84 results found
Xiang Y, Wang Y, Xia S, et al., 2021, Charging Load Pattern Extraction for Residential Electric Vehicles: A Training-Free Nonintrusive Method, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS, Vol: 17, Pages: 7028-7039, ISSN: 1551-3203
Zhao P, Gu C, Cao Z, et al., 2021, Data-Driven Multi-Energy Investment and Management Under Earthquakes, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS, Vol: 17, Pages: 6939-6950, ISSN: 1551-3203
Zhao J, Wu Q, Hatziargyriou N, et al., 2021, Decentralized Data-Driven Load Restoration in Coupled Transmission and Distribution System with Wind Power, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol: 36, Pages: 4435-4444, ISSN: 0885-8950
This paper proposes a new decentralized data-driven load restoration (DDLR) scheme for transmission and distribution (TD) systems with high penetration of wind power. Robust DDLR models are constructed in order to handle uncertainties and ensure the feasibility of decentralized schemes. The Wasserstein metric is used to describe the ambiguity sets of probability distributions in order to build the complete DDLR model and realize computationally tractable formulation. A data-driven model-nested analytical target cascading (DATC) algorithm is developed to obtain the final load restoration result by iteratively solving small-scale mathematical models. The proposed DDLR scheme provides load restoration results with adjustable robustness, and performance efficiency is independent from the amount of data. The DDLR scheme makes full use of the available data while respecting information privacy requirements of independent operated systems, and ensures the feasibility of a decentralized load restoration strategy even in the worst-case condition. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated using a small-scale TD system and a large-scale system with the IEEE 118-bus TS and thirty IEEE-33 DSs, showing high computational efficiency and superior restoration performance.
Li H, Qiao Y, Lu Z, et al., 2021, Frequency-Constrained Stochastic Planning towards a High Renewable Target Considering Frequency Response Support from Wind Power, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol: 36, Pages: 4632-4644, ISSN: 0885-8950
The rotational inertia and primary frequency response capabilities of power systems are declining as synchronous generators (SGs) are replaced by inverter-based variable renewable energy (VRE) resources. Therefore, when a high VRE proportion is present, it becomes essential to include frequency security constraints in power system planning. Under this circumstance, the decline in SGs would deteriorate the system frequency response performance; thus, inverter-based resources are supposed to provide frequency response support. This paper presents a frequency-constrained stochastic planning method for high VRE share systems. Frequency response support from wind farms is considered in the planning process for the first time, and the unique characteristics of wind power support are addressed. Specifically, the uncertainty of and variations in wind power support capabilities are modeled from the field-measured data, and the optimal combination of various support schemes can be determined by introducing binary variables with novel linear constraints into the planning process. Moreover, the nonlinear frequency constraints are transformed and embedded in the planning model by the proposed computationally efficient adaptive piecewise linearization method. The planning is formulated as a stochastic optimization model to consider the VRE power uncertainty. Finally, case studies on the IEEE 30-bus system validate the proposed method, with results indicating time savings of 22%. Further, compared with the case that only SGs provide frequency support, the results based on the East China system demonstrate that considering wind power support can improve the VRE share from 49.5% to 79.7%.
Yong P, Zhang N, Hou Q, et al., 2021, Evaluating the Dispatchable Capacity of Base Station Backup Batteries in Distribution Networks, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, Vol: 12, Pages: 3966-3979, ISSN: 1949-3053
Heylen E, Teng F, Strbac G, 2021, Challenges and opportunities of inertia estimation and forecasting in low-inertia power systems, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol: 147, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 1364-0321
Accurate inertia estimates and forecasts are crucial to support the system operation in future low-inertia power systems. A large literature on inertia estimation methods is available. This paper aims to provide an overview and classification of inertia estimation methods. The classification considers the time horizon the methods are applicable to, i.e., offline post mortem, online real time and forecasting methods, and the scope of the inertia estimation, e.g., system-wide, regional, generation, demand, individual resource. The framework presented in this paper facilitates objective comparisons of the performance of newly developed or improved inertia estimation methods with the state-of-the-art methods in their respective time horizon and with their respective scope. Moreover, shortcomings of the existing inertia estimation methods have been identified and suggestions for future work have been made.
Pan G, Gu W, Hu Q, et al., 2021, Cost and low-carbon competitiveness of electrolytic hydrogen in China, ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, ISSN: 1754-5692
Chu Z, Teng F, 2021, Short circuit current constrained UC in the high IBG-penetrated power systems, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol: 36, Pages: 3776-3785, ISSN: 0885-8950
Inverter Based Generators (IBGs) have been increasing significantly in power systems. Due to the demanding thermal rating of Power Electronics (PE), their contribution to the system Short Circuit Current (SCC) is much less than that from the conventional Synchronous Generators (SGs) thus reducing the system strength and posing challenges to system protection and stability. This paper proposes a Unit Commitment (UC) model with SCC constraint in high IBG-penetrated systems to ensure minimum operation cost while maintaining the SCC level at each bus in the system. The SCC from synchronous generators as well as the IBGs are explicitly modeled in the formulation leading to an SCC constraint involving decision-dependent matrix inverse. This highly nonlinear constraint is further reformulated into linear form conservatively. The influence of the SCC constraint on the system operation and its interaction with the frequency regulation are demonstrated through simulations on IEEE 30- and 118-bus systems.
Li P, Chen B, Chu Z, et al., 2021, Estimation of Time-varying Frequency and its Rate of Change in Low-inertia Power Systems
In this paper, a hierarchical estimation scheme is designed to track the frequency and its rate of change of non-stationary power signals. The frequency is retrieved by a kernel-based parameter estimator in the first step. Subsequently, the frequency estimates are injected into a kernel-based numerical differentiator to extract its changing rate. Thanks to the deployed Volterra integral operator and suitably designed kernel-functions, the proposed estimator can achieve very fast convergence speed without compromising the robustness against noise. Therefore, the real-time estimates are able to follow the time-varying frequency and its rate of change with satisfactory accuracy. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method are verified by numerical experiments considering typical practical scenarios under the disturbance of noise. The results of the proposed method are compared with a highly-concerned quadrature phase-locked-loop (QPLL) method.
Tosatto A, Misyris G, Junyent-Ferre A, et al., 2021, Towards optimal coordination between regional groups: HVDC supplementary power control, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Pages: 1-1, ISSN: 0885-8950
With Europe dedicated to limiting climate change and greenhouse gas emissions, large shares of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) are being integrated in the national grids, phasing out conventional generation. The new challenges arising from the energy transition will require a better coordination between neighboring system operators to maintain system security. To this end, this paper studies the benefit of exchanging primary frequency reserves between asynchronous areas using the Supplementary Power Control (SPC) functionality of High-Voltage Direct-Current (HVDC) lines. First, we focus on the derivation of frequency metrics for asynchronous AC systems coupled by HVDC interconnectors. We compare two different control schemes for HVDC converters, which allow for unilateral or bilateral exchanges of reserves between neighboring systems. Second, we formulate frequency constraints and include them in a unit commitment problem to ensure the N-1 security criterion. A data-driven approach is proposed to better represent the frequency nadir constraint by means of cutting hyperplanes. Our results suggest that the exchange of primary reserves through HVDC can reduce up to 10% the cost of reserve procurement while maintaining the system N-1 secure.
Badesa L, Teng F, Strbac G, 2021, Conditions for regional frequency stability in power system scheduling—part I: theory, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Pages: 1-1, ISSN: 0885-8950
This paper considers the phenomenon of distinct regional frequencies recently observed in some power systems. First, a reduced-order mathematical model describing this behaviour is developed. Then, techniques to solve the model are discussed, demonstrating that the post-fault frequency evolution in any given region is equal to the frequency evolution of the Centre Of Inertia plus certain inter-area oscillations. This finding leads to the deduction of conditions for guaranteeing frequency stability in all regions of a power system, a deduction performed using a mixed analytical-numerical approach that combines mathematical analysis with regression methods on simulation samples. The proposed stability conditions are linear inequalities that can be implemented in any optimisation routine allowing the co-optimisation of all existing ancillary services for frequency support: inertia, multi-speed frequency response, load damping and an optimised largest power infeed. This is the first reported mathematical framework with explicit conditions to maintain frequency stability in a power system exhibiting inter-area oscillations in frequency.
Badesa L, Teng F, Strbac G, 2021, Conditions for regional frequency stability in power system scheduling—Part II: application to unit commitment, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, ISSN: 0885-8950
In Part I of this paper we have introduced the closed-form conditions for guaranteeing regional frequency stability in a power system. Here we propose a methodology to represent these conditions in the form of linear constraints and demonstrate their applicability by implementing them in a generation-scheduling model. This model simultaneously optimises energy production and ancillary services for maintaining frequency stability in the event of a generation outage, by solving a frequency-secured Stochastic Unit Commitment (SUC). We consider the Great Britain system, characterised by two regions that create a non-uniform distribution of inertia: England in the South, where most of the load is located, and Scotland in the North, containing significant wind resources. Through several case studies, it is shown that inertia and frequency response cannot be considered as system-wide magnitudes in power systems that exhibit inter-area oscillations in frequency, as their location in a particular region is key to guarantee stability. In addition, securing against a medium-sized loss in the low-inertia region proves to cause significant wind curtailment, which could be alleviated through reinforced transmission corridors. In this context, the proposed constraints allow to find the optimal volume of ancillary services to be procured in each region.
Higgins M, Mayes K, Teng F, 2021, Enhanced cyber-physical security using attack-resistant cyber nodes and event-triggered moving target defence, IET Cyber-Physical Systems: Theory & Applications, Vol: 6, Pages: 12-26, ISSN: 2398-3396
A cyber‐physical authentication strategy to protect power system infrastructure against false data injection (FDI) attacks is outlined. The authors demonstrate that it is feasible to use small, low‐cost, yet highly attack‐resistant security chips as measurement nodes, enhanced with an event‐triggered moving target defence (MTD), to offer effective cyber‐physical security. At the cyber layer, the proposed solution is based on the MULTOS Trust‐Anchor chip, using an authenticated encryption protocol, offering cryptographically protected and chained reports at up to 12/s. The availability of the Trust‐Anchors allows the grid controller to delegate aspects of passive anomaly detection, supporting local as well as central alarms. In this context, a distributed event‐triggered MTD protocol is implemented at the physical layer to complement cyber side enhancement. This protocol applies a distributed anomaly detection scheme based on Holt‐Winters seasonal forecasting in combination with MTD implemented via inductance perturbation. The scheme is shown to be effective at preventing or detecting a wide range of attacks against power system measurement system.
Ge P, Zhu Y, Green TC, et al., 2021, Resilient secondary voltage control of islanded microgrids: an ESKBF-based distributed fast terminal sliding mode control approach, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol: 36, Pages: 1059-1070, ISSN: 0885-8950
This paper proposes a distributed secondary voltage control method based on extended state Kalman-Bucy filter (ESKBF) and fast terminal sliding mode (FTSM) control for the resilient operation of an islanded microgrid (MG) with inverter-based distributed generations (DGs). To tackle the co-existence of multiple uncertainties, a unified modelling framework is proposed to represent the set of different types of disturbances, including parameter perturbation, measurement noise, and immeasurably external variables, by an extended state method. Kalman-Bucy filter is then applied to accurately estimate the state information of the extended DG model. In addition, based on the accurate estimation, a fast terminal sliding mode (FTSM) surface with terminal attractors is designed to maintain the system stability and accelerate the convergence of consensus tracking, which significantly improves the performance of secondary voltage control under both normal and plug-and-play operation. Finally, case studies are conducted in both MATLAB/Simulink and an experimental testbed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Chhachhi S, Teng F, 2021, Market Value of Differentially-Private Smart Meter Data, IEEE-Power-and-Energy-Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT), Publisher: IEEE, ISSN: 2167-9665
Chu Z, Zhang N, Teng F, 2021, Frequency-Constrained Resilient Scheduling of Microgrid: A Distributionally Robust Approach, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, ISSN: 1949-3053
In order to prevent the potential frequency instability due to the high Power Electronics (PE) penetration under an unintentional islanding event, this paper presents a novel microgrid scheduling approach which includes the system frequency dynamics as well as the uncertainty associated with renewable energy resources and load. Synthetic Inertia (SI) control is applied to regulating the active power output of the Inverter-Based Generators (IBGs) to support the postislanding frequency evaluation. The uncertainty associated with the noncritical load shedding is explicitly modeled based on the distributionally robust formulation to ensure resilient operation during islanding events. The resulted frequency constraints are derived analytically and reformulated into Second-Order Cone (SOC) form, which are further incorporated into the microgrid scheduling model, enabling optimal frequency services provision from the micorgrid perspective. With the SOC relaxation of the AC power flow constraints, the overall problem is constructed as a mixed-integer SOC Programming (MISOCP). The effectiveness of the proposed model is demonstrated based on modified IEEE 14-bus system.
Xiang Y, Meng J, Huo D, et al., 2020, Reliability-oriented optimal planning of charging stations in electricity-transportation coupled networks, IET RENEWABLE POWER GENERATION, Vol: 14, Pages: 3690-3698, ISSN: 1752-1416
Yang J, Zhang S, Xiang Y, et al., 2020, LSTM auto-encoder based representative scenario generation method for hybrid hydro-PV power system, IET GENERATION TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION, Vol: 14, Pages: 5935-5943, ISSN: 1751-8687
Luo J, Teng F, Bu S, 2020, Stability-constrained power system scheduling: a review, IEEE Access, Vol: 8, Pages: 219331-219343, ISSN: 2169-3536
Power system scheduling mainly concerns economic optimization issues of the power system, which is also commonly known as the unit commitment (UC) problem. However, improper planning in the generation schedule may pose a negative impact on power system stability. Additionally, the trend of large-scale integration of renewable energy in the future power system brings critical challenges to power system stability. In consequence, it is necessary to integrate the stability constraints into power system scheduling. According to the classic classification of power system stability (i.e. voltage stability, frequency stability, and rotor angle stability), stability constraints can be constructed accordingly to guarantee system stability when solving UC problems, which ensures both the economic efficiency and technical feasibility of the UC solutions. This paper reviews typical stability constraints and how to apply these constraints in solving UC problems. Representative works are summarized to provide a guidance for addressing the stability constrained scheduling problems in the future power system operation.
Zhang Y, Shan Q, Li T, et al., 2020, Energy Dispatch Scheme on Ship Integrated Energy System with Photovoalatic and CHP, Pages: 3339-3344
Maritime industry with huge energy consumption and pollution, has become an urgent problem, which promotes us to consider the ship integrated energy system (IES) . A kind of ship IES has been concerned in this paper, which consists of electrical and heating system. An energy dispatch scheme has been proposed as well, which promotes the coupling efficiency of electrical and heating energy for ships. This paper integrates combined heating and power device (CHPD), energy storage system (ESS), renewable generation device like photovolatic in the energy system (ES) to ensure the eco-friendly sailing. Moreover, a penalty coefficient, relating to the state and outputs of ESS, has been considered in the dispatch scheme which can promote cost function to be more flexible. Through the proposed power dispatch scheme, the heating and electrical power outputs of each generation device during every period of time can be dispatched efficiently. Corresponding objective function with correlation parameters can be solved by dynamic programming (DP). Finally, the simulation illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Badesa L, Teng F, Strbac G, 2020, Optimal portfolio of distinct frequency response services in low-inertia systems, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol: 35, Pages: 4459-4469, ISSN: 0885-8950
A reduced level of system inertia due to renewable integration increases the need for cost-effective provision of ancillary services, such as Frequency Response (FR). In this paper a closed-form solution to the differential equation describing frequency dynamics is proposed, which allows to obtain frequency-security algebraic constraints to be implemented in optimization routines. This is done while considering any finite number of FR services with distinguished characteristics, such as different delivery times and activation delays. The problem defined by these frequency-security constraints can be formulated as a Mixed-Integer Second-Order Cone Program (MISOCP), which can be efficiently handled by off-the-shelf conic optimization solvers. This paper also takes into account the uncertainty in inertia contribution from the demand side by formulating the frequency-security conditions as chance constraints, for which an exact convex reformulation is provided. Finally, case studies highlighting the effectiveness of this frequency-secured formulation are presented.
Bao W, Wu Q, Ding L, et al., 2020, Synthetic inertial control of wind farm with BESS based on model predictive control, IET RENEWABLE POWER GENERATION, Vol: 14, Pages: 2447-2455, ISSN: 1752-1416
Higgins M, Teng F, Parisini T, 2020, Stealthy MTD against unsupervised learning-based blind FDI Attacks in power systems, IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, Vol: 16, Pages: 1275-1287, ISSN: 1556-6013
This paper examines how moving target defenses (MTD) implemented in power systems can be countered by unsupervised learning-based false data injection (FDI) attack and how MTD can be combined with physical watermarking to enhance the system resilience. A novel intelligent attack, which incorporates dimensionality reduction and density-based spatial clustering, is developed and shown to be effective in maintaining stealth in the presence of traditional MTD strategies. In resisting this new type of attack, a novel implementation of MTD combining with physical watermarking is proposed by adding Gaussian watermark into physical plant parameters to drive detection of traditional and intelligent FDI attacks, while remaining hidden to the attackers and limiting the impact on system operation and stability.
Strbac G, Pudjianto D, Aunedi M, et al., 2020, Role and value of flexibility in facilitating cost-effective energy system decarbonisation, Progress in Energy, Vol: 2, Pages: 042001-042001
Ge P, Chen B, Teng F, 2020, Event-triggered distributed model predictive control for resilient voltage control of an islanded microgrid, International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control, Vol: 31, Pages: 1979-2000, ISSN: 1049-8923
This article addresses the problem of distributed secondary voltage control of an islanded microgrid (MG) from a cyber‐physical perspective. An event‐triggered distributed model predictive control (DMPC) scheme is designed to regulate the voltage magnitude of each distributed generators (DGs) in order to achieve a better trade‐off between the control performance and communication and computation burdens. By using two novel event triggering conditions that can be easily embedded into the DMPC for the application of MG control, the computation and communication burdens are significantly reduced with negligible compromise of control performance. In addition, to reduce the sensor cost and to eliminate the negative effects of nonlinearity, an adaptive nonasymptotic observer is utilized to estimate the internal and output signals of each DG. Thanks to the deadbeat observation property, the observer can be applied periodically to cooperate with the DMPC‐based voltage regulator. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed control method has been tested on a simple configuration with four DGs and the modified IEEE‐13 test system through several representative scenarios.
Lee W-J, Strbac G, Hu Z, et al., 2020, Special Issue on Advanced Approaches and Applications for Electric Vehicle Charging Demand Management, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, Vol: 56, Pages: 5682-5683, ISSN: 0093-9994
Ding Z, Teng F, Sarikprueck P, et al., 2020, Technical Review on Advanced Approaches for Electric Vehicle Charging Demand Management, Part II: Applications in Transportation System Coordination and Infrastructure Planning, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, Vol: 56, Pages: 5695-5703, ISSN: 0093-9994
Teng F, Ding Z, Hu Z, et al., 2020, Technical Review on Advanced Approaches for Electric Vehicle Charging Demand Management, Part I: Applications in Electric Power Market and Renewable Energy Integration, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, Vol: 56, Pages: 5684-5694, ISSN: 0093-9994
Li X, Xiang Y, Lyu L, et al., 2020, Price Incentive-Based Charging Navigation Strategy for Electric Vehicles, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, Vol: 56, Pages: 5762-5774, ISSN: 0093-9994
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