Imperial College London

ProfessorFrankKelly

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Battcock Chair in Community Health and Policy
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 8098 ext 48098frank.kelly Website

 
 
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Location

 

Building E - Sir Michael UrenWhite City Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

511 results found

Naraki H, Keshavarzi B, Zarei M, Moore F, Abbasi S, Kelly FJ, Dominguez AO, Jaafarzadeh Net al., 2021, Urban street dust in the Middle East oldest oil refinery zone: Oxidative potential, source apportionment، and health risk assessment of potentially toxic elements., Chemosphere, Vol: 268

The current study is the intented to investigate the intensity of pollution, source characterization, oxidative potential, and human health risks of fourteen potentially toxic elements in the street dust of the Middle East oldest oil refinery zone. Thirty five street dust samples were collected from various regions in Abadan and Khorramshahr cities. The mean concentration of As, Mo, Cu, Pb, Hg, Zn, Cd, and Sb in Abadan street dust were 5.55, 3.39, 83.68, 49.82, 4493.54, 281.24, 1.15,and 1.17, while in Khorramshahr As, Mo, Cu, Pb, Hg, Zn, Cd, and Sb were.14, 2.58, 74.35, 56.50, 0.74, 214.26, 0.62, and 1.18, respectively. The concentration of these elements in both cities is higher than the local background values. Potential ecological risk index and pollution load index at all stations of both cities are greater than 1, indicating a high pollution load in the study area. Calculated enrichment factor showed high enrichment of Hg, Sb, Cd, Mo, Cu, Pb, and Zn in both areas. Of particular concern is the enrichment factor for mercury which proved to be 3370.54 ppb in the vicinity of the petrochemical unit in Abadan city (EF > 40). The results of positive matrix factorization receptor model together with geochemical maps and multivariate statistics indicated that industrial activities (especially petrochemical industries) are responsible for Hg, Cu, and Zn pollution, while exhaust emissions are responsible for Mo, Pb, Cd, and Sb, and natural sources for Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni. The percentage of OPAA in the region ranged from 15.1 to 26.4 and OPGSH ranged from 9.5 to 24.4. The percentage of OPTOTAL/μg (OPAA/μg + OPGSH/μg) values varied between 0.6 and 1. The health risk evaluation models indicated that specific attention should be paid to Hg, Cd, Pb, and Zn and that the higher oxidative potential of street dust recovered from polluted locations is also a matter of concern in Abadan and Khorramshahr Cities.

Journal article

Zazouli MA, Dehbandi R, Mohammadyan M, Aarabi M, Dominguez AO, Kelly FJ, Khodabakhshloo N, Rahman MM, Naidu Ret al., 2021, Physico-chemical properties and reactive oxygen species generation by respirable coal dust: Implication for human health risk assessment, JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, Vol: 405, ISSN: 0304-3894

Journal article

Han Y, Chatzidiakou L, Yan L, Chen W, Zhang H, Krause A, Xue T, Chan Q, Liu J, Wu Y, Barratt B, Jones RL, Zhu T, Kelly FJet al., 2021, Difference in ambient-personal exposure to PM2.5 and its inflammatory effect in local residents in urban and peri-urban Beijing, China: results of the AIRLESS project, Faraday Discussions, Vol: 226, Pages: 569-583, ISSN: 1359-6640

Measurement of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is often used as a proxy of personal exposure in epidemiological studies. However, the difference between personal and ambient exposure, and whether it biases the estimates of health effects remain unknown. Based on an epidemiological study (AIRLESS) and simultaneously launched intensive monitoring campaigns (APHH), we quantified and compared the personal and ambient exposure to PM2.5 and the related health impact among residents in Beijing, China. In total, 123 urban and 128 peri-urban non-smoking participants were recruited from two well-established cohorts in Beijing. During winter 2016 and summer 2017, each participant was instructed to carry a validated personal air monitor (PAM) to measure PM2.5 concentration at high spatiotemporal resolution for seven consecutive days in each season. Multiple inflammatory biomarkers were measured, including exhaled NO, blood monocytes counts and C-reactive protein. Linear mixed-effect models were used for the associations between exposure and health outcomes with adjustment for confounders. The average level of daily personal exposure to PM2.5 was consistently lower than using corresponding ambient concentration, and the difference is greater during the winter. The personal to ambient (P/A) ratio of exposure to PM2.5 exhibited an exponentially declining trend, and showed larger variations when ambient PM2.5 levels < 25 μg m−3. Personal exposure to PM2.5 was significantly associated with the increase in respiratory and systemic inflammatory biomarkers; however, the associations were weaker or became insignificant when ambient concentrations were used. Exposure to ambient PM2.5 might not be a good proxy to estimate the health effect of exposure to personal PM2.5.

Journal article

Trechera P, Moreno T, Córdoba P, Moreno N, Zhuang X, Li B, Li J, Shangguan Y, Dominguez AO, Kelly F, Querol Xet al., 2021, Comprehensive evaluation of potential coal mine dust emissions in an open-pit coal mine in Northwest China, International Journal of Coal Geology, Vol: 235, ISSN: 0166-5162

Coal mining in China is continually increasing, and the associated emitted coal mine dust is of growing environmental and occupational concern. In this study, deposited coal mine dust (DD) was analysed in three different regions of an active, highly-volatile bituminous open-pit coal mine in the Xingjian Province, Northwest of China: coal working fronts, tailings handling sites, and road traffic sites. Samples were analysed for particle size, and geochemical and mineralogical patterns, and then compared with the respirable DD fractions (RDDs, <4 μm) separated from DD samples. Online measurements of ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (PM and PM ), black carbon (BC) and ultrafine particles (UFP) were performed in the same mine zones where DD was sampled. Furthermore, the RDD samples were subjected to analysis of specific biological response or toxicological indicators (oxidative potential, OP). The results demonstrated: i) large differences in particle size and composition among DD from tailings handling, road traffic and coal working front sites, ii) a strong influence of the DD moisture contents and ash yields on particle size, and, accordingly, on the potential dust emissions, iii) an enrichment of multiple elements (such as Nb, Th, Cr, Sr, Li, As, Pb, Cu, Zr and Ni) in the RDD from coal working fronts compared with their contents in the worked parent coal seams, mostly attributed to mining machinery, tyre and brake wear emissions and to deposition of dust emitted from gangue working zones, iv) low OP values of the RDD emitted from the studied mine, which works a high-quality coal, with OP being influenced by Mn, sulphate and anatase (TiO ) contents, and v) the impact of specific mining operations and mine areas on the levels of air pollutants, such as high PM from tailings handling in the upper parts of the mine or the high UFP levels in the bottom of the mine (due to vehicle and machinery emissions and lower dispersive conditions). The data pr

Journal article

Evangelopoulos D, Chatzidiakou L, Walton H, Katsouyanni K, Kelly FJ, Quint JK, Jones RL, Barratt Bet al., 2021, Personal exposure to air pollution and respiratory health of COPD patients in London, European Respiratory Journal, ISSN: 0903-1936

Previous studies have investigated the effects of air pollution on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients using either fixed site measurements or a limited number of personal measurements, usually for one pollutant and a short time period. These limitations may introduce bias and distort the epidemiological associations as they do not account for all the potential sources or the temporal variability of pollution.We used detailed information on individuals' exposure to various pollutants measured at fine spatio-temporal scale to obtain more reliable effect estimates. A panel of 115 patients was followed up for an average continuous period of 128 days carrying a personal monitor specifically designed for this project that measured temperature, PM10, PM2.5, NO2, NO, CO and O3 at one-minute time resolution. Each patient recorded daily information on respiratory symptoms and measured peak expiratory flow (PEF). A pulmonologist combined related data to define a binary variable denoting an "exacerbation". The exposure-response associations were assessed with mixed-effects models.We found that gaseous pollutants were associated with a deterioration in patients' health. We observed an increase of 16.4% (95% confidence interval: 8.6-24.6%), 9.4% (5.4-13.6%) and 7.6% (3.0-12.4%) in the odds of exacerbation for an interquartile range increase in NO2, NO and CO respectively. Similar results were obtained for cough and sputum. O3 was found to have adverse associations with PEF and breathlessness. No association was observed between particles and any outcome.Our findings suggest that, when considering total personal exposure to air pollutants, mainly the gaseous pollutants affect COPD patients' health.

Journal article

Hicks W, Beevers S, Tremper A, Stewart G, Priestman M, Kelly F, Lanoisellé M, Lowry D, Green Det al., 2021, Quantification of non-exhaust particulate matter traffic emissions and the impact of COVID-19 lockdown at London Marylebone Road, Atmosphere, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-19, ISSN: 2073-4433

This research quantifies current sources of non-exhaust particulate matter traffic emissions in London using simultaneous, highly time-resolved, atmospheric particulate matter mass and chemical composition measurements. The measurement campaign ran at Marylebone Road (roadside) and Honor Oak Park (background) urban monitoring sites over a 12-month period between 1 September 2019 and 31 August 2020. The measurement data has been used to determine the traffic increment (roadside – background) and covers a range of meteorological conditions, seasons and driving styles, as well as the influence of the COVID-19 ‘lockdown’ on non-exhaust concentrations. Non-exhaust PM10 concentrations are calculated using chemical tracer scaling factors for brake wear (barium), tyre wear (zinc) and resuspension (silicon) and as average vehicle fleet non-exhaust emission factors, using a CO2 ‘dilution approach’. The effect of lockdown, which saw a 32% reduction in traffic volume and a 15% increase in average speed on Marylebone Road, resulted in lower PM10 and PM2.5 traffic increments and brake wear concentrations, but similar tyre and resuspension concentrations, confirming that factors that determine non-exhaust emissions are complex. Brake wear was found to be the highest average non-exhaust emission source. In addition, results indicated that non-exhaust emission factors are dependent upon speed and road surface wetness conditions. Further statistical analysis incorporating a wider variability in vehicle mix, speeds and meteorological conditions, as well as advanced source apportionment of the PM measurement data, will be undertaken to enhance our understanding of these important vehicle sources.

Journal article

Han Y, Chen W, Chatzidiakou L, Krause A, Yan L, Zhang H, Chan Q, Barratt B, Jones R, Liu J, Wu Y, Zhao M, Zhang J, Kelly FJ, Zhu Tet al., 2020, Effects of AIR pollution on cardiopuLmonary disEaSe in urban and peri-urban reSidents in Beijing: protocol for the AIRLESS study, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol: 20, Pages: 15775-15792, ISSN: 1680-7316

Beijing, as a representative megacity in China, is experiencing some of the most severe air pollution episodes in the world, and its fast urbanization has led to substantial urban and peri-urban disparities in both health status and air quality. Uncertainties remain regarding the possible causal links between individual air pollutants and health outcomes, with spatial comparative investigations of these links lacking, particularly in developing megacities. In light of this challenge, Effects of AIR pollution on cardiopuLmonary disEaSe in urban and peri-urban reSidents in Beijing (AIRLESS) was initiated, with the aim of addressing the complex issue of relating multi-pollutant exposure to cardiopulmonary outcomes. This paper presents the novel methodological framework employed in the project, namely (1) the deployment of two panel studies from established cohorts in urban and peri-urban Beijing, with different exposure settings regarding pollution levels and diverse sources; (2) the collection of detailed measurements and biomarkers of participants from a nested case (hypertensive) and control (healthy) study setting; (3) the assessment of indoor and personal exposure to multiple gaseous pollutants and particulate matter at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution with validated novel sensor technologies; (4) the assessment of ambient air pollution levels in a large-scale field campaign, particularly the chemical composition of particulate matter. Preliminary results showed that there is a large difference between ambient and personal air pollution levels, and the differences varied between seasons and locations. These large differences were reflected on the different health responses between the two panels.

Journal article

Lee M, Carter E, Yan L, Chan Q, Elliott P, Ezzati M, Kelly F, Schauer J, Wu Y, Yang X, Zhao L, Baumgartner Jet al., 2020, Determinants of personal exposure to PM2.5 and black carbon in Chinese adults: a 1 repeated-measures study in villages using solid fuel energy, Environment International, Vol: 146, ISSN: 0160-4120

Exposure to air pollution is a leading health risk factor. The variance components and contributions of indoor versus outdoor source determinants of personal exposure to air pollution are poorly understood, especially in settings of household solid fuel use. We conducted a panel study with up to 4 days of repeated measures of integrated gravimetric personal exposure to PM2.5 and black carbon in 787 men and women (ages 40-79) living in peri-urban villages in northern (Beijing and Shanxi) and southern (Guangxi) China. We simultaneously measured outdoor PM2.5 and collected questionnaire data on sociodemographic characteristics and indoor pollution sources including tobacco smoking and solid fuel stove use. We obtained over 2000 days of personal exposure monitoring which showed higher exposures in the heating season (geometric mean (GM): 108 versus 65 μg/m3 in the non-heating season for PM2.5) and among northern participants (GM: 90 versus 59 μg/m3 in southern China in the non-heating season for PM2.5). We used mixed-effects models to estimate within- and between-participant variance components and to assess the determinants of exposures. Within-participant variance in exposure dominated the total variability (68-95%). Outdoor PM2.5 was the dominant variable for explaining within-participant variance in exposure to PM2.5 (16%). Household fuel use (PM2.5: 8%; black carbon: 10%) and smoking status (PM2.5: 27%; black carbon: 5%) explained the most between-participant variance. Indoor sources (solid fuel stoves, tobacco smoking) were associated with 13-30% higher exposures to air pollution and each 10 μg/m3 increase in outdoor PM2.5 was associated with 6-8% higher exposure. Our findings indicate that repeated measurements of daily exposure are likely needed to capture longer-term exposures in settings of household solid fuel use, even within a single season, and that reducing air pollution from both outdoor and indoor sources is likely needed to achieve measurable

Journal article

Zitouni K, Steyn MRCP, Lyka E, Kelly FJ, Cook P, Ster IC, Earle KAet al., 2020, Derepression of glomerular filtration, renal blood flow and antioxidant defence in patients with type 2 diabetes at high-risk of cardiorenal disease, FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, Vol: 161, Pages: 283-289, ISSN: 0891-5849

Journal article

Trechera P, Moreno T, Córdoba P, Moreno N, Zhuang X, Li B, Li J, Shangguan Y, Kandler K, Dominguez AO, Kelly F, Querol Xet al., 2020, Mineralogy, geochemistry and toxicity of size-segregated respirable deposited dust in underground coal mines., J Hazard Mater, Vol: 399

We focus on a comparison of the geochemistry and mineralogy patterns found in coal, deposited dust (DD), respirable deposited dust (RDD) and inhalable suspended dust (PM10) from a number of underground mines located in China, with an emphasis on potential occupational health relevance. After obtaining the RDD from DD, a toxicological analysis (oxidative potential, OP) was carried out and compared with their geochemical patterns. The results demonstrate: i) a dependence of RDD/DD on the moisture content for high rank coals that does not exist for low rank coals; ii) RDD enrichment in a number of minerals and/or elements related to the parent coal, the wear on mining machinery, lime gunited walls and acid mine drainage; and iii) the geochemical patterns of RDD obtained from DD can be compared with PM10 with relatively good agreement, demonstrating that the characterization of DD and RDD can be used as a proxy to help evaluate the geochemical patterns of suspended PM10. With regards to the toxicological properties of RDD, the Fe content and other by-products of pyrite oxidation, as well as that of anatase, along with Si, Mn and Ba, and particle size (among others), were highly correlated with Ascorbic Acid and/or Glutathione OP.

Journal article

Kelly FJ, Mudway IS, Fussell JC, 2020, Air pollution and asthma: critical targets for effective action, Pulmonary Therapy, ISSN: 2364-1746

Evidence to advocate for cleaner air for people with asthma is not in short supply. We know that air pollution is associated with the development and worsening of the condition and that mitigating interventions can improve respiratory outcomes. We have clear targets, particularly traffic emissions, especially in urban areas, and plenty of potentially effective actions. Road traffic must be reduced, and what remains should be cleaner and greener. Urban green spaces, safe cycle networks and wider pavements will promote active travel and leisure time exercise. Healthcare professionals must ensure people are aware of their air quality, its impact on asthma and the appropriate behaviour to safeguard health. What remains are realistic policies and effective measures, based on the correct scientific evidence, to be taken forth with political courage and investment so that air pollution no longer contributes to the development or worsening of respiratory ill health.

Journal article

Evangelopoulos D, Perez-Velasco R, Walton H, Gumy S, Williams M, Kelly FJ, Künzli Net al., 2020, The role of burden of disease assessment in tracking progress towards achieving WHO global air quality guidelines, International Journal of Public Health, Vol: 65, Pages: 1455-1465, ISSN: 0303-8408

OBJECTIVES: More than 90% of the global population live in areas exceeding the PM2.5 air quality guidelines (AQGs). We provide an overview of the ambient PM2.5-related burden of disease (BoD) studies along with scenario analysis in the framework of the WHO AQG update on the estimated reduction in the BoD if AQGs were achieved globally. METHODS: We reviewed the literature for large-scale studies for the BoD attributed to ambient PM2.5. Moreover, we used the latest WHO statistics to calculate the BoD at current levels and the scenarios of aligning with interim targets and AQG levels. RESULTS: The most recent BoD studies (2010 onwards) share a similar methodology, but there are differences in the input data which affect the estimates for attributable deaths (2.9-8.9 million deaths annually). Moreover, we found that if AQGs were achieved, the estimated BoD would be reduced by up to 50% in total deaths worldwide. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the BoD across countries, especially in those that do not align with the AQGs, is essential in order to inform actions to reduce air pollution globally.

Journal article

Hoffmann B, Roebbel N, Gumy S, Forastiere F, Brunekreef B, Jarosinska D, Walker KD, van Erp AM, O'Keefe R, Greenbaum D, Williams M, Krzyzanowski M, Kelly FJ, Brauer M, Bruyninckx H, Boogaard Het al., 2020, Air pollution and health recent advances in air pollution epidemiology to inform the European Green Deal: a joint workshop report of ERS, WHO, ISEE and HEI, EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 56, ISSN: 0903-1936

Journal article

Kelly F, Fussell J, 2020, Toxicity of airborne particles – established evidence, knowledge gaps and emerging areas of importance, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol: 378, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 1364-503X

Epidemiological research has taught us a great deal about the health effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) particularly, cardiorespiratory effects of combustion-related particles. This has been matched by toxicological research to define underlying mechanistic pathways.To keep abreast of the substantial challenges that air pollution continues to throw at us, requires yet more strides to be achieved. For example, being aware of the most toxic components/sources and having a definitive idea of the range of associated disease outcomes. This review discusses approaches designed to close some of these knowledge gaps. These include a focus on particles arising from non-exhaust PM at the roadside and microplastics – both of which are becoming more relevant in the light of a shift in PM composition in response to global pressure to reduce combustion emissions. The application of hypothesis-free approaches in both mechanistic studies and epidemiology in unveiling unexpected relationships and generating novel insights is also discussed. Previous work, strengthening the evidence for both the adverse effects and benefits of intervention tell us that the sooner we act to close knowledge gaps, increase awareness and develop creative solutions, the sooner we can reduce the public health burden attributable to these complex and insidious environmental pollutants.

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Kelly FJ, 2020, Our change of Co-Editor-in-Chief and why the journal's future is bright, AIR QUALITY ATMOSPHERE AND HEALTH, Vol: 13, Pages: 1147-1147, ISSN: 1873-9318

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Chatzidiakou L, Krause A, Han Y, Chen W, Yan L, Popoola OAM, Kellaway M, Wu Y, Liu J, Hu M, Barratt B, Kelly FJ, Zhu T, Jones RLet al., 2020, Using low-cost sensor technologies and advanced computational methods to improve dose estimations in health panel studies: results of the AIRLESS project, Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, Vol: 30, Pages: 981-989, ISSN: 1559-0631

BackgroundAir pollution epidemiology has primarily relied on fixed outdoor air quality monitoring networks and static populations.MethodsTaking advantage of recent advancements in sensor technologies and computational techniques, this paper presents a novel methodological approach that improves dose estimations of multiple air pollutants in large-scale health studies. We show the results of an intensive field campaign that measured personal exposures to gaseous pollutants and particulate matter of a health panel of 251 participants residing in urban and peri-urban Beijing with 60 personal air quality monitors (PAMs). Outdoor air pollution measurements were collected in monitoring stations close to the participants’ residential addresses. Based on parameters collected with the PAMs, we developed an advanced computational model that automatically classified time-activity-location patterns of each individual during daily life at high spatial and temporal resolution.ResultsApplying this methodological approach in two established cohorts, we found substantial differences between doses estimated from outdoor and personal air quality measurements. The PAM measurements also significantly reduced the correlation between pollutant species often observed in static outdoor measurements, reducing confounding effects.ConclusionsFuture work will utilise these improved dose estimations to investigate the underlying mechanisms of air pollution on cardio-pulmonary health outcomes using detailed medical biomarkers in a way that has not been possible before.

Journal article

Levermore JM, Smith TEL, Kelly FJ, Wright SLet al., 2020, Detection of microplastics in ambient particulate matter using Raman spectral imaging and chemometric analysis, Analytical Chemistry, Vol: 92, Pages: 8732-8740, ISSN: 0003-2700

Microplastics have been observed in indoor and outdoor air. This raises concern for human exposure, especially should they occur in small enough sizes, which if inhaled, reach the central airway and distal lung. As yet, methods for their detection have not spectroscopically verified the chemical composition of microplastics in this size-range. One proposed method is an automated spectroscopic technique, Raman spectral imaging; however, this generates large and complex data sets. This study aims to optimize Raman spectral imaging for the identification of microplastics (≥2 μm) in ambient particulate matter, using different chemometric techniques. We show that Raman spectral images analyzed using chemometric statistical approaches are appropriate for the identification of both virgin and environmental microplastics ≥2 μm in size. On the basis of the sensitivity, we recommend using the developed Pearson’s correlation and agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis for the identification of microplastics in spectral data sets. Finally, we show their applicability by identifying airborne microplastics >4.7 μm in an outdoor particulate matter sample obtained at an urban sampling site in London, United Kingdom. This semiquantitative method will enable the procurement of exposure concentrations of airborne microplastics guiding future toxicological assessments.

Journal article

Kelly FJ, Fussell JC, 2020, Global nature of airborne particle toxicity and health effects: a focus on megacities, wildfires, dust storms and residential biomass burning, Toxicology research, Vol: 9, Pages: 331-345, ISSN: 2045-452X

Since air pollutants are difficult and expensive to control, a strong scientific underpinning to policies is needed to guide mitigation aimed at reducing the current burden on public health. Much of the evidence concerning hazard identification and risk quantification related to air pollution comes from epidemiological studies. This must be reinforced with mechanistic confirmation to infer causality. In this review we focus on data generated from four contrasting sources of particulate air pollution that result in high population exposures and thus where there remains an unmet need to protect health: urban air pollution in developing megacities, household biomass combustion, wildfires and desert dust storms. Taking each in turn, appropriate measures to protect populations will involve advocating smart cities and addressing economic and behavioural barriers to sustained adoption of clean stoves and fuels. Like all natural hazards, wildfires and dust storms are a feature of the landscape that cannot be removed. However, many efforts from emission containment (land/fire management practices), exposure avoidance and identifying susceptible populations can be taken to prepare for air pollution episodes and ensure people are out of harm’s way when conditions are life-threatening. Communities residing in areas affected by unhealthy concentrations of any airborne particles will benefit from optimum communication via public awareness campaigns, designed to empower people to modify behaviour in a way that improves their health as well as the quality of the air they breathe.

Journal article

Chng KR, Li C, Bertrand D, Ng AHQ, Kwah JS, Low HM, Tong C, Natrajan M, Zhang MH, Xu L, Ko KKK, Ho EXP, Av-Shalom TV, Teo JWP, Khor CC, MetaSUB Consortium, Chen SL, Mason CE, Ng OT, Marimuthu K, Ang B, Nagarajan Net al., 2020, Cartography of opportunistic pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes in a tertiary hospital environment., Nat Med, Vol: 26, Pages: 941-951

Although disinfection is key to infection control, the colonization patterns and resistomes of hospital-environment microbes remain underexplored. We report the first extensive genomic characterization of microbiomes, pathogens and antibiotic resistance cassettes in a tertiary-care hospital, from repeated sampling (up to 1.5 years apart) of 179 sites associated with 45 beds. Deep shotgun metagenomics unveiled distinct ecological niches of microbes and antibiotic resistance genes characterized by biofilm-forming and human-microbiome-influenced environments with corresponding patterns of spatiotemporal divergence. Quasi-metagenomics with nanopore sequencing provided thousands of high-contiguity genomes, phage and plasmid sequences (>60% novel), enabling characterization of resistome and mobilome diversity and dynamic architectures in hospital environments. Phylogenetics identified multidrug-resistant strains as being widely distributed and stably colonizing across sites. Comparisons with clinical isolates indicated that such microbes can persist in hospitals for extended periods (>8 years), to opportunistically infect patients. These findings highlight the importance of characterizing antibiotic resistance reservoirs in hospitals and establish the feasibility of systematic surveys to target resources for preventing infections.

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Mudway IS, Holgate S, Forman HJ, Kelly FJet al., 2020, Air pollution: Consequences for cellular redox signaling, antioxidant defenses and disease, FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, Vol: 151, Pages: 1-1, ISSN: 0891-5849

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Mudway IS, Kelly FJ, Holgate ST, 2020, Oxidative stress in air pollution research, FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, Vol: 151, Pages: 2-6, ISSN: 0891-5849

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Fussell JC, Kelly FJ, 2020, Oxidative contribution of air pollution to extrinsic skin ageing, Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Vol: 151, Pages: 111-122, ISSN: 0891-5849

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Yan L, Carter E, Fu Y, Guo D, Huang P, Xie G, Xie W, Zhu Y, Kelly F, Elliott P, Zhao L, Yang X, Ezzati M, Wu Y, Baumgartner J, Chan Qet al., 2020, Study protocol: The INTERMAP China Prospective (ICP) study, Wellcome Open Research, Vol: 4, Pages: 154-154

<ns6:p><ns6:bold>Background:</ns6:bold> Unfavourable blood pressure (BP) level is an established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), while the exact underlying reasons for unfavourable BP are poorly understood.  The INTERMAP China Prospective (ICP) Study is a prospective cohort to investigate the relationship of environmental and nutritional risk factors with key indicators of vascular function (BP, arterial stiffness, carotid-intima media thickness) among middle-aged/older men and women.</ns6:p><ns6:p> <ns6:bold>Methods:</ns6:bold> A total of 839 Chinese participants aged 40-59 years from three diverse regions of China were enrolled in INTERMAP in 1997/98; data collection included repeated BP measurements, 24-hour urine specimens, and 24-hour dietary recalls.  In 2015/16, 574 of these 839 persons were re-enrolled along with 208 new participants aged 40-59 years that were randomly selected from the same study villages.  Participant’s environmental and dietary exposures and health outcomes were assessed in this open cohort study, including BP, 24-hour dietary recalls, personal exposures to air pollution, grip strength, arterial stiffness, carotid-media thickness and plaques, cognitive function, and sleep patterns.  Serum and plasma specimens were collected with 24-hour urine specimens. A follow-up visit has been scheduled for 2020-2021.</ns6:p><ns6:p> <ns6:bold>Discussion:</ns6:bold>  Winter and summer assessments of a comprehensive set of vascular indicators and their environmental and nutritional risk factors were conducted with high precision.  We will leverage advances in exposome research to identify biomarkers of exposure to environmental and nutritional risk factors and improve our understanding of the mechanisms and pathways of their hazardous cardiovascular effects.  The ICP Study is observational by design, thus

Journal article

Abbasi S, Keshavarzi B, Moore F, Hopke PK, Kelly FJ, Dominguez AOet al., 2020, Elemental and magnetic analyses, source identification, and oxidative potential of airborne, passive, and street dust particles in Asaluyeh County, Iran, Science of the Total Environment, Vol: 707, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 0048-9697

One of the most important environmental issues in arid and semi-arid regions is deposition of dust particles. In this study, airborne, passive, and street dust samples were collected in Asaluyeh County, in August 2017, September 2017, and February 2018. The PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations for the sampling period ranged between 19.7 and 76.0 mug/m(3) and 47.16-348 mug/m(3) with an average of 46.4 mug/m(3) and 143 mug/m(3), respectively. Monthly dust deposition rates ranged from 5.2 to 26.1 g/m(2) with an average of 17.85 g/m(2). Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) applied to the dust compositional data indicated that Sb, Zn, Pb, Mo, Cu, and As come from anthropogenic sources while Al, Fe, Ti, Mn, Ni, Cr, and Co originate mostly from geogenic sources. The PMF results indicated that the geogenic material was the major source of passive and airborne dust samples. Elemental compositions were similar for passive dust and local surface soil. Frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (chiIf and chifd%) showed that the local soil is entisol. Isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM-100mT/IRM1T) versus saturation IRM (SIRM) demonstrated that the background sample contains ferrimagnetic minerals, but with increasing SIRM, the concentration of soft magnetic magnetite-like phases increases and the magnetic particles are larger. Mrs./Ms. versus Bcr/Bc indicated that the magnetic particles sizes were probably between 120 and 1000 nm. Eu values and the mean Eu/Eu* and La/Al values clearly show that the airborne dust is most affected by oil industries, while passive dust samples primarily originated from local surface soils. These assumptions were confirmed by Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model results. The samples display a moderate level of oxidation towards ascorbic acid (OPAA) and glutathione (OPGSH). Regarding the passive and airborne dust samples, backward Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) modeling results display a significant positive

Journal article

Annesi-Maesano I, Forastiere F, Balmes J, Garcia E, Harkema J, Holgate S, Kelly F, Khreis H, Hoffmann B, Maesano CN, McConnell R, Peden D, Pinkerton K, Schikowski T, Thurston G, Van Winkle LS, Carlsten Cet al., 2020, The clear and persistent impact of air pollution on chronic respiratory diseases: a call for interventions, EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 57, ISSN: 0903-1936

Journal article

Wright SL, Ulke J, Font A, Chan KLA, Kelly FJet al., 2020, Atmospheric microplastic deposition in an urban environment and an evaluation of transport, Environment International, Vol: 136, Pages: 105411-105411, ISSN: 0160-4120

Journal article

Rivas I, Beddows DCS, Amato F, Green DC, Järvi L, Hueglin C, Reche C, Timonen H, Fuller GW, Niemi JV, Pérez N, Aurela M, Hopke PK, Alastuey A, Kulmala M, Harrison RM, Querol X, Kelly FJet al., 2020, Source apportionment of particle number size distribution in urban background and traffic stations in four European cities, Environment International, Vol: 135, Pages: 105345-105345, ISSN: 0160-4120

Journal article

Smith RB, Beevers SD, Gulliver J, Dajnak D, Fecht D, Blangiardo M, Douglass M, Hansell AL, Anderson HR, Kelly FJ, Toledano MBet al., 2020, Impacts of air pollution and noise on risk of preterm birth and stillbirth in London, ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 134, ISSN: 0160-4120

Journal article

Carter E, Yan L, Fu Y, Robinson B, Kelly F, Elliott P, Wu Y, Zhao L, Ezzati M, Yang X, Chan Q, Baumgartner Jet al., 2020, Household transitions to clean energy in a multi-provincial cohort study in China, Nature Sustainability, Vol: 3, Pages: 42-50, ISSN: 2398-9629

Household solid fuel (biomass, coal) burning contributes to climate change and is a leading health risk factor. How and why households stop using solid fuel stoves after adopting clean fuels has not been studied. We assessed trends in the uptake, use, and suspension of household stoves and fuels in a multi-provincial cohort study of 753 Chinese adults and evaluated determinants of clean fuel uptake and solid fuel suspension. Over one-third (35%) and one-fifth (17%) of participants suspended use of solid fuel for cooking and heating, respectively, during the past 20 years. Determinants of solid fuel suspension (younger age, widowed) and of earlier suspension (younger age, higher education, and poor self-reported health status) differed from the determinants of clean fuel uptake (younger age, higher income, smaller households, and retired) and of earlier adoption (higher income). Clean fuel adoption and solid fuel suspension warrant joint consideration as indicators of household energy transition. Household energy research and planning efforts that more closely examine solid fuel suspension may accelerate household energy transitions that benefit climate and human health.

Journal article

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