Imperial College London

Dr Francesco A. Aprile

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Chemistry

Lecturer in Chemistry
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 5545f.aprile Website

 
 
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Location

 

110FMolecular Sciences Research HubWhite City Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

54 results found

Ge Y, Masoura A, Yang J, Aprile Fet al., 2022, A Chemical Mutagenesis Approach to Insert Post-Translational Modifications in Aggregation-Prone Proteins, ACS Chemical Neuroscience, ISSN: 1948-7193

Journal article

Thrush RJ, Vadukul D, Aprile F, 2022, A facile method to produce N-terminally truncated α-synuclein, Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN: 1662-453X

α-Synuclein is a key protein of the nervous system, which regulates the release and recycling ofneurotransmitters in the synapses. It is also involved in several neurodegenerative conditions,including Parkinson’s disease and Multiple System Atrophy, where it forms toxic aggregates. TheN-terminus of α-synuclein is of particular interest as it has been linked to both the physiologicaland pathological functions of the protein and undergoes post-translational modification. One suchmodification, N-terminal truncation, affects the aggregation propensity of the protein in vitro andis also found in aggregates from patients’ brains. To date, our understanding of the role of thismodification has been limited by the many challenges of introducing biologically relevant Nterminal truncations with no overhanging starting methionine. Here, we present a method toproduce N-terminally truncated variants of α-synuclein that do not carry extra terminal residues.We show that our method can generate highly pure protein to facilitate the study of thismodification and its role in physiology and disease. Thanks to this method, we have determinedthat the first six residues of α-synuclein play an important role in the formation of the amyloids.

Journal article

Aprile FA, Temussi PA, Pastore A, 2021, Man does not live by intrinsically unstructured proteins alone: The role of structured regions in aggregation., BioEssays, Vol: 43, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 0265-9247

Protein misfolding is a topic that is of primary interest both in biology and medicine because of its impact on fundamental processes and disease. In this review, we revisit the concept of protein misfolding and discuss how the field has evolved from the study of globular folded proteins to focusing mainly on intrinsically unstructured and often disordered regions. We argue that this shift of paradigm reflects the more recent realisation that misfolding may not only be an adverse event, as originally considered, but also may fulfil a basic biological need to compartmentalise the cell with transient reversible granules. We nevertheless provide examples in which structure is an important component of a much more complex aggregation behaviour that involves both structured and unstructured regions of a protein. We thus suggest that a more comprehensive evaluation of the mechanisms that lead to aggregation might be necessary.

Journal article

Pras A, Houben B, Aprile FA, Seinstra R, Gallardo R, Janssen L, Hogewerf W, Gallrein C, De Vleeschouwer M, Mata-Cabana A, Koopman M, Stroo E, de Vries M, Louise Edwards S, Kirstein J, Vendruscolo M, Falsone SF, Rousseau F, Schymkowitz J, Nollen EAAet al., 2021, The cellular modifier MOAG-4/SERF drives amyloid formation through charge complementation, The EMBO Journal, Vol: 40, ISSN: 0261-4189

While aggregation-prone proteins are known to accelerate aging and cause age-related diseases, the cellular mechanisms that drive their cytotoxicity remain unresolved. The orthologous proteins MOAG-4, SERF1A, and SERF2 have recently been identified as cellular modifiers of such proteotoxicity. Using a peptide array screening approach on human amyloidogenic proteins, we found that SERF2 interacted with protein segments enriched in negatively charged and hydrophobic, aromatic amino acids. The absence of such segments, or the neutralization of the positive charge in SERF2, prevented these interactions and abolished the amyloid-promoting activity of SERF2. In protein aggregation models in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, protein aggregation and toxicity were suppressed by mutating the endogenous locus of MOAG-4 to neutralize charge. Our data indicate that MOAG-4 and SERF2 drive protein aggregation and toxicity by interactions with negatively charged segments in aggregation-prone proteins. Such charge interactions might accelerate primary nucleation of amyloid by initiating structural changes and by decreasing colloidal stability. Our study points at charge interactions between cellular modifiers and amyloidogenic proteins as potential targets for interventions to reduce age-related protein toxicity.

Journal article

Scheidt T, Carozza JA, Kolbe CC, Aprile FA, Tkachenko O, Bellaiche MMJ, Meisl G, Peter QAE, Herling TW, Ness S, Castellana-Cruz M, Benesch JLP, Vendruscolo M, Dobson CM, Arosio P, Knowles TPJet al., 2021, The binding of the small heat-shock protein alpha B-crystallin to fibrils of alpha-synuclein is driven by entropic forces, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol: 118, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 0027-8424

Molecular chaperones are key components of the cellular proteostasis network whose role includes the suppression of the formation and proliferation of pathogenic aggregates associated with neurodegenerative diseases. The molecular principles that allow chaperones to recognize misfolded and aggregated proteins remain, however, incompletely understood. To address this challenge, here we probe the thermodynamics and kinetics of the interactions between chaperones and protein aggregates under native solution conditions using a microfluidic platform. We focus on the binding between amyloid fibrils of α-synuclein, associated with Parkinson’s disease, to the small heat-shock protein αB-crystallin, a chaperone widely involved in the cellular stress response. We find that αB-crystallin binds to α-synuclein fibrils with high nanomolar affinity and that the binding is driven by entropy rather than enthalpy. Measurements of the change in heat capacity indicate significant entropic gain originates from the disassembly of the oligomeric chaperones that function as an entropic buffer system. These results shed light on the functional roles of chaperone oligomerization and show that chaperones are stored as inactive complexes which are capable of releasing active subunits to target aberrant misfolded species.

Journal article

Chan TG, Ruehl CL, Morse SV, Simon M, Rakers V, Watts H, Aprile FA, Choi JJ, Vilar Ret al., 2021, Modulation of amyloid-beta aggregation by metal complexes with a dual binding mode and their delivery across the blood-brain barrier using focused ultrasound, Chemical Science, Vol: 12, Pages: 9485-9493, ISSN: 2041-6520

One of the key hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease is the aggregation of the amyloid-β peptide to form fibrils. Consequently, there has been great interest in studying molecules that can disrupt amyloid-β aggregation. While a handful of molecules have been shown to inhibit amyloid-β aggregation in vitro, there remains a lack of in vivo data reported due to their inability to cross the blood–brain barrier. Here, we investigate a series of new metal complexes for their ability to inhibit amyloid-β aggregation in vitro. We demonstrate that octahedral cobalt complexes with polyaromatic ligands have high inhibitory activity thanks to their dual binding mode involving π–π stacking and metal coordination to amyloid-β (confirmed via a range of spectroscopic and biophysical techniques). In addition to their high activity, these complexes are not cytotoxic to human neuroblastoma cells. Finally, we report for the first time that these metal complexes can be safely delivered across the blood–brain barrier to specific locations in the brains of mice using focused ultrasound.

Journal article

Jin Y, Vadukul D, Gialama D, Ge Y, Thrush R, White J, Aprile Fet al., 2021, The diagnostic potential of amyloidogenic proteins, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol: 22, ISSN: 1422-0067

Neurodegenerative disorders are a highly prevalent class of diseases, whose pathological mechanisms start before the appearance of any clear symptoms. This fact has prompted scientists to search for biomarkers that could aid early treatment. These currently incurable pathologies share the presence of aberrant aggregates called amyloids in the nervous system, which are composed of specific proteins. In this review, we discuss how these proteins, their conformations and modifications could be exploited as biomarkers for diagnostic purposes. We focus on proteins that are associated with the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and frontotemporal dementia. We also describe current challenges in detection, the most recent techniques with diagnostic potentials and possible future developments in diagnosis.

Journal article

Perni M, van der Goot A, Limbocker R, van Ham TJ, Aprile FA, Xu CK, Flagmeier P, Thijssen K, Sormanni P, Fusco G, Chen SW, Challa PK, Kirkegaard JB, Laine RF, Ma KY, Muller MBD, Sinnige T, Kumita JR, Cohen SIA, Seinstra R, Kaminski Schierle GS, Kaminski CF, Barbut D, De Simone A, Knowles TPJ, Zasloff M, Nollen EAA, Vendruscolo M, Dobson CMet al., 2021, Comparative studies in the A30P and A53T alpha-Synuclein C. elegans strains to investigate the molecular origins of Parkinson's Disease, Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2296-634X

The aggregation of α-synuclein is a hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) and a variety of related neurological disorders. A number of mutations in this protein, including A30P and A53T, are associated with familial forms of the disease. Patients carrying the A30P mutation typically exhibit a similar age of onset and symptoms as sporadic PD, while those carrying the A53T mutation generally have an earlier age of onset and an accelerated progression. We report two C. elegans models of PD (PDA30P and PDA53T), which express these mutational variants in the muscle cells, and probed their behavior relative to animals expressing the wild-type protein (PDWT). PDA30P worms showed a reduced speed of movement and an increased paralysis rate, control worms, but no change in the frequency of body bends. By contrast, in PDA53T worms both speed and frequency of body bends were significantly decreased, and paralysis rate was increased. α-Synuclein was also observed to be less well localized into aggregates in PDA30P worms compared to PDA53T and PDWT worms, and amyloid-like features were evident later in the life of the animals, despite comparable levels of expression of α-synuclein. Furthermore, squalamine, a natural product currently in clinical trials for treating symptomatic aspects of PD, was found to reduce significantly the aggregation of α-synuclein and its associated toxicity in PDA53T and PDWT worms, but had less marked effects in PDA30P. In addition, using an antibody that targets the N-terminal region of α-synuclein, we observed a suppression of toxicity in PDA30P, PDA53T and PDWT worms. These results illustrate the use of these two C. elegans models in fundamental and applied PD research.

Journal article

Ikenoue T, Aprile FA, Sormanni P, Vendruscolo Met al., 2021, Rationally designed bicyclic peptides prevent the conversion of A beta 42 assemblies into fibrillar structures, Frontiers in Neuroscience, Vol: 15, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 1662-453X

There is great interest in drug discovery programs targeted at the aggregation of the 42-residue form of the amyloid β peptide (Aβ42), since this molecular process is closely associated with Alzheimer’s disease. The use of bicyclic peptides may offer novel opportunities for the effective modification of Aβ42 aggregation and the inhibition of its cytotoxicity, as these compounds combine the molecular recognition ability of antibodies with a relatively small size of about 2 kD. Here, to pursue this approach, we rationally designed a panel of six bicyclic peptides targeting various epitopes along the sequence of Aβ42 to scan its most amyloidogenic region (residues 13–42). Our kinetic analysis and structural studies revealed that at sub-stoichiometric concentrations the designed bicyclic peptides induce a delay in the condensation of Aβ42 and the subsequent transition to a fibrillar state, while at higher concentrations they inhibit such transition. We thus suggest that designed bicyclic peptides can be employed to inhibit amyloid formation by redirecting the aggregation process toward amorphous assemblies.

Journal article

Lindstedt PR, Aprile FA, Sormanni P, Rakoto R, Dobson CM, Bernardes GJL, Vendruscolo Met al., 2021, Systematic Activity Maturation of a Single-Domain Antibody with Non-canonical Amino Acids through Chemical Mutagenesis, CELL CHEMICAL BIOLOGY, Vol: 28, Pages: 70-+, ISSN: 2451-9448

Journal article

Heller GT, Aprile FA, Michaels TCT, Limbocker R, Perni M, Ruggeri FS, Mannini B, Lohr T, Bonomi M, Camilloni C, De Simone A, Felli IC, Pierattelli R, Knowles TPJ, Dobson CM, Vendruscolo Met al., 2020, Small-molecule sequestration of amyloid-beta as a drug discovery strategy for Alzheimer's disease, SCIENCE ADVANCES, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2375-2548

Journal article

Ikenoue T, Aprile FA, Sormanni P, Ruggeri FS, Perni M, Heller GT, Haas CP, Middel C, Limbocker R, Mannini B, Michaels TCT, Knowles TPJ, Dobson CM, Vendruscolo Met al., 2020, A rationally designed bicyclic peptide remodels A beta 42 aggregation in vitro and reduces its toxicity in a worm model of Alzheimer's disease, SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2045-2322

Journal article

Aprile FA, Sormanni P, Podpolny M, Chhangur S, Needham L-M, Ruggeri FS, Perni M, Limbocker R, Heller GT, Sneideris T, Scheidt T, Mannini B, Habchi J, Lee SF, Salinas PC, Knowles TPJ, Dobson CM, Vendruscolo Met al., 2020, Rational design of a conformation-specific antibody for the quantification of A beta oligomers, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol: 117, Pages: 13509-13518, ISSN: 0027-8424

Protein misfolding and aggregation is the hallmark of numerous human disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease. This process involves the formation of transient and heterogeneous soluble oligomers, some of which are highly cytotoxic. A major challenge for the development of effective diagnostic and therapeutic tools is thus the detection and quantification of these elusive oligomers. Here, to address this problem, we develop a two-step rational design method for the discovery of oligomer-specific antibodies. The first step consists of an “antigen scanning” phase in which an initial panel of antibodies is designed to bind different epitopes covering the entire sequence of a target protein. This procedure enables the determination through in vitro assays of the regions exposed in the oligomers but not in the fibrillar deposits. The second step involves an “epitope mining” phase, in which a second panel of antibodies is designed to specifically target the regions identified during the scanning step. We illustrate this method in the case of the amyloid β (Aβ) peptide, whose oligomers are associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Our results show that this approach enables the accurate detection and quantification of Aβ oligomers in vitro, and in Caenorhabditis elegans and mouse hippocampal tissues.

Journal article

Limbocker R, Mannini B, Cataldi R, Chhangur S, Wright AK, Kreiser RP, Albright JA, Chia S, Habchi J, Sormanni P, Kumita JR, Ruggeri FS, Dobson CM, Chiti F, Aprile FA, Vendruscolo Met al., 2020, Rationally Designed Antibodies as Research Tools to Study the Structure-Toxicity Relationship of Amyloid-beta Oligomers, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, Vol: 21

Journal article

Faravelli G, Raimondi S, Marchese L, Partridge FA, Soria C, Mangione PP, Canetti D, Perni M, Aprile FA, Zorzoli I, Di Schiavi E, Lomas DA, Bellotti V, Sattelle DB, Giorgetti Set al., 2019, C. elegans expressing D76N β2-microglobulin: a model for in vivo screening of drug candidates targeting amyloidosis., Sci Rep, Vol: 9

The availability of a genetic model organism with which to study key molecular events underlying amyloidogenesis is crucial for elucidating the mechanism of the disease and the exploration of new therapeutic avenues. The natural human variant of β2-microglobulin (D76N β2-m) is associated with a fatal familial form of systemic amyloidosis. Hitherto, no animal model has been available for studying in vivo the pathogenicity of this protein. We have established a transgenic C. elegans line, expressing the human D76N β2-m variant. Using the INVertebrate Automated Phenotyping Platform (INVAPP) and the algorithm Paragon, we were able to detect growth and motility impairment in D76N β2-m expressing worms. We also demonstrated the specificity of the β2-m variant in determining the pathological phenotype by rescuing the wild type phenotype when β2-m expression was inhibited by RNA interference (RNAi). Using this model, we have confirmed the efficacy of doxycycline, an inhibitor of the aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins, in rescuing the phenotype. In future, this C. elegans model, in conjunction with the INVAPP/Paragon system, offers the prospect of high-throughput chemical screening in the search for new drug candidates.

Journal article

Lindstedt PR, Aprile FA, Matos MJ, Perni M, Bertoldo JB, Bernardim B, Peter Q, Jimenez-Oses G, Knowles TPJ, Dobson CM, Corzana F, Vendruscolo M, Bernardes GJLet al., 2019, Enhancement of the Anti-Aggregation Activity of a Molecular Chaperone Using a Rationally Designed Post-Translational Modification, ACS CENTRAL SCIENCE, Vol: 5, Pages: 1417-1424, ISSN: 2374-7943

Journal article

De S, Whiten DR, Ruggeri FS, Hughes C, Rodrigues M, Sideris D, Taylor CG, Aprile FA, Muyldermans S, Knowles TPJ, Vendruscolo M, Bryant C, Blennow K, Skoog I, Kern S, Zetterberg H, Klenerman Det al., 2019, Soluble aggregates present in cerebrospinal fluid change in size and mechanism of toxicity during Alzheimer's disease progression, ACTA NEUROPATHOLOGICA COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2051-5960

Journal article

De S, Wirthensohn DC, Flagmeier P, Hughes C, Aprile FA, Ruggeri FS, Whiten DR, Emin D, Xia Z, Varela JA, Sormanni P, Kundel F, Knowles TPJ, Dobson CM, Bryant C, Vendruscolo M, Klenerman Det al., 2019, Different soluble aggregates of Aβ42 can give rise to cellular toxicity through different mechanisms, Nature Communications, Vol: 10, Pages: 1541-1541, ISSN: 2041-1723

Protein aggregation is a complex process resulting in the formation of heterogeneous mixtures of aggregate populations that are closely linked to neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease. Here, we find that soluble aggregates formed at different stages of the aggregation process of amyloid beta (Aβ42) induce the disruption of lipid bilayers and an inflammatory response to different extents. Further, by using gradient ultracentrifugation assay, we show that the smaller aggregates are those most potent at inducing membrane permeability and most effectively inhibited by antibodies binding to the C-terminal region of Aβ42. By contrast, we find that the larger soluble aggregates are those most effective at causing an inflammatory response in microglia cells and more effectively inhibited by antibodies targeting the N-terminal region of Aβ42. These findings suggest that different toxic mechanisms driven by different soluble aggregated species of Aβ42 may contribute to the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease.

Journal article

Heller GT, Aprile FA, Bonomi M, Camilloni C, De Simone A, Vendruscolo Met al., 2019, Probing Specificity in Disordered Protein Interactions with Small Molecules using Integrative Methods, 63rd Annual Meeting of the Biophysical-Society, Publisher: CELL PRESS, Pages: 180A-180A, ISSN: 0006-3495

Conference paper

Sormanni P, Aprile FA, Vendruscolo M, 2018, Third generation antibody discovery methods: in silico rational design, CHEMICAL SOCIETY REVIEWS, Vol: 47, Pages: 9137-9157, ISSN: 0306-0012

Journal article

Perni M, Casford S, Aprile FA, Nollen EA, Knowles TPJ, Vendruscolo M, Dobson CMet al., 2018, Automated Behavioral Analysis of Large C. elegans Populations Using a Wide Field-of-view Tracking Platform, JOVE-JOURNAL OF VISUALIZED EXPERIMENTS, ISSN: 1940-087X

Journal article

Giorgetti S, Greco C, Tortora P, Aprile FAet al., 2018, Targeting Amyloid Aggregation: An Overview of Strategies and Mechanisms, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, Vol: 19

Journal article

Giorgetti S, Greco C, Tortora P, Aprile FAet al., 2018, Targeting Amyloid Aggregation: An Overview of Strategies and Mechanisms

<jats:p>Amyloids result from the aggregation of several unrelated proteins, due to either specific mutations or promoting intra- or extra-cellular conditions. Structurally, they are rich in intermolecular &amp;beta;-sheets and are the causative agents of several diseases, both neurodegenerative and systemic. It is believed that the most toxic species are small aggregates, referred to as oligomers, rather than the final fibrillar assemblies. Their mechanisms of toxicity are mostly mediated by aberrant interactions with the cell membranes, with resulting derangement of membrane-related functions. Much effort is being put in the search for natural antiamyloid agents, and/or in the development of synthetic molecules. Actually, it is well documented that the prevention of amyloid aggregation results in several cytoprotective effects. Here, we portray the state of the art in the field. Several natural compounds are effective antiamyloid agents, notably tetracyclines and polyphenols. They are generally non-specific, as documented by their partially overlapping mechanisms, and the capability to interfere with the aggregation of several unrelated proteins. Among rationally designed molecules, we mention the prominent examples of &amp;beta;-breakers peptides, whole antibodies and fragments thereof, and the special case of drugs contrasting transthyretin aggregation. In this framework, we stress the pivotal role of the computational approaches. When combined with biophysical methods, in several cases they have helped clarify in detail the protein/drug modes of interaction, which make it plausible that more effective drugs will be developed in the future.</jats:p>

Journal article

Perni M, Flagmeier P, Limbocker R, Cascella R, Aprile FA, Galvagnion C, Heller GT, Meisl G, Chen SW, Kumita JR, Challa PK, Kirkegaard JB, Cohen SIA, Mannini B, Barbut D, Nollen EAA, Cecchi C, Cremades N, Knowles TPJ, Chiti F, Zasloff M, Vendruscolo M, Dobson CMet al., 2018, Multistep Inhibition of alpha-Synuclein Aggregation and Toxicity in Vitro and in Vivo by Trodusquemine, ACS CHEMICAL BIOLOGY, Vol: 13, Pages: 2308-2319, ISSN: 1554-8929

Journal article

Wright MA, Aprile FA, Bellaiche MMJ, Michaels TCT, Muller T, Arosio P, Vendruscolo M, Dobson CM, Knowles TPJet al., 2018, Cooperative Assembly of Hsp70 Subdomain Clusters, BIOCHEMISTRY, Vol: 57, Pages: 3641-3649, ISSN: 0006-2960

Journal article

Bongiovanni MN, Aprile FA, Sormanni P, Vendruscolo Met al., 2018, A Rationally Designed Hsp70 Variant Rescues the Aggregation-Associated Toxicity of Human IAPP in Cultured Pancreatic Islet β-Cells., Int J Mol Sci, Vol: 19

Molecular chaperones are key components of the protein homeostasis system against protein misfolding and aggregation. It has been recently shown that these molecules can be rationally modified to have an enhanced activity against specific amyloidogenic substrates. The resulting molecular chaperone variants can be effective inhibitors of protein aggregation in vitro, thus suggesting that they may provide novel opportunities in biomedical and biotechnological applications. Before such opportunities can be exploited, however, their effects on cell viability should be better characterised. Here, we employ a rational design method to specifically enhance the activity of the 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) against the aggregation of the human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP, also known as amylin). We then show that the Hsp70 variant that we designed (grafted heat shock protein 70 kDa-human islet amyloid polypeptide, GHsp70-hIAPP) is significantly more effective than the wild type in recovering the viability of cultured pancreatic islet &beta;-cells RIN-m5F upon hIAPP aggregation. These results indicate that a full recovery of the toxic effects of hIAPP aggregates on cultured pancreatic cells can be achieved by increasing the specificity and activity of Hsp70 towards hIAPP, thus providing evidence that the strategy presented here provides a possible route for rationally tailoring molecular chaperones for enhancing their effects in a target-dependent manner.

Journal article

Bonanomi M, Roffia V, De Palma A, Lombardi A, Aprile FA, Visentin C, Tortora P, Mauri P, Regonesi MEet al., 2018, The polyglutamine protein ataxin-3 enables normal growth under heat shock conditions in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (vol 7, 2017), SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2045-2322

Journal article

Perni M, Aprile FA, Casford S, Mannini B, Sormanni P, Dobson CM, Vendruscolo Met al., 2017, Delivery of Native Proteins into C-elegans Using a Transduction Protocol Based on Lipid Vesicles, SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2045-2322

Journal article

Bonanomi M, Roffia V, De Palma A, Lombardi A, Aprile FA, Visentin C, Tortora P, Mauri P, Regonesi MEet al., 2017, The polyglutamine protein ataxin-3 enables normal growth under heat shock conditions in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2045-2322

Journal article

Bertoldo JB, Rodrigues T, Dunsmore L, Aprile FA, Marques MC, Rosado LA, Boutureira O, Steinbrecher TB, Sherman W, Corzana F, Terenzi H, Bernardes GJLet al., 2017, A Water-Bridged Cysteine-Cysteine Redox Regulation Mechanism in Bacterial Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, CHEM, Vol: 3, Pages: 665-677, ISSN: 2451-9294

Journal article

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