4 results found
Alpak FO, Gray F, Saxena N, et al., 2018, A distributed parallel multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method on general-purpose graphics processing units for the rapid and scalable computation of absolute permeability from high-resolution 3D micro-CT images, COMPUTATIONAL GEOSCIENCES, Vol: 22, Pages: 815-832, ISSN: 1420-0597
Gray F, Cen J, Boek ES, 2016, Simulation of dissolution in porous media in three dimensions with lattice Boltzmann, finite-volume, and surface-rescaling methods, Physical Review E - Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics, ISSN: 1063-651X
Gray F, Cen J, Shah SM, et al., 2016, Simulating dispersion in porous media and the influence of segmentation on stagnancy in carbonates, Advances in Water Resources, Vol: 97, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 1872-9657
Understanding the transport of chemical components in porous media is fundamentally important to many reservoir processes such as contaminant transport and reactive flows involved in CO2 sequestration. Carbonate rocks in particular present difficulties for pore-scale simulations because they contain large amounts of sub-micron porosity. In this work, we introduce a new hybrid simulation model to calculate hydrodynamic dispersion in pore-scale images of real porous media and use this to elucidate the origins and behaviour of stagnant zones arising in transport simulations using micro-CT images of carbonates. For this purpose a stochastic particle model for simulating the transport of a solute is coupled to a Lattice-Boltzmann algorithm to calculate the flow field. The particle method incorporates second order spatial and temporal resolution to resolve finer features of the domain. We demonstrate how dispersion coefficients can be accurately obtained in capillaries, where corresponding analytical solutions are available, even when these are resolved to just a few lattice units. Then we compute molecular displacement distributions for pore-spaces of varying complexity: a pack of beads; a Bentheimer sandstone; and a Portland carbonate. Our calculated propagator distributions are compared directly with recent experimental PFG-NMR propagator distributions (Scheven et al., 2005; Mitchell et al., 2008), the latter excluding spin relaxation mechanisms. We observe that the calculated transport propagators can be quantitatively compared with the experimental distribution, provided that spin relaxations in the experiment are excluded, and good agreement is found for both the sandstone and the carbonate. However, due to the absence of explicit micro-porosity from the carbonate pore space image used for flow field simulations we note that there are fundamental differences in the physical origins of the stagnant zones for micro-porous rocks between simulation and experiment. We sh
Shah SMK, Gray F, Crawshaw J, et al., 2015, Micro-computed tomography pore-scale study of flow in porous media: Effect of voxel resolution, Advances in Water Resources, Vol: 95, Pages: 276-287, ISSN: 1872-9657
A fundamental understanding of flow in porous media at the pore-scale is necessary to be able to upscale average displacement processes from core to reservoir scale. The study of fluid flow in porous media at the pore-scale consists of two key procedures: Imaging - reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) pore space images; and modelling such as with single and two-phase flow simulations with Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) or Pore-Network (PN) Modelling. Here we analyse pore-scale results to predict petrophysical properties such as porosity, single-phase permeability and multi-phase properties at different length scales. The fundamental issue is to understand the image resolution dependency of transport properties, in order to up-scale the flow physics from pore to core scale. In this work, we use a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanner to image and reconstruct three dimensional pore-scale images of five sandstones (Bentheimer, Berea, Clashach, Doddington and Stainton) and five complex carbonates (Ketton, Estaillades, Middle Eastern sample 3, Middle Eastern sample 5 and Indiana Limestone 1) at four different voxel resolutions (4.4 µm, 6.2 µm, 8.3 µm and 10.2 µm), scanning the same physical field of view. Implementing three phase segmentation (macro-pore phase, intermediate phase and grain phase) on pore-scale images helps to understand the importance of connected macro-porosity in the fluid flow for the samples studied. We then compute the petrophysical properties for all the samples using PN and LB simulations in order to study the influence of voxel resolution on petrophysical properties. We then introduce a numerical coarsening scheme which is used to coarsen a high voxel resolution image (4.4 µm) to lower resolutions (6.2 µm, 8.3 µm and 10.2 µm) and study the impact of coarsening data on macroscopic and multi-phase properties. Numerical coarsening of high resolution data is found to be superior to us
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