary biomarkers following surgery. These findings suggest that urinary microRNAs may represent potential novel biomarkers for obesity-associated renal function.
Alsaleh M, Barbera TA, Reeves HL, et al., 2019, Characterisation of urinary metabolic profiles of cholangiocarcinoma in a United Kingdom population, Hepatic Medicine : Evidence and Research, Vol: 11, Pages: 47-67, ISSN: 1179-1535
Background Outside South-East Asia, most cases of cholangiocarcinoma have an obscure aetiology. There is often diagnostic uncertainty. Metabolomics using ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) offers the portent to distinguish disease-specific metabolic signatures. We aimed to define such a urinary metabolic signature in a patient cohort with sporadic cholangiocarcinoma and investigate whether there were characteristic differences from those in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, metastatic secondary liver cancer, pancreatic and ovarian cancer.Methods Spot urine specimens were obtained from 211 subjects in seven participating centres across the UK. Samples were collected from healthy controls and from patients with benign hepatic disease (gallstone, biliary strictures, sphincter of Oddi dysfunction and viral hepatitis) and patients with malignant conditions (hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer and metastatic cancer in the liver). The spectral metabolite proﬁles were generated using a UPLC-MS detector and data were analysed using multivariate and univariate statistical analyses.Results The greatest class differences were seen between the metabolic proﬁles of disease-free controls compared to individuals with cholangiocarcinoma with altered acylcarnitine, bile acid and purine levels. Individuals with benign strictures showed comparable urine proﬁles to patients with malignant bile duct lesions. The metabolic signatures of patients with bile duct tumours were distinguishable from patients with hepatocellular and ovarian tumours, but no difference was observed between CCA cases and patients with pancreatic cancer or hepatic secondary metastases.Conclusion Cholangiocarcinoma causes subtle but detectable changes in the urine metabolic proﬁles. The ﬁndings point towards potential applications of metabonomics in early tumour detection. However, it is key to utilize both global and targeted metabonomics in a larger co
Lees HJ, Swann JR, Poucher S, et al., 2019, Obesity and cage environment modulate metabolism in the Zucker rat: a multiple biological matrix approach to characterizing metabolic phenomena, Journal of Proteome Research, Vol: 18, Pages: 2160-2174, ISSN: 1535-3893
Obesity and its comorbidities are increasing worldwide imposing a heavy socioeconomic burden. The effects of obesity on the metabolic profiles of tissues (liver, kidney, pancreas), urine, and the systemic circulation were investigated in the Zucker rat model using 1H NMR spectroscopy coupled to multivariate statistical analysis. The metabolic profiles of the obese ( fa/ fa) animals were clearly differentiated from the two phenotypically lean phenotypes, ((+/+) and ( fa/+)) within each biological compartment studied, and across all matrices combined. No significant differences were observed between the metabolic profiles of the genotypically distinct lean strains. Obese Zucker rats were characterized by higher relative concentrations of blood lipid species, cross-compartmental amino acids (particularly BCAAs), urinary and liver metabolites relating to the TCA cycle and glucose metabolism; and lower amounts of urinary gut microbial-host cometabolites, and intermatrix metabolites associated with creatine metabolism. Further to this, the obese Zucker rat metabotype was defined by significant metabolic alterations relating to disruptions in the metabolism of choline across all compartments analyzed. The cage environment was found to have a significant effect on urinary metabolites related to gut-microbial metabolism, with additional cage-microenvironment trends also observed in liver, kidney, and pancreas. This study emphasizes the value in metabotyping multiple biological matrices simultaneously to gain a better understanding of systemic perturbations in metabolism, and also underscores the need for control or evaluation of cage environment when designing and interpreting data from metabonomic studies in animal models.
Hegade VS, Pechlivanis A, McDonald JA, et al., 2019, Autotaxin, bile acid profile and effect of IBAT inhibition in primary biliary cholangitis patients with pruritus, Liver International, Vol: 39, Pages: 967-975, ISSN: 1478-3223
BACKGROUND &AIMS: Pruritus is a common symptom in patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) for which ileal bile acid transporter (IBAT) inhibition is emerging as a potential therapy. We explored the serum metabonome and gut microbiota profile in PBC patients with pruritus and investigated the effect of GSK2330672, an IBAT inhibitor. METHODS: We studied fasting serum bile acids (BAs), autotaxin and faecal microbiota in 22 PBC patients with pruritus at baseline and after two weeks of GSK2330672 treatment. Control group included 31 asymptomatic PBC patients and 18 healthy volunteers. BA profiling was done by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Faecal microbiomes were analysed by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: In PBC patients with pruritus serum levels of total and glyco-conjugated primary BAs and autotaxin were significantly elevated. Autotaxin activity correlated significantly with tauro- and glyco-conjugated cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), both at baseline and after GSK2330672. GSK2330672 significantly reduced autotaxin and all tauro- and glyco- conjugated BAs and increased faecal levels of CA (p=0.048) and CDCA (p=0.027). Gut microbiota of PBC patients with pruritus was similar to control groups. GSK2330672 increased relative abundance of Firmicutes (p=0.033) and Clostridia (p=0.04) and decreased Bacteroidetes (p=0.033) and Bacteroidia (p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Pruritus in PBC does not show a distinct gut bacterial profile but is associated with elevated serum bile acid and autotaxin levels which decrease after IBAT inhibition. In cholestatic pruritus, a complex interplay between BAs and ATX is likely and may be modified by IBAT inhibition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Byrne C, Chambers E, Brignardello J, et al., 2019, Effects of inulin propionate ester incorporated into palatable food products on appetite and resting energy expenditure: a randomised crossover study, Nutrients, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2072-6643
Supplementation with inulin-propionate ester (IPE), which delivers propionate to the colon, suppresses ad libitum energy intake and stimulates the release of satiety hormones acutely in humans, and prevents weight gain. In order to determine whether IPE remains effective when incorporated into food products (FP), IPE needs to be added to a widely accepted food system. A bread roll and fruit smoothie were produced. Twenty-one healthy overweight and obese humans participated. Participants attended an acclimatisation visit and a control visit where they consumed un-supplemented food products (FP). Participants then consumed supplemented-FP, containing 10 g/d inulin or IPE for six days followed by a post-supplementation visit in a randomised crossover design. On study visits, supplemented-FP were consumed for the seventh time and ad libitum energy intake was assessed 420 min later. Blood samples were collected to assess hormones and metabolites. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured using indirect calorimetry. Taste and appearance ratings were similar between FP. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different between treatments, due to a decreased intake following IPE-FP. These observations were not related to changes in blood hormones and metabolites. There was an increase in REE following IPE-FP. However, this effect was lost after correcting for changes in fat free mass. Our results suggest that IPE suppresses appetite and may alter REE following its incorporation into palatable food products.
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