89 results found
Autio E, Thomas L, 2018, Tilting the playing field: Towards an endogenous strategic action theory of ecosystem creation, Open Innovation, Ecosystems and Entrepreneurship: Issues and Perspectives, Editors: Nambisan, Publisher: World Scientific Publishing, Pages: 111-140
Ecosystem creation is a form of endogenous strategic action: it creates and shapes new activity systems that exploit new ways of creating value. To be successful, this action requires that future ecosystem stakeholders agree to a shared vision of the ecosystem value proposition. In this chapter, we develop an institutional approach to understanding how firms can facilitate ecosystem creation by manipulating perceptions of value concerning the shared technology platform around which the ecosystem is organized. We discuss four arenas of endogenous strategic action: manipulating cognitive legitimacy, manipulating perceptions of technological instrumentality, manipulating perceptions of economic instrumentality, and manipulating normative legitimacy. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our model for theory and practice.
Bruneel J, Clarysse B, Autio E, 2018, The role of prior domestic experience and prior shared experience in young firm internationalization, INTERNATIONAL SMALL BUSINESS JOURNAL-RESEARCHING ENTREPRENEURSHIP, Vol: 36, Pages: 265-284, ISSN: 0266-2426
Dattee B, Alexy O, Autio ET, 2018, Maneuvering in poor visibility: how firms play the ecosystem game when uncertainty is high, Academy of Management Journal, Vol: 61, ISSN: 1535-3990
Innovation ecosystems are increasingly regarded as important vehicles to create and capture value from complex value propositions. While current literature assumes these value propositions can be known ex-ante and an appropriate ecosystem design derived from them, we focus instead on generative technological innovations that enable an unbounded range of potential value propositions, hence offering no clear guidance to firms. To illustrate our arguments, we inductively study two organizations, each attempting to create two novel ecosystems around new technological enablers deep in their industry architecture. We highlight how ecosystem creation in such conditions is a systemic process driven by coupled feedback loops, which organizations must try to control dynamically: firms first make the switch to creating the ecosystem following an external pull to narrow down the range of potential applications; then need to learn to keep up with ecosystem dynamics by roadmapping and preempting, while simultaneously enacting resonance. Dynamic control further entails counteracting the drifting away of the nascent ecosystem from the firm's idea of future value creation and the sliding of its intended control points for value capture. Our findings shed new light on strategy and control in emerging ecosystems, and provide guidance to managers on playing the ecosystem game.
Autio E, Thomas LDW, 2018, Tilting the playing field: Towards an endogenous strategic action theory of ecosystem creation, World Scientific Reference On Innovation, Pages: 111-140, ISBN: 9789813147027
© 2018 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. Ecosystem creation is a form of endogenous strategic action: It creates and shapes new activity systems that exploit new ways of creating value. To be successful, this action requires that future ecosystem stakeholders agree to a shared vision of the ecosystem value proposition. In this chapter, we develop an institution al approach to understanding how firms can facilitate ecosystem creation by manipulating perceptions of value concerning the shared technology platform around which the ecosystem is organized. We discuss four arenas of endogenous strategic action: Manipulating cognitive legitimacy, manipulating perceptions of technological instrumentality, manipulating perceptions of economic instrumen tality, and manipulating normative legitimacy. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our model for theory and practice.
Autio ET, 2017, Strategic entrepreneurial internationalization: a normative framework, Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, Vol: 11, Pages: 211-227, ISSN: 1932-443X
Much of the literature on international new ventures (INVs) tends to focus on early internationalization and view it as the expression of firm-specific advantages that existed prior to internationalization. This paper presents a normative framework that articulates how INVs can leverage internationalization to drive de novo competitive advantage. Drawing on organizational capability and business model literatures, the framework of Strategic Entrepreneurial Internationalization (SEI) argues that INVs that adopt an active learning orientation (LO); a niche orientation (NO); encapsulate cross-border asymmetries in their activity system (AE); and adopt a business model experimentation approach (BME) are more likely to succeed in building sustainable competitive advantage.
Autio ET, Nambisan S, Thomas L, et al., 2017, Digital affordances, spatial affordances, and the genesis of entrepreneurial ecosystems, Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, Vol: 12, Pages: 72-95, ISSN: 1932-443X
Symeonidou N, Bruneel J, Autio E, 2017, Commercialization strategy and internationalization outcomes in technology-based new ventures, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol: 32, Pages: 302-317, ISSN: 0883-9026
Advances in business process outsourcing and open innovation practices have made the choice of techno logy commercialization strategy increasingly relevant for technology-based new ventures. We investigate effects of intellectual property (IP)-based, product-based, and hybrid (both product and IP) commercialization strategies on internationalization propensity and intensity in technology-based new ventures. We find that new ventures adopting a product-based commercialization strategy are less likely to internationalize than those with hybrid or IP-based strategies. In addition, new ventures using IP-based commercialization strategies exhibit higher international intensity after foreign market entry than those with hybrid and product-based strategies. These findings provide novel insights into the dependence on external resources associated with different types of commercialization strategy.
Autio E, Levie J, 2017, Management of entrepreneurial ecosystems, The Wiley Handbook of Entrepreneurship, Pages: 423-449, ISBN: 9781118970836
© 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved. There is an increasing policy interest toward entrepreneurial ecosystems. Yet, little is actually known about how an entrepreneurial ecosystem works and what the related policy challenges are. Drawing on research on ecological economics and community governance, this chapter develops a theoretical framework for entrepreneurial ecosystem management. Using a Scottish entrepreneurial ecosystem initiative as an example, the authors conclude that policy approaches that emphasize deep stakeholder engagement are likely to give rise to better informed, targeted, and more effectively implemented policy initiatives in entrepreneurial ecosystems than will market failure and structural failure approaches.
Autio E, Zander I, 2016, Lean internationalization, Pages: 1754-1758
We use transaction cost theory and foreign entry mode literature to explore the effect of digitalization on new venture internationalization. We argue that digitalization attenuates location specificity, vertical and horizontal asset specificity, and cross-border information asymmetries, giving rise to a resource-lean, proactive, and iterative form of 'lean internationalization'.
Autio ET, Rannikko H, Retaining winners: Can policy boost high-growth entrepreneurship?, Research Policy, Vol: 45, Pages: 42-55, ISSN: 0048-7333
We analysed the growth impact delivered by a high-growth entrepreneurship policy initiative over a six-year period. Using an eight-year panel that started two years before the initiative was launched and propensity score matching to control selection bias, we found that the initiative had more than doubled the growth rates of treated firms. The initiative had delivered a strong impact also on value-for-money basis. In addition to producing the first robust evidence on the growth impact delivered by a high-growth entrepreneurship initiative, we contribute to public sponsorship theory with the notion of capacity-boosting activities to complement previously discussed buffering and bridging activities.
Autio E, Fu K, 2015, Economic and political institutions and entry into formal and informal entrepreneurship, ASIA PACIFIC JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT, Vol: 32, Pages: 67-94, ISSN: 0217-4561
Kazlauskaite R, Autio E, Gelbuda M, et al., 2015, The Resource-based View and SME Internationalisation: An Emerging Economy Perspective, ENTREPRENEURIAL BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS REVIEW, Vol: 3, Pages: 53-64, ISSN: 2353-883X
Kazlauskaite R, Autio E, Sarapovas T, et al., 2015, The Speed and Extent of New Venture Internationalisation in the Emerging Economy Context, ENTREPRENEURIAL BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS REVIEW, Vol: 3, Pages: 41-52, ISSN: 2353-883X
Autio E, Kenney M, Mustar P, et al., 2014, Entrepreneurial innovation: The importance of context, Research Policy, Vol: 43, Pages: 1097-1108, ISSN: 0048-7333
The purpose of this article and the special issue is to improve our understanding of the theoretical, managerial, and policy implications of entrepreneurial innovation. We accomplish this objective by examining the role of context in stimulating such activity, as well as its impact on the outcomes of entrepreneurial innovation. Our analysis begins by outlining an overarching framework for entrepreneurial innovation and context. With reference to this framework we then compare the attributes of national innovation systems, entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial innovation, and categorize contextual influences on entrepreneurial innovation. We then situate the papers presented in this special issue within this framework. We conclude by outlining an agenda for additional research on this topic, focusing on the relationships between contexts and entrepreneurial innovation and then discuss policy implications, focusing on how public and private actors can meet these challenges.
Thomas LDW, Autio E, Gann DM, 2014, ARCHITECTURAL LEVERAGE: PUTTING PLATFORMS IN CONTEXT, ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVES, Vol: 28, Pages: 198-219, ISSN: 1558-9080
Acs Z, Szerb L, Autio ET, 2014, Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index 2014, London, Publisher: Amazon Books
Wennberg K, Pathak S, Autio E, 2013, How culture moulds the effects of self-efficacy and fear of failure on entrepreneurship, ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT, Vol: 25, Pages: 756-780, ISSN: 0898-5626
Coduras A, Autio E, 2013, Comparing subjective and objective indicators to describe the national entrepreneurial context: The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and the Global Competitiveness Index contributions, Investigaciones Regionales, Pages: 47-74, ISSN: 1695-7253
Entrepreneurship research is progressing towards the construction of indexes that integrate the information of the three predominant approaches: the entrepreneurial activity output; the population's entrepreneurial behavior, values and aspirations; and the context in which entrepreneurship takes place. In this study we compare the Global Competitiveness Index data, one of the objective sources of information selected among those recognized as descriptors of national contexts, with the national entrepreneurial context qualitative information provided by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. The main purpose of this research is to contribute to the knowledge of entrepreneurial context sources of information by opening a discussion around the usefulness and contribution that could make the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor source in this field, and to determine if it is recommendable to proceed to its formal validation in the short time. The obtained results evidence that the two sources do not overlap to the degree of substituting one by the other and that the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor provides relevant qualitative details about the state of entrepreneurial context that are interesting to complement the Global Competitiveness Index information. The conclusion is to recommend the formal validation of this source, being also necessary to make comparisons with other relevant sources and to clear up its role in the progress of the integrated indexes construction. © Investigaciones Regionales.
Thomas LDW, 2013, Ecosystem emergence: An investigation of the emergence processes of six digital service ecosystems
Levie J, Autio E, Acs Z, et al., 2013, Global entrepreneurship and institutions: An introduction, Small Business Economics
This article is an introduction to the special issue from the 4th Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Research Conference held at Imperial College Business School, London, in 2010. The article has two objectives. The ﬁrst is to summarize the history of the GEM consortium, some of the contributions that it has delivered, and some challenges and opportunities ahead. The second is to present a summary of the papers in the context of the utility of GEM data in comparative entrepreneurship research.
Acs ZJ, Autio E, Szerb L, 2013, National Systems of Entrepreneurship: Measurement issues and policy implications, Research Policy
We introduce a novel concept of National Systems of Entrepreneurship and provide an approach to characterizing them. National Systems of Entrepreneurship are fundamentally resource allocation systems that are driven by individual-level opportunity pursuit, through the creation of new ventures, with this activity and its outcomes regulated by country-specific institutional characteristics. In contrast with the institutional emphasis of the National Systems of Innovation frameworks, where institutions engender and regulate action, National Systems of Entrepreneurship are driven by individuals, with institutions regulating who acts and the outcomes of individual action. Building on these principles, we also introduce a novel index methodology to characterize National Systems of Entrepreneurship. The distinctive features of the methodology are: (1) systemic approach, which allows interactions between components of National Systems of Entrepreneurship; (2) the Penalty for Bottleneck feature, which identifies bottleneck factors that hold back system performance; (3) contextualization, which recognizes that national entrepreneurship processes are always embedded in a given country's institutional framework.
Acs ZJ, Autio E, Szerb L, National Systems of Entrepreneurship: Measurement Issues and Policy Implications, SSRN Electronic Journal
Acs ZJ, Szerb L, Autio E, 2013, Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index 2013, London, Publisher: Edward Elgar, ISBN: 978 1 84980 844 6
Autio E, Pahtak S, Wennberg K, 2013, Consequences of cultural practices for entrepreneurial behaviors, Journal of International Business Studies, Pages: 334-362
Although national culture is an important regulator of entrepreneurship, there is a dearth of studies that: (1) explore the effects of national cultural practices on entrepreneurial behaviors by individuals; (2) use appropriate multilevel research designs; (3) consider the effects of culture on different entrepreneurial behaviors, such as entry and post-entry growth aspirations. We combined Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) and Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) data from 42 countries for 2005–2008 to address these gaps, using a multilevel design. We found societal institutional collectivism practices negatively associated with entrepreneurial entry, but positively associated with entrepreneurial growth aspirations. Uncertainty avoidance practices were negatively associated with entry but not with growth aspirations, and performance orientation practices were positively associated with entry. Our analysis highlights the differential effects of cultural practices on entrepreneurial entry and growth aspirations, and demonstrates the value of multilevel techniques in analyzing the effect of culture on entrepreneurship.
Perkmann M, Tartari V, McKelvey M, et al., 2013, Academic engagement and commercialisation: A review of the literature on university-industry relations (open access article), Research Policy, Vol: 42, Pages: 423-442, ISSN: 0048-7333
We present a systematic review of the literature on academic engagement, defined as academic scientists’ involvement in collaborative research, contract research, consulting and informal technology transfer. Our findings suggest that across all national contexts studied, academic engagement is widespread. We identify the antecedents and consequences of academic engagement, and systematically compare these with the antecedents and consequences of commercialisation, i.e. intellectual property transfer and academic entrepreneurship. Academic engagement is distinct from commercialisation in that it is closely aligned with traditional academic research, and is pursued by academics to access resources that further their research. We conclude by identifying future research needs, opportunities for methodological improvement and policy interventions.
Autio E, Dahlander L, Frederiksen L, 2013, Information exposure, opportunity evaluation and entrepreneurial action: An empirical investigation of an online user community, Academy of Management Journal, Vol: n/a, ISSN: 0001-4273
We study how an individual's exposure to external information regulates the evaluation of entrepreneurial opportunities and entrepreneurial action. Combining data from interviews, a survey, and a comprehensive web log of an online user community spanning eight years, we find that technical information shaped opportunity evaluation, and social information about user needs drove individuals to entrepreneurial action. Our empirical findings suggest that reducing demand uncertainty is a central factor regulating of entrepreneurial action, an insight that received theories of entrepreneurial action have so far overlooked.
Szerb LA, Acs Z, Autio E, 2013, Entrepreneurship and Policy: The National System of Entrepreneurship in the European Union and in Its Member Countries, ENTREPRENEURSHIP RESEARCH JOURNAL, Vol: 3, Pages: 9-34, ISSN: 2194-6175
Autio E, Rannikko H, Kiuru P, et al., 2013, The Vigo Finnish Accelerator Programme: Mid-Term Evaluation, Helsinki, Publisher: MEE Enterprise and Innovation Department, MEE 4/2013
The Vigo Accelerator Programme was launched in 2009 to address perceived gaps in the Finnish National System of Entrepreneurship – notably, those existing in the high-growth venturing ecosystem: (1) insufficient number of new ventures with potential for high growth; (2) equity funding gap in the region from approximately 20k€ to 200k€; and (3) insufficient experience and competence base in high-growth venturing. This mid-term evaluation addressed four questions: (1) whether the Vigo Programme had achieved its early-stage goals; (2) whether the Vigo concept addresses a real gap in the Finnish high-growth venturing ecosystem; (3) whether the Vigo Programme is likely to lead to the creation of a self-sustaining field of new venture accelerators in Finland; (4) what role the Vigo Programme might play in the Finnish high-growth venturing ecosystem in the medium to long term.
Smith C, Autio E, 2011, Entrepreneurial tie-order strategies and the creation of network advantage, Academy of Management 2011 Annual Meeting - West Meets East: Enlightening. Balancing. Transcending, AOM 2011
We develop a process theory of network emergence focusing specifically on the effects of building key external ties in sequence and their influence on network outcomes. Central to this theory is the notion that the emergence of new firmsï¿1/2 network structure is not only influenced by past histories of focal agents but also by complex, semi-reversible interactions be-tween ties. Using an inductive qualitative approach we induce a tie-order theory drawing on interviews with six new companies in the UKï¿1/2s independent television production sector over three years. We find that establishing key ties in sequence enhances resource collation, and amplifies perceptions of influence, impacting in turn on network outcomes.
Autio E, 2011, High-Aspiration Entrepreneurship, The Dynamics of Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Data, ISBN: 9780199580866
© Oxford University Press, 2013. This chapter analyzes the prevalence of high-aspiration entrepreneurs at both the country and individual level. The descriptive analysis reveals significant variation in high-aspiration entrepreneurship across countries as well as between high and low-income economies. At the country level, the analysis of institutional influences shows the difficulty of firing to be negatively and significantly associated to the prevalence of early-stage highaspiration entrepreneurs. The individual-level analysis confirms this effect. Thus, overall, the findings suggest that country-level factors exercise an important influence on individual-level entrepreneurial growth aspirations. The analysis also demonstrates the unique value of GEM data for the development of more robust and generalizable models of entrepreneurial growth aspirations.
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