140 results found
Amos B, Aurrecoechea C, Barba M, et al., 2022, VEuPathDB: the eukaryotic pathogen, vector and host bioinformatics resource center, NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH, Vol: 50, Pages: D898-D911, ISSN: 0305-1048
Paz S, Majeed A, Christophides GK, 2021, Climate change impacts on infectious diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East (EMME)-risks and recommendations, Climatic Change: an interdisciplinary, international journal devoted to the description, causes and implications of climatic change, Vol: 169, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 0165-0009
The Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East (EMME) region has rapid population growth, large differences in socio-economic levels between developed and developing countries, migration, increased water demand, and ecosystems degradation. The region is experiencing a significant warming trend with longer and warmer summers, increased frequency and severity of heat waves, and a drier climate. While climate change plays an important role in contributing to political instability in the region through displacement of people, food insecurity, and increased violence, it also increases the risks of vector-, water-, and food-borne diseases. Poorer and less educated people, young children and the elderly, migrants, and those with long-term health problems are at highest risk. A result of the inequalities among EMME countries is an inconsistency in the availability of reliable evidence about the impacts on infectious diseases. To help address this gap, a search of the literature was conducted as a basis for related recommended responses and suggested actions for preparedness and prevention. Since climate change already impacts the health of vulnerable populations in the EMME and will have a greater impact in future years, risk assessment and timely design and implementation of health preparedness and adaptation strategies are essential. Joint national and cross-border infectious diseases management systems for more effective preparedness and prevention are needed, supported by interventions that improve the environment. Without such cooperation and effective interventions, climate change will lead to an increasing morbidity and mortality in the EMME from infectious diseases, with a higher risk for the most vulnerable populations.
Little TS, Cunningham DA, Vandomme A, et al., 2021, Analysis of pir gene expression across the Plasmodium life cycle, MALARIA JOURNAL, Vol: 20
Tapanelli S, Inghilterra MG, Cai J, et al., 2021, Assessment of <i>Plasmodium falciparum</i> infection and fitness of genetically modified <i>Anopheles gambiae</i> aimed at mosquito population replacement
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes expressing anti-plasmodial effectors propagating through wild mosquito populations by means of gene drive is a promising tool to support current malaria control strategies. The process of generating GM mosquitoes involves genetic transformation of mosquitoes from a laboratory colony and, often, interbreeding with other GM lines to cross in auxiliary traits. These mosquito colonies and GM lines thus often have different genetic backgrounds and GM lines are invariably highly inbred, which in conjunction with their independent rearing in the laboratory may translate to differences in their susceptibility to malaria parasite infection and life history traits. Here, we show that laboratory <jats:italic>Anopheles gambiae</jats:italic> colonies and GM lines expressing Cas9 and Cre recombinase vary greatly in their susceptibility to <jats:italic>Plasmodium falciparum</jats:italic> NF54 infection. Therefore, the choice of mosquitoes to be used as a reference when conducting infection or life history trait assays requires careful consideration. To address these issues, we established an experimental pipeline involving genetic crosses and genotyping of mosquitoes reared in shared containers throughout their lifecycle. We used this protocol to examine whether GM lines expressing the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) Scorpine in the mosquito midgut interfere with parasite infection and mosquito survival. We demonstrate that Scorpine expression in the Peritrophin 1 (Aper1) genomic locus reduces both <jats:italic>P</jats:italic>. <jats:italic>falciparum</jats:italic> sporozoite prevalence and mosquito lifespan; both these phenotypes are likely to be associated with the disturbance of the midgut microbiota homeostasis. These data lead us to conclude that the Aper1-Sco GM line could be used in proof-of-concept experiments aimed at mosquito populat
Campos M, Willis K, Rona LDP, et al., 2021, Unravelling population structure heterogeneity within the genome of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, BMC Genomics, Vol: 22, ISSN: 1471-2164
Background:Whole genome re-sequencing provides powerful data for population genomic studies, allowing robust inferences of population structure, gene flow and evolutionary history. For the major malaria vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae, other genetic aspects such as selection and adaptation are also important. In the present study, we explore population genetic variation from genome-wide sequencing of 765 An. gambiae and An. coluzzii specimens collected from across Africa. We used t-SNE, a recently popularized dimensionality reduction method, to create a 2D-map of An. gambiae and An. coluzzii genes that reflect their population structure similarities.Results:The map allows intuitive navigation among genes distributed throughout the so-called “mainland” and numerous surrounding “island-like” gene clusters. These gene clusters of various sizes correspond predominantly to low recombination genomic regions such as inversions and centromeres, and also to recent selective sweeps. Because this mosquito species complex has been studied extensively, we were able to support our interpretations with previously published findings. Several novel observations and hypotheses are also made, including selective sweeps and a multi-locus selection event in Guinea-Bissau, a known intense hybridization zone between An. gambiae and An. coluzzii.Conclusions:Our results present a rich dataset that could be utilized in functional investigations aiming to shed light onto An. gambiae s.l genome evolution and eventual speciation. In addition, the methodology presented here can be used to further characterize other species not so well studied as An. gambiae, shortening the time required to progress from field sampling to the identification of genes and genomic regions under unique evolutionary processes.
Ferdous Z, Fuchs S, Behrends V, et al., 2021, Anopheles coluzziistearoyl-CoA desaturase is essential for adult female survival and reproduction upon blood feeding, PLoS Pathogens, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1553-7366
Vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation require anautogenous female Anopheles mosquitoes to obtain a bloodmeal from a vertebrate host. The bloodmeal is rich in proteins that are readily broken down into amino acids in the midgut lumen and absorbed by the midgut epithelial cells where they are converted into lipids and then transported to other tissues including ovaries. The stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) plays a pivotal role in this process by converting saturated (SFAs) to unsaturated (UFAs) fatty acids; the latter being essential for maintaining cell membrane fluidity amongst other housekeeping functions. Here, we report the functional and phenotypic characterization of SCD1 in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles coluzzii. We show that RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of SCD1 and administration of sterculic acid (SA), a small molecule inhibitor of SCD1, significantly impact on the survival and reproduction of female mosquitoes following blood feeding. Microscopic observations reveal that the mosquito thorax is quickly filled with blood, a phenomenon likely caused by the collapse of midgut epithelial cell membranes, and that epithelial cells are depleted of lipid droplets and oocytes fail to mature. Transcriptional profiling shows that genes involved in protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and immunity-related genes are the most affected by SCD1 knock down (KD) in blood-fed mosquitoes. Metabolic profiling reveals that these mosquitoes exhibit increased amounts of saturated fatty acids and TCA cycle intermediates, highlighting the biochemical framework by which the SCD1 KD phenotype manifests as a result of a detrimental metabolic syndrome. Accumulation of SFAs is also the likely cause of the potent immune response observed in the absence of infection, which resembles an auto-inflammatory condition. These data provide insights into mosquito bloodmeal metabolism and lipid homeostasis and could inform efforts to develop novel interventions against mosquito-borne
Hoermann A, Tapanelli S, Capriotti P, et al., 2021, Converting endogenous genes of the malaria mosquito into simple non-autonomous gene drives for pope ion replacement, eLife, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-22, ISSN: 2050-084X
Gene drives for mosquito population replacement are promising tools for malaria control. However, there is currently no clear pathway for safely testing such tools in endemic countries. The lack of well-characterized promoters for infection-relevant tissues and regulatory hurdles are further obstacles for their design and use. Here we explore how minimal genetic modifications of endogenous mosquito genes can convert them directly into non-autonomous gene drives without disrupting their expression. We co-opted the native regulatory sequences of three midgut-specific loci of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to host a prototypical antimalarial molecule and guide-RNAs encoded within artificial introns that support efficient gene drive. We assess the propensity of these modifications to interfere with the development of Plasmodium falciparum and their effect on fitness. Because of their inherent simplicity and passive mode of drive such traits could form part of an acceptable testing pathway of gene drives for malaria eradication.
Eba K, Habtewold T, Yewhalaw D, et al., 2021, Anopheles arabiensis hotspots along intermittent rivers drive malaria dynamics in semi-arid areas of Central Ethiopia, Malaria Journal, Vol: 20, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 1475-2875
BackgroundUnderstanding malaria vector’s population dynamics and their spatial distribution is important to define when and where the largest infection risks occur and implement appropriate control strategies. In this study, the seasonal spatio-temporal dynamics of the malaria vector population and transmission intensity along intermittent rivers in a semi-arid area of central Ethiopia were investigated.MethodsMosquitoes were collected monthly from five clusters, 2 close to a river and 3 away from a river, using pyrethrum spray catches from November 2014 to July 2016. Mosquito abundance was analysed by the mixed Poisson regression model. The human blood index and sporozoite rate was compared between seasons by a logistic regression model.ResultsA total of 2784 adult female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) were collected during the data collection period. All tested mosquitoes (n = 696) were identified as Anopheles arabiensis by polymerase chain reaction. The average daily household count was significantly higher (P = 0.037) in the clusters close to the river at 5.35 (95% CI 2.41–11.85) compared to the clusters away from the river at 0.033 (95% CI 0.02–0.05). Comparing the effect of vicinity of the river by season, a significant effect of closeness to the river was found during the dry season (P = 0.027) and transition from dry to wet season (P = 0.032). Overall, An. arabiensis had higher bovine blood index (62.8%) as compared to human blood index (23.8%), ovine blood index (9.2%) and canine blood index (0.1%). The overall sporozoite rate was 3.9% and 0% for clusters close to and away from the river, respectively. The overall Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax entomologic inoculation rates for An. arabiensis in clusters close to the river were 0.8 and 2.2 infective bites per person/year, respectively.ConclusionMosquito abundance and malaria transmission intensity in clusters close to
Ukegbu CV, Christophides GK, Vlachou D, 2021, Identification of three novel plasmodium factors involved in ookinete to oocyst developmental transition, Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 2235-2988
Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a major cause of global morbidity and mortality, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. The numbers of new malaria cases and deaths have been stable in the last years despite intense efforts for disease elimination, highlighting the need for new approaches to stop disease transmission. Further understanding of the parasite transmission biology could provide a framework for the development of such approaches. We phenotypically and functionally characterized three novel genes, PIMMS01, PIMMS57, and PIMMS22, using targeted disruption of their orthologs in the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei. PIMMS01 and PIMMS57 are specifically and highly expressed in ookinetes, while PIMMS22 transcription starts already in gametocytes and peaks in sporozoites. All three genes show strong phenotypes associated with the ookinete to oocyst transition, as their disruption leads to very low numbers of oocysts and complete abolishment of transmission. PIMMS22 has a secondary essential function in the oocyst. Our results enrich the molecular understanding of the parasite-vector interactions and identify PIMMS01, PIMMS57, and PIMMS22 as new targets of transmission blocking interventions.
Habtewold T, Sharma A, Wyer C, et al., 2021, Plasmodium oocysts respond with dormancy to crowding and nutritional stress, Scientific Reports, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2045-2322
Malaria parasites develop as oocysts in the mosquito for several days before they are able to infect a human host. During this time, mosquitoes take bloodmeals to replenish their nutrient and energy reserves needed for flight and reproduction. We hypothesized that these bloodmeals are critical for oocyst growth and that experimental infection protocols, typically involving a single bloodmeal at the time of infection, cause nutritional stress to the developing oocysts. Therefore, enumerating oocysts disregarding their growth and differentiation state may lead to erroneous conclusions about the efficacy of transmission blocking interventions. Here, we examine this hypothesis in Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes infected with the human and rodent parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei, respectively. We show that oocyst growth and maturation rates decrease at late developmental stages as infection intensities increase; an effect exacerbated at very high infection intensities but fully restored with post infection bloodmeals. High infection intensities and starvation conditions reduce RNA Polymerase III activity in oocysts unless supplemental bloodmeals are provided. Our results suggest that oocysts respond to crowding and nutritional stress with a dormancy-like strategy, which urges the development of alternative methods to assess the efficacy of transmission blocking interventions.
Chabanol E, Behrends V, Prevot G, et al., 2020, Antibiotic treatment in anopheles coluzzii affects carbon and nitrogen metabolism, Pathogens, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2076-0817
The mosquito microbiota reduces the vector competence of Anopheles to Plasmodium and affects host fitness; it is therefore considered as a potential target to reduce malaria transmission. While immune induction, secretion of antimicrobials and metabolic competition are three typical mechanisms of microbiota-mediated protection against invasive pathogens in mammals, the involvement of metabolic competition or mutualism in mosquito-microbiota and microbiota-Plasmodium interactions has not been investigated. Here, we describe a metabolome analysis of the midgut of Anopheles coluzzii provided with a sugar-meal or a non-infectious blood-meal, under conventional or antibiotic-treated conditions. We observed that the antibiotic treatment affects the tricarboxylic acid cycle and nitrogen metabolism, notably resulting in decreased abundance of free amino acids. Linking our results with published data, we identified pathways which may participate in microbiota-Plasmodium interactions via metabolic interactions or immune modulation and thus would be interesting candidates for future functional studies.
Ferdous Z, Fuchs S, Behrends V, et al., 2020, <i>Anopheles coluzzii</i>stearoyl-CoA desaturase is essential for adult female survival and reproduction upon blood feeding
Vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation require anautogenous female Anopheles mosquitoes to obtain a bloodmeal from a vertebrate host. The bloodmeal is rich in proteins that are readily broken down into amino acids in the midgut lumen and absorbed by the midgut epithelial cells where they are converted into lipids and then transported to other tissues including ovaries. The stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) plays a pivotal role in this process by converting saturated (SFAs) to unsaturated (UFAs) fatty acids; the latter being essential for maintaining cell membrane fluidity amongst other housekeeping functions. Here, we report the functional and phenotypic characterization of SCD1 in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles coluzzii . We show that RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of SCD1 and administration of sterculic acid (SA), a small molecule inhibitor of SCD1, significantly impact on the survival and reproduction of female mosquitoes following blood feeding. Microscopic observations reveal that the mosquito thorax is quickly filled with blood, a phenomenon likely caused by the collapse of midgut epithelial cell membranes, and that epithelial cells are depleted of lipid droplets and oocytes fail to mature. Transcriptional profiling shows that genes involved in protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and immunity-related genes are the most affected by SCD1 knock down (KD) in blood-fed mosquitoes. Metabolic profiling reveals that these mosquitoes exhibit increased amounts of saturated fatty acids and TCA cycle intermediates, highlighting the biochemical framework by which the SCD1 KD phenotype manifests as a result of a detrimental metabolic syndrome. Accumulation of SFAs is also the likely cause of the potent immune response observed in the absence of infection, which resembles an auto-inflammatory condition. These data provide insights into mosquito bloodmeal metabolism and lipid homeostasis and could inform efforts to develop novel interventions against mosquito-borne
Debalke S, Habtewold T, Christophides GK, et al., 2020, Stability of the effect of silencing fibronectin type III domain-protein 1 (FN3D1) gene on Anopheles arabiensis reared under different breeding site conditions, Parasites and Vectors, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 1756-3305
BackgroundMalaria vector mosquitoes acquire midgut microbiota primarily from their habitat. The homeostasis of these microbial communities plays an essential role in the mosquito longevity, the most essential factor in the mosquito vectorial capacity. Our recent study revealed that silencing genes involved in regulation of the midgut homeostasis including FN3D1, FN3D3 and GPRGr9 reduced the survival of female adult Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes. In the present study, we investigate the stability of the gene silencing efficiency of mosquitoes reared in three different breeding conditions representing distinct larval habitat types: town brick pits in Jimma, flood pools in the rural land of Asendabo and roadside pools in Wolkite.MethodsFirst-instar larvae of An. arabiensis mosquitoes were reared separately using water collected from the three breeding sites. The resulting adult females were micro-injected with dsRNA targeting the FN3D1 gene (AARA003032) and their survival was monitored. Control mosquitoes were injected with dsRNA Lacz. In addition, the load of midgut microbiota of these mosquitoes was determined using flow cytometry.ResultsSurvival of naïve adult female mosquitoes differed between the three sites. Mosquitoes reared using water collected from brick pits and flood pools survived longer than mosquitoes reared using water collected from roadside. However, the FN3D1 gene silencing effect on survival did not differ between the three sites.ConclusionsThe present study revealed that the efficacy of FN3D1 gene silencing is not affected by variation in the larval habitat. Thus, silencing this gene has potential for application throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
Witmer K, Fraschka S, Vlachou D, et al., 2020, An epigenetic map of malaria parasite development from host to vector, Scientific Reports, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2045-2322
The malaria parasite replicates asexually in the red blood cells of its vertebrate host employing epigenetic mechanisms to regulate gene expression in response to changes in its environment. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing in conjunction with RNA sequencing to create an epigenomic and transcriptomic map of the developmental transition from asexual blood stages to male and female gametocytes and to ookinetes in the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Across the developmental stages examined, heterochromatin protein 1 associates with variantly expressed gene families localised at subtelomeric regions and variant gene expression based on heterochromatic silencing is observed only in some genes. Conversely, the euchromatin mark histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9ac) is abundant in non-heterochromatic regions across all developmental stages. H3K9ac presents a distinct pattern of enrichment around the start codon of ribosomal protein genes in all stages but male gametocytes. Additionally, H3K9ac occupancy positively correlates with transcript abundance in all stages but female gametocytes suggesting that transcription in this stage is independent of H3K9ac levels. This finding together with known mRNA repression in female gametocytes suggests a multilayered mechanism operating in female gametocytes in preparation for fertilization and zygote development, coinciding with parasite transition from host to vector.
James SL, Marshall JM, Christophides GK, et al., 2020, Toward the definition of efficacy and safety criteria for advancing gene drive-modified mosquitoes to field testing, Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Vol: 20, Pages: 237-251, ISSN: 1530-3667
Mosquitoes containing gene drive systems are being developed as complementary tools to prevent transmission of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. As with any new tool, decision makers and other stakeholders will need to balance risks (safety) and benefits (efficacy) when considering the rationale for testing and deploying gene drive-modified mosquito products. Developers will benefit from standards for judging whether an investigational gene drive product meets acceptability criteria for advancing to field trials. Such standards may be formalized as preferred product characteristics and target product profiles, which describe the desired attributes of the product category and of a particular product, respectively. This report summarizes discussions from two scientific workshops aimed at identifying efficacy and safety characteristics that must be minimally met for an investigational gene drive-modified mosquito product to be deemed viable to move from contained testing to field release and the data that will be needed to support an application for first field release.
Ukegbu CV, Giorgalli M, Tapanelli S, et al., 2020, PIMMS43 is required for malaria parasite immune evasion and sporogonic development in the mosquito vector, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA, Vol: 117, Pages: 7363-7373, ISSN: 0027-8424
After being ingested by a female Anopheles mosquito during a bloodmeal on an infected host, and before they can reach the mosquito salivary glands to be transmitted to a new host, Plasmodium parasites must establish an infection of the mosquito midgut in the form of oocysts. To achieve this, they must first survive a series of robust innate immune responses that take place prior to, during, and immediately after ookinete traversal of the midgut epithelium. Understanding how parasites may evade these responses could highlight new ways to block malaria transmission. We show that an ookinete and sporozoite surface protein designated as PIMMS43 (Plasmodium Infection of the Mosquito Midgut Screen 43) is required for parasite evasion of the Anopheles coluzzii complement-like response. Disruption of PIMMS43 in the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei triggers robust complement activation and ookinete elimination upon mosquito midgut traversal. Silencing components of the complement-like system through RNAi largely restores ookinete-to-oocyst transition but oocysts remain small in size and produce a very small number of sporozoites that additionally are not infectious, indicating that PIMMS43 is also essential for sporogonic development in the oocyst. Antibodies that bind PIMMS43 interfere with parasite immune evasion when ingested with the infectious blood meal and significantly reduce the prevalence and intensity of infection. PIMMS43 genetic structure across African Plasmodium falciparum populations indicates allelic adaptation to sympatric vector populations. These data add to our understanding of mosquito–parasite interactions and identify PIMMS43 as a target of malaria transmission blocking.
Habtewold T, Sharma A, Wyer CAS, et al., 2020, Plasmodium oocysts respond with dormancy to crowding and nutritional stress, Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Malaria parasites develop and grow as oocysts in the mosquito for several days before being able to infect another human. During this time, mosquitoes take regular bloodmeals to replenish their nutrient and energy reserves needed for flight and reproduction. We hypothesized that supplemental bloodmeals are critical for oocyst growth and that experimental infection protocols, typically involving a single bloodmeal, cause nutritional stress to developing oocysts. Therefore, enumerating oocysts independently of their growth and differentiation state may lead to erroneous conclusions regarding the efficacy of malaria transmission blocking interventions. We tested this hypothesis in Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes infected with human and rodent parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei , respectively. We find that oocyst growth rates decrease at late developmental stages as infection intensities increase; an effect exacerbated at very high infection intensities. Oocyst growth and differentiation can be restored by supplemental bloodmeals even at high infection intensities. We show that high infection intensities as well as starvation conditions reduce RNA Polymerase III activity in oocysts unless supplemental bloodmeals are provided. Our data suggest that oocysts respond to crowding and nutritional stress by employing a dormancy-like strategy and urge development of alternative methods to assess the efficacy of transmission blocking interventions.
Rodgers FH, Cai JA, Pitaluga AN, et al., 2020, Functional analysis of the three major PGRPLC isoforms in the midgut of the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii, INSECT BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Vol: 118, ISSN: 0965-1748
Angrisano F, Sala K, Tapanelli S, et al., 2019, Male-specific protein disulphide isomerase function is essential for plasmodium transmission and a vulnerable target for intervention, Scientific Reports, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2045-2322
Inhibiting transmission of Plasmodium is an essential strategy in malaria eradication, and the biological process of gamete fusion during fertilization is a proven target for this approach. Lack of knowledge of the mechanisms underlying fertilization have been a hindrance in the development of transmission-blocking interventions. Here we describe a protein disulphide isomerase essential for malarial transmission (PDI-Trans/PBANKA_0820300) to the mosquito. We show that PDI-Trans activity is male-specific, surface-expressed, essential for fertilization/transmission, and exhibits disulphide isomerase activity which is up-regulated post-gamete activation. We demonstrate that PDI-Trans is a viable anti-malarial drug and vaccine target blocking malarial transmission with the use of PDI inhibitor bacitracin (98.21%/92.48% reduction in intensity/prevalence), and anti-PDI-Trans antibodies (66.22%/33.16% reduction in intensity/prevalence). To our knowledge, these results provide the first evidence that PDI function is essential for malarial transmission, and emphasize the potential of anti-PDI agents to act as anti-malarials, facilitating the future development of novel transmission-blocking interventions.
Witmer K, Fraschka SAK, Vlachou D, et al., 2019, Epigenetic regulation underlying Plasmodium berghei gene expression during its developmental transition from host to vector, bioRxiv, ISSN: 2045-2322
ABSTRACT Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is an important attribute in the survival and adaptation of the malaria parasite Plasmodium in its human host. Our understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in Plasmodium developmental stages beyond asexual replication in the mammalian host is sparse. We used chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) and RNA sequencing to create an epigenetic and transcriptomic map of the murine parasite Plasmodium berghei development from asexual blood stages to male and female gametocytes, and finally, to ookinetes. We show that heterochromatin 1 (HP1) almost exclusively associates with variantly expressed gene families at subtelomeric regions and remains stable across stages and various parasite lines. Variant expression based on heterochromatic silencing is observed only in very few genes. In contrast, the active histone mark histone 3 Lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9ac) is found between heterochromatin boundaries and occurs as a sharp peak around the start codon for ribosomal protein genes. H3K9ac occupancy positively correlates with gene transcripts in asexual blood stages, male gametocytes and ookinetes. Interestingly, H3K9ac occupancy does not correlate with transcript abundance in female gametocytes. Finally, we identify novel DNA motifs upstream of ookinete-specific genes thought to be involved in transcriptional activation upon fertilization.
Debalke S, Habtewold T, Duchateau L, et al., 2019, The effect of silencing immunity related genes on longevity in a naturally occurring Anopheles arabiensis mosquito population from southwest Ethiopia, Parasites & Vectors, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1756-3305
BackgroundVector control remains the most important tool to prevent malaria transmission. However, it is now severely constrained by the appearance of physiological and behavioral insecticide resistance. Therefore, the development of new vector control tools is warranted. Such tools could include immunization of blood hosts of vector mosquitoes with mosquito proteins involved in midgut homeostasis (anti-mosquito vaccines) or genetic engineering of mosquitoes that can drive population-wide knockout of genes producing such proteins to reduce mosquito lifespan and malaria transmission probability.MethodsTo achieve this, candidate genes related to midgut homeostasis regulation need to be assessed for their effect on mosquito survival. Here, different such candidate genes were silenced through dsRNA injection in the naturally occurring Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes and the effect on mosquito survival was evaluated.ResultsSignificantly higher mortality rates were observed in the mosquitoes silenced for FN3D1 (AARA003032), FN3D3 (AARA007751) and GPRGr9 (AARA003963) genes as compared to the control group injected with dsRNA against a non-related bacterial gene (LacZ). This observed difference in mortality rate between the candidate genes and the control disappeared when gene-silenced mosquitoes were treated with antibiotic mixtures, suggesting that gut microbiota play a key role in the observed reduction of mosquito survival.ConclusionsWe demonstrated that interference with the expression of the FN3D1, FN3D3 or GPRGr9 genes causes a significant reduction of the longevity of An. arabiensis mosquito in the wild.
Ruiz VMR, Sousa GL, Sneed SD, et al., 2019, Stimulation of a protease targeting the LRIM1/APL1C complex reveals specificity in complement-like pathway activation in Anopheles gambiae, PLoS One, Vol: 14, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 1932-6203
The complement-like pathway of the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae provides protection against infection by diverse pathogens. A functional requirement for a core set of proteins during infections by rodent and human malaria parasites, bacteria, and fungi suggests a similar mechanism operates against different pathogens. However, the extent to which the molecular mechanisms are conserved is unknown. In this study we probed the biochemical responses of complement-like pathway to challenge by the Gram-positive bacterium Staphyloccocus aureus. Western blot analysis of the hemolymph revealed that S. aureus challenge activates a TEP1 convertase-like activity and promotes the depletion of the protein SPCLIP1. S. aureus challenge did not lead to an apparent change in the abundance of the LRIM1/APL1C complex compared to challenge by the Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli. Following up on this observation using a panel of LRIM1 and APL1C antibodies, we found that E. coli challenge, but not S. aureus, specifically activates a protease that cleaves the C-terminus of APL1C. Inhibitor studies in vivo and in vitro protease assays suggest that a serine protease is responsible for APL1C cleavage. This study reveals that despite different challenges converging on activation of a TEP1 convertase-like activity, the mosquito complement-like pathway also includes pathogen-specific reactions.
Christophides G, Rona L, Cechetto Carlos B, et al., 2019, A comprehensive analysis of malaria transmission in Brazil, Pathogens and Global Health, Vol: 113, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2047-7724
Malaria remains a serious public health problem in Brazil despite a significant drop in the number of cases in the past decade. We conduct a comprehensive analysis of malaria transmission in Brazil to highlight the epidemiologically most relevant components that could help tackle the disease. We consider factors impacting on the malaria burden and transmission dynamics including the geographical occurrence of both autochthonous and imported infections, the distribution and abundance of malaria vectors and records of natural mosquito infections with Plasmodium. Our analysis identifies three discrete malaria transmission systems related to the Amazon rainforest, Atlantic rainforest and Brazilian coast, respectively. The Amazonian system accounts for 99% of all malaria cases in the country. It is largely due to autochthonous P. vivax and P. falciparum transmission by mosquitoes of the Nyssorhynchus subgenus, primarily Anopheles darlingi. Whilst P. vivax transmission is widespread, P. falciparum transmission is restricted to hotspot areas mostly in the States of Amazonas and Acre. This system is the major source of P. vivax exportation to the extra-Amazonian regions that are also affected by importation of P. falciparum from Africa. The Atlantic system comprises autochthonous P. vivax transmission typically by the bromeliad-associated mosquitoes An. cruzii and An. bellator of the Kerteszia subgenus. An. cruzii also transmits simian malaria parasites to humans. The third, widespread but geographically fragmented, system is found along the Brazilian coast and comprises P. vivax transmission mainly by An. aquasalis. We conclude that these geographically and biologically distinct malaria transmission systems require specific strategies for effective disease control.
Habtewold T, Tapanelli S, Ellen KG M, et al., 2019, Streamlined SMFA and mosquito dark-feeding regime significantly improve malaria transmission-blocking assay robustness and sensitivity, Malaria Journal, Vol: 18, ISSN: 1475-2875
BackgroundThe development of malaria transmission-blocking strategies including the generation of malaria refractory mosquitoes to replace the wild populations through means of gene drives hold great promise. The standard membrane feeding assay (SMFA) that involves mosquito feeding on parasitized blood through an artificial membrane system is a vital tool for evaluating the efficacy of transmission-blocking interventions. However, despite the availability of several published protocols, the SMFA remains highly variable and broadly insensitive.MethodsThe SMFA protocol was optimized through coordinated culturing of Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes and Plasmodium falciparum parasite coupled with placing mosquitoes under a strict dark regime before, during, and after the gametocyte feed.ResultsA detailed description of essential steps is provided toward synchronized generation of highly fit An. coluzzii mosquitoes and P. falciparum gametocytes in preparation for an SMFA. A dark-infection regime that emulates the natural vector-parasite interaction system is described, which results in a significant increase in the infection intensity and prevalence. Using this optimal SMFA pipeline, a series of putative transmission-blocking antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were screened, confirming that melittin and magainin can interfere with P. falciparum development in the vector.ConclusionA robust SMFA protocol that enhances the evaluation of interventions targeting human malaria transmission in laboratory setting is reported. Melittin and magainin are identified as highly potent antiparasitic AMPs that can be used for the generation of refractory Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.
A first generation of CRISPR-based gene drives has now been tested in the laboratory in a number of organisms, including malaria vector mosquitoes. Challenges for their use in the area-wide genetic control of vector-borne disease have been identified, including the development of target site resistance, their long-term efficacy in the field, their molecular complexity, and practical and legal limitations for field testing of both gene drive and coupled anti-pathogen traits. We have evaluated theoretically the concept of integral gene drive (IGD) as an alternative paradigm for population replacement. IGDs incorporate a minimal set of molecular components, including drive and anti-pathogen effector elements directly embedded within endogenous genes – an arrangement that in theory allows targeting functionally conserved coding sequences without disrupting their function. Autonomous and non-autonomous IGD strains could be generated, optimized, regulated and imported independently. We performed quantitative modeling comparing IGDs with classical replacement drives and show that selection for the function of the hijacked host gene can significantly reduce the establishment of resistant alleles in the population, while drive occurring at multiple genomic loci prolongs the duration of transmission blockage in the face of pre-existing target site variation. IGD thus has potential as a more durable and flexible population replacement strategy.
Christophides GK, Nakhleh J, Osta MA, 2017, The serine protease homolog CLIPA14 modulates the intensity of the immune response in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol: 292, Pages: 18217-18226, ISSN: 0021-9258
CLIP domain serine protease homologues (cSPHs) are positive and negative regulators of Anopheles gambiae immune responses mediated by the complement-like protein TEP1 against Plasmodium malaria parasites and other microbial infections. We have previously reported that the SPH CLIPA2 is a negative regulator of the TEP1-mediated response by showing that CLIPA2 knockdown (kd) enhances mosquito resistance to infections with fungi, bacteria and Plasmodium parasites. Here, we identify another SPH, CLIPA14, as a novel regulator of mosquito immunity. We found that CLIPA14 is a hemolymph protein that is rapidly cleaved following a systemic infection. CLIPA14 kd mosquitoes elicited a potent melanization response against Plasmodium berghei ookinetes and exhibited significantly increased resistance to Plasmodium infections as well as to systemic and oral bacterial infections. The activity of the enzyme phenoloxidase, which initiates melanin biosynthesis, dramatically increased in the hemolymph of CLIPA14 kd mosquitoes in response to systemic bacterial infections. Ookinete melanization and hemolymph phenoloxidase activity were further increased after co-silencing CLIPA14 and CLIPA2, suggesting that these two SPHs act in concert to control the melanization response. Interestingly, CLIPA14 RNAi phenotypes and its infection-induced cleavage were abolished in a TEP1 loss-of-function background. Our results suggest that a complex network of SPHs functions downstream of TEP1 to regulate the melanization reaction.
Ukegbu CV, Giogalli M, Yassine H, et al., 2017, Plasmodium berghei P47 is essential for ookinete protection from the Anopheles gambiae complement-like response, Scientific Reports, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2045-2322
Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease affecting millions of people every year. The rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei has served as a model for human malaria transmission studies and played a pivotal role in dissecting the mosquito immune response against infection. The 6-cysteine protein P47, known to be important for P. berghei female gamete fertility, is shown to serve a different function in Plasmodium falciparum, protecting ookinetes from the mosquito immune response. Here, we investigate the function of P. berghei P47 in Anopheles gambiae mosquito infections. We show that P47 is expressed on the surface of both female gametocytes and ookinetes where it serves distinct functions in promoting gametocyte-to-ookinete development and protecting ookinetes from the mosquito complement-like response, respectively. The latter function is essential, as ookinetes lacking P47 are targeted for killing while traversing the mosquito midgut cells and eliminated upon exposure to hemolymph proteins of the complement-like system. Silencing key factors of the complement-like system restores oocyst development and disease transmission to rodent hosts. Our data establish a dual role of P. berghei P47 in vivo and reinforce the use of this parasite to study the impact of the mosquito immune response on human malaria transmission.
Ukegbu CV, Akinosoglou KA, Christophides GKC, et al., 2017, Plasmodium berghei PIMMS2 promotes ookinete invasion of the Anopheles gambiae mosquito midgut, Infection and Immunity, Vol: 85, ISSN: 1098-5522
Mosquito midgut stages of the malaria parasite present an attractive biological system to study host-parasite interactions and develop interventions to block disease transmission. Mosquito infection ensues upon oocyst development that follows ookinete invasion and traversal of the mosquito midgut epithelium. Here, we report the characterization of PIMMS2 (Plasmodium Invasion of Mosquito Midgut Screen candidate 2), a Plasmodium berghei protein with structural similarities to subtilisin-like proteins. PIMMS2 orthologs are present in the genomes of all plasmodia and are mapped between the subtilisin-encoding genes SUB1 and SUB3. P. berghei PIMMS2 is specifically expressed in zygotes and ookinetes and is localized on the ookinete surface. Loss of PIMMS2 function through gene disruption by homologous recombination leads to normal development of motile ookinetes that exhibit severely impaired capacity to traverse the mosquito midgut and transform to oocysts. Genetic complementation of the disrupted locus with a mutated PIMMS2 allele reveals that amino acid residues corresponding to the putative subtilisin-like catalytic triad are important but not essential for the protein function. Our data demonstrate that PIMMS2 is a novel ookinete-specific protein that promotes parasite traversal of the mosquito midgut epithelium and establishment of mosquito infection.
Gendrin MEM, Turlure F, Rodgers FH, et al., 2017, The peptidoglycan recognition proteins PGRPLA and PGRPLB regulate Anopheles immunity to bacteria and affect infection by Plasmodium, Journal of Innate Immunity, Vol: 9, Pages: 333-342, ISSN: 1662-8128
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) form a family of immune regulators that is conserved from insects to mammals. In the malaria vector mosquito Anophelescoluzzii, the peptidoglycan receptor PGRPLC activates the Imd pathway limiting both the microbiota load and Plasmodiuminfection. Here, we carried out an RNAi screen to examine the role of all seven Anopheles PGRPs in infections with Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium falciparum. We show that, in addition to PGRPLC, PGRPLA and PGRPS2/S3 also participate in antiparasitic defenses, and that PGRPLB promotes mosquito permissiveness to P. falciparum. We also demonstrate that following a mosquito blood feeding, which promotes growth of the gut microbiota, PGRPLA and PGRPLB positively and negatively regulate the activation of the Imd pathway, respectively. Our data demonstrate that PGRPs are important regulators of the mosquito epithelial immunity and vector competence.
Rodgers FH, Gendrin M, Wyer CAS, et al., 2017, Microbiota-induced peritrophic matrix regulates midgut homeostasis and prevents systemic infection of malaria vector mosquitoes, PLOS Pathogens, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-22, ISSN: 1553-7366
Manipulation of the mosquito gut microbiota can lay the foundations for novel methods for disease transmission control. Mosquito blood feeding triggers a significant, transient increase of the gut microbiota, but little is known about the mechanisms by which the mosquito controls this bacterial growth whilst limiting inflammation of the gut epithelium. Here, we investigate the gut epithelial response to the changing microbiota load upon blood feeding in the malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii. We show that the synthesis and integrity of the peritrophic matrix, which physically separates the gut epithelium from its luminal contents, is microbiota dependent. We reveal that the peritrophic matrix limits the growth and persistence of Enterobacteriaceae within the gut, whilst preventing seeding of a systemic infection. Our results demonstrate that the peritrophic matrix is a key regulator of mosquito gut homeostasis and establish functional analogies between this and the mucus layers of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract.
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