Imperial College London

Professor George K. Christophides

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Life Sciences

Professor of Infectious Diseases & Immunity



+44 (0)20 7594 5342g.christophides




6167Sir Alexander Fleming BuildingSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Lombardo, F and Christophides, GK},
doi = {10.1186/s13071-016-1359-y},
journal = {Parasites & Vectors},
title = {Novel factors of Anopheles gambiae haemocyte immune response to Plasmodium berghei infection},
url = {},
volume = {9},
year = {2016}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - BackgroundInsect haemocytes mediate cellular immune responses (e.g., phagocytosis) and contribute to the synthesis of humoral immune factors. In previous work, a genome-wide molecular characterization of Anopheles gambiae circulating haemocytes was followed by functional gene characterization using cell-based RNAi screens. Assays were carried out to investigate the role of selected haemocyte-specific or enriched genes in phagocytosis of bacterial bio-particles, expression of the antimicrobial peptide cecropin1, and basal and induced expression of the mosquito complement factor LRIM1 (leucine-rich repeat immune gene I).FindingsHere we studied the impact of a subset of genes (37 candidates) from the haemocyte-specific dsRNA collection on the development of Plasmodium in the mosquito by in vivo gene silencing. Our screening identifies 10 novel factors with a role in the mosquito response to Plasmodium. Analysis of in vivo screening phenotypes reveals a significant anti-correlation between the prevalence of oocysts and melanised ookinetes.ConclusionsAmong novel immune genes are putative pattern recognition proteins (leucine-rich repeat, fibrinogen-domain and R-type lectins), immune modulation and signalling proteins (LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha factor, LITAF and CLIP proteases), and components of extracellular matrix such as laminin and collagen. Additional identified proteins such as the storage protein hexamerin and vesicular-type ATPase (V-ATPase) are associated for the first time with the mosquito response against Plasmodium.
AU - Lombardo,F
AU - Christophides,GK
DO - 10.1186/s13071-016-1359-y
PY - 2016///
SN - 1756-3305
TI - Novel factors of Anopheles gambiae haemocyte immune response to Plasmodium berghei infection
T2 - Parasites & Vectors
UR -
UR -
VL - 9
ER -