19 results found
McGregor A, Clunie G, Hall H, et al., 2022, Patient and practitioner perspectives on the design of a simulated affective touch device to reduce procedural anxiety associated with radiotherapy: a qualitative study, BMJ Open, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2044-6055
Objective The aim of this study was to elicit the views of relevant stakeholders on the design of a device using simulated affective touch to reduce procedural anxiety surrounding radiotherapy and imaging. Design This qualitative study collected data from focus groups which were then analysed using inductive thematic analysis in line with Braun and Clarke’s methods. Participants and setting Twenty patients and carers were recruited, as well as ten healthcare practitioners involved in either delivering radiotherapy or imaging procedures. Results Patients, carers and healthcare practitioners agreed on some aspects of the device design, such as ensuring the device is warm and flexible in where it can be used on the body. However, patient and healthcare practitioner cohorts had at times differing viewpoints. For example, healthcare practitioners provided professional perspectives and required easy cleaning of the device. Meanwhile patients focused on anxiety relieving factors, such as the tactile sensation of the device being either a vibration or pulsation. There was no consensus on who should control the device. Conclusions The desired features of a simulated affective touch device have been investigated. Different priorities of patients and their carers and healthcare practitioners were evident. Any design must incorporate such features as to appease both groups. Areas where no consensus was reached could be further explored, alongside including further patient and public involvement in the form of a project advisory group.
Gimson E, Greca Dottori M, Clunie G, et al., 2022, Not as simple as “fear of the unknown”: a qualitative study exploring anxiety in the radiotherapy department, European Journal of Cancer Care, Vol: 31, ISSN: 0961-5423
Objective:Little is understood about the anxiety experienced by cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy or investigative imaging. Our aim was to identify sources of anxiety, the points along the cancer journey where anxiety occurred and methods to alleviate it.Methods:Six focus groups were conducted with cancer patients (n = 17), caregivers (n = 3) and healthcare practitioners (HCPs; n = 10) in the radiotherapy department. Patients described specific elements in the care pathway which induced anxiety, while HCPs focused on their perception of the patient experience. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data.Results:Three broad themes emerged: The Environment, The Individual and The Unknown. The physical environment of the hospital, inside the scanner for example, emerged as a key source of anxiety. The impact of cancer on patients' individual lives was significant, with many feeling isolated. The majority of participants described anxiety associated with the unknown. HCPs reported difficulty in identifying the anxious patient.Conclusions:Anxiety is experienced throughout the cancer pathway. Common sources include the physical environment and the uncertainty associated with having cancer. Identifying both anxiety-inducing factors, and the anxious patients themselves, is crucial to enable targeted interventions to alleviate anxiety.
Allen JE, Clunie G, Ma JK-Y, et al., 2022, Translating ultrasound into clinical practice for the assessment of swallowing and laryngeal function: a speech and language pathology-led consensus study, Dysphagia, ISSN: 0179-051X
Miles A, McRae J, Clunie G, et al., 2022, An international commentary on dysphagia and dysphonia during the COVID-19 pandemic, Dysphagia, ISSN: 0179-051X
COVID-19 has had an impact globally with millions infected, high mortality, significant economic ramifications, travel restrictions, national lockdowns, overloaded healthcare systems, effects on healthcare workers’ health and well-being, and large amounts of funding diverted into rapid vaccine development and implementation. Patients with COVID-19, especially those who become severely ill, have frequently developed dysphagia and dysphonia. Health professionals working in the field have needed to learn about this new disease while managing these patients with enhanced personal protective equipment. Emerging research suggests differences in the clinical symptoms and journey to recovery for patients with COVID-19 in comparison to other intensive care populations. New insights from outpatient clinics also suggest distinct presentations of dysphagia and dysphonia in people after COVID-19 who were not hospitalized or severely ill. This international expert panel provides commentary on the impact of the pandemic on speech pathologists and our current understanding of dysphagia and dysphonia in patients with COVID-19, from acute illness to long-term recovery. This narrative review provides a unique, comprehensive critical appraisal of published peer-reviewed primary data as well as emerging previously unpublished, original primary data from across the globe, including clinical symptoms, trajectory, and prognosis. We conclude with our international expert opinion on what we have learnt and where we need to go next as this pandemic continues across the globe.
Clunie G, Bolton L, Lovell L, et al., 2021, Considerations for speech and language therapy management of dysphagia in patients who are critically ill with COVID-19: a single centre case series, International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, ISSN: 1354-8581
Haywood M, Lovell L, Roe J, et al., 2021, Perioperative instrumental swallowing evaluation in adult airway reconstruction: a retrospective observational cohort study, Clinical Otolaryngology, Vol: 46, Pages: 1229-1236, ISSN: 1749-4478
ObjectivesAirway reconstruction for laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) encompasses several procedures. Dysphagia is a well-recognised sequela of LTS and airway surgery, however studies have employed mostly non-validated assessments post-operatively in small, heterogenous samples, perpetuating uncertainty around the contributions of LTS and its management to impaired deglutition. Consequently, considerable variation in LTS perioperative nutritional management exists. Our objective was to characterise baseline and post-operative dysphagia with instrumental assessment in an LTS cohort undergoing airway reconstruction and provide a gold-standard management framework for its management.Design, setting, participants and main outcome measuresWe performed a retrospective cohort study of adult airway reconstruction procedures from 2016-2020 at our quaternary centre. Patient background, LTS aetiology, procedure type, tube feeding duration, length of stay and serial Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) and International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative (IDDSI) scores were noted. Baseline, post-operative day one and post-stent removal Fibreoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallow (FEES) generated Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS) scores.ResultsForty-four patients underwent forty-six reconstructions. Baseline incidence of penetration-aspiration was considerably higher than the general population and worsened in the immediate post-operative period, however FOIS and PAS scores generally returned to baseline by discharge. Post-operative FOIS correlated negatively with tracheostomy or airway stent placement. At discharge, 80% tolerated soft or normal diet and 93% were feeding tube independent.ConclusionsWe present the largest adult airway reconstruction cohort with instrumental swallow assessment perioperatively. LTS patients have a higher incidence of underlying dysphagia but swallowing tends to return to baseline with appropriate postoperative rehabilitation. Such practice may
Clunie G, Anderson C, Hughes C, et al., 2021, “A major quality of life issue”: A survey-based analysis of the experiences of adults with laryngotracheal stenosis with mucus and cough, Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, ISSN: 0003-4894
Objectives:To investigate how the symptoms of mucus and cough impact adults living with laryngotracheal stenosis, and to use this information to guide future research and treatment plans.Methods:A survey was developed with the support of patient advisors and distributed to people suffering with laryngotracheal stenosis. The survey comprised 15 closed and open questions relating to mucus and cough and included the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ). Descriptive statistics, X2 and thematic analyses were completed.Results:In total, 641 participants completed the survey, with 83.62% (n = 536) reporting problems with mucus; 79% having daily issues of varying severity that led to difficulties with cough (46.18%) and breathing (20.90%). Mucus affected voice and swallowing to a lesser degree. Respondents described a range of triggers; they identified smoky air as the worst environmental trigger. Strategies to manage mucus varied widely with drinking water (72.26%), increasing liquid intake in general (49.35%) and avoiding or reducing dairy (45.32%) the most common approaches to control symptoms. The LCQ showed a median total score of 14 (interquartile range 11-17) indicative of cough negatively affecting quality of life. Thematic analysis of free text responses identified 4 key themes—the Mucus Cycle, Social impact, Psychological impact, and Physical impact.Conclusion:This study shows the relevance of research focusing on mucus and cough and its negative impact on quality of life, among adults with laryngotracheal stenosis. It demonstrates the inconsistent advice and management strategies provided by clinicians for this issue. Further research is required to identify clearer treatment options and pathways.
Rouhani MJ, Clunie G, Thong G, et al., 2021, A prospective study of voice, swallow, and airway outcomes following tracheostomy for COVID‐19, The Laryngoscope, Vol: 131, Pages: E1918-E1925, ISSN: 0023-852X
ObjectiveThe COVID‐19 pandemic has led to unprecedented demands on healthcare with many requiring intubation. Tracheostomy insertion has often been delayed and the enduring effects of this on voice, swallow, and airway outcomes in COVID‐19 tracheostomy patients are unknown. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess these outcomes in this patient cohort following hospital discharge.MethodsAll COVID‐19 patients who had undergone tracheostomy insertion, and were subsequently decannulated, were identified at our institution and followed up 2 months post‐discharge. Patient‐reported (PROMS) and clinician‐reported outcome measures, endoscopic examination, and spirometry were used to assess voice, swallow, and airway outcomes.ResultsForty‐one patients were included in the study with a mean age of 56 years and male:female ratio of 28:13. Average duration of endotracheal intubation was 24 days and 63.4% of tracheostomies were performed at day 21 to 35 of intubation. 53.7% had an abnormal GRBAS score and 30% reported abnormal swallow on EAT‐10 questionnaire. 81.1% had normal endoscopic examination of the larynx, however, positive endoscopic findings correlated with the patient self‐reported VHI‐10 (P = .036) and EAT‐10 scores (P = .027). 22.5% had spirometric evidence of fixed upper airway obstruction using the Expiratory‐Disproportion Index (EDI) and Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive trend between abnormal endoscopic findings and EDI scores over 50 (P < .0001).ConclusionThe preliminary results of this study reveal a high incidence of laryngeal injury among patients who underwent intubation and tracheostomy insertion during the COVID‐19 pandemic. As these patients continue to be followed up, the evolution of these complications will be studied.Level of EvidenceLevel 3. Laryngoscope, 2020
Allen JE, Clunie GM, Winiker K, 2021, Ultrasound: an emerging modality for the dysphagia assessment toolkit?, Current Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Vol: 29, Pages: 213-218, ISSN: 1068-9508
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Videofluoroscopy (VFSS) and fibreoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) are established instrumental techniques to support differential diagnosis and treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Whilst their value is undisputed, each tool is not without limitations. The COVID-19 pandemic has restricted access to VFSS and FEES leading clinicians to explore alternative or augmentative tools to support swallowing assessment.Ultrasound (US) is an established tool for visualisation of head and neck anatomy, including structures implicated in swallowing. Although US has been utilised in swallowing research for many years, its application has not translated into common clinical practice. This review presents and debates the evidence for and against use of US for clinical swallowing assessment. RECENT FINDINGS: Evaluation of swallowing muscle morphometry and measurement of isolated swallowing kinematics are two primary uses of US in swallowing assessment that have been identified in the literature. Use of US to detect bolus flow, aspiration and residues is in its early stages and needs further research. SUMMARY: US shows promise as an adjunctive modality to support assessment of swallowing. With standardisation, these measurements may have potential for transition into clinical care. Reliability and validity testing and development of normative data are imperative to ensure its use as an evidence-based instrumentation.
Lovell L, Clunie GM, Al-Yaghchi C, et al., 2021, Laryngeal sarcoidosis and swallowing: what do we know about dysphagia assessment and management in this population?, Dysphagia, ISSN: 0179-051X
IntroductionSarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology and laryngeal involvement is seen in a small percentage of cases. Dysphagia is a common but under-reported symptom. Little is known about how dysphagia typically presents or is managed in the context of this fluctuating disease. We present our case series using an SLT-led model of assessment and management.MethodsA literature search was conducted for any articles that reported both laryngeal sarcoidosis and dysphagia. We then analysed a case series of laryngeal sarcoidosis patients treated at Charing Cross Hospital. We report on multidimensional swallowing evaluation and rehabilitative interventions.ResultsSeventeen papers report both laryngeal sarcoidosis and dysphagia, with only one paper giving details on the nature of the dysphagia and the treatment provided.In our case series (n = 7), patients presented with FOIS Scores ranging from 5 to 7 pre-operatively (median = 6). Aspiration (median PAS Score = 6 and Range = 3–8) and pharyngeal residue were common. Sensory issues were also prevalent with most unaware of the extent of their difficulties. Management interventions included safe swallowing advice, compensatory strategies, exercises and close surveillance given their potential for repeated surgical interventions.ConclusionLaryngeal sarcoidosis is a rare condition. Dysphagia is under-reported and our experience highlights the need for specialist dysphagia intervention. Further research is required to understand dysphagia management requirements in the context of this fluctuating disease process.
Freeman-Sanderson A, Ward EC, Miles A, et al., 2021, A consensus statement for the management and rehabilitation of communication and swallowing function in the ICU: A global response to COVID-19, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vol: 102, Pages: 835-842, ISSN: 0003-9993
ObjectiveTo identify core practices for workforce management of communication and swallowing functions in COVID-19 positive patients within the ICU.DesignA modified Delphi methodology was utilized, with 3 electronic voting rounds. AGREE II and an adapted COVID-19 survey framework from physiotherapy were used to develop survey statements. Sixty-six statements pertaining to workforce planning and management of communication and swallowing function in the ICU were included.SettingElectronic modified Delphi process.Participants35 speech-language pathologists (SLPs) from 6 continents representing 12 countries.InterventionsNot applicable.Main Outcome MeasuresThe main outcome was consensus agreement, defined a priori as ≥70% of participants with a mean Likert score ≥7.0 (11-point scale: “0” = strongly disagree, “10” strongly agree). Prioritization rank order of statements in a 4th round was also conducted.ResultsSLPs with a median of 15 years ICU experience, working primarily in clinical (54%), in academic (29%) or managerial (17%) positions, completed all voting rounds. After the third round, 64 statements (97%) met criteria. Rank ordering identified issues of high importance.ConclusionsA set of global consensus statements to facilitate planning and delivery of rehabilitative care for patients admitted to the ICU during the COVID-19 pandemic were agreed by an international expert SLP group. Statements focus on considerations for workforce preparation, resourcing and training, and the management of communication and swallowing functions. These statements support and provide direction for all members of the rehabilitation team to use for patients admitted to the ICU during a global pandemic.
Deane J, Clunie G, 2021, Healthcare professionals in research (HPiR) Facebook community: a survey of U.K. doctoral and postdoctoral healthcare professionals outside of medicine, BMC Medical Education, Vol: 21, ISSN: 1472-6920
BackgroundHealthcare professionals outside of medicine (HCPs), including nurses, midwives and allied health professionals, are increasingly involved in research for patient benefit. Their challenge is to negotiate inter-professional or professionally isolated contexts. The aims of this study were to evaluate the ‘Healthcare Professionals in Research’ (HPiR) Facebook group (a self-directed and confidential peer support group for doctoral and postdoctoral HCPs) including engagement, the experiences of doctoral and postdoctoral HPiR members and to identify future career challenges using an on-line survey.MethodsThe HPiR Facebook group was launched in May 2019. Five HCP Community managers (CMs) were trained in on-line platform curation, moderation and screening. An on-line survey was designed to capture data from HPiR members. A purposive sampling approach was applied. Respondents were required to be doctoral and postdoctoral HCPs and a registered member of the HPiR group. Respondents represented a range of healthcare professions, 79 % of whom had over ten years clinical experience. Membership growth and engagement was analysed. Descriptive statistics were used to present numerical data. Qualitative data were analysed thematically.Results96 members were admitted to the group within the first month. All members were actively engaged with group content. 34/96 doctoral and postdoctoral HCPs completed the survey. Most members joined for networking (88 %) and peer support (82 %) purposes. Analysis of text responses showed difficulties in balancing a clinical academic career and highlighted the consequences of undefined clinical academic roles and pathways.ConclusionsDoctoral and postdoctoral HCPs value the opportunities that HPiR provides for peer support and connection with fellow HCPs. HPiR has the potential to strengthen research capacity, support research skill development and drive change within the clinical academic community. Clinical
Clunie GM, Belsi A, Roe JWG, et al., 2021, Not just dyspnoea: swallowing as a concern for adults with laryngotracheal stenosis undergoing airway reconstruction, Dysphagia, Vol: 37, Pages: 365-374, ISSN: 0179-051X
Acquired laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) is a rare condition causing dyspnea and stridor. Patients often require multiple surgical procedures with no guarantee of a definitive outcome. Difficulty swallowing is a recognised problem associated with LTS and the reconstructive surgeries required to manage the condition. The breathlessness patient’s experience impacts on swallowing, and the vulnerable structures of the larynx are implicated during complex surgeries. This leads to dysphagia post-surgery, with some patients experiencing more chronic symptoms depending on the biomechanical impact of the surgery, or a pre-existing dysphagia. Despite this there is limited observational research about the dysphagia associated with LTS, with no exploration of the patient experience. Our aim was to investigate patient experience of living with LTS focussing on dysphagia in order to guide clinical practice. A qualitative study was completed using focus groups and semi-structured interviews with 24 patients who have had reconstructive surgery for LTS. Thematic analysis was used to identify three over-arching themes: The Physical Journey, The Emotional Journey and The Medical Journey. Key sub-themes included the importance of self-management and control, presence of symptoms, benefits of therapy, living with a life-long condition, fear and anxiety, autonomy, medicalisation of normal processes and the dichotomy between staff expertise and complacency. Swallowing was connected to all themes. The results are reviewed with consideration of the wider literature of lived experience particularly in relation to other chronic conditions and those that carry a high symptom burden such as head and neck cancer. Future clinical and research recommendations have been made. Akin to other clinical groups, adults with LTS are keen that management of their swallowing is person-centred and holistic.
Clunie G, Roe J, Alexander C, et al., 2021, Voice and swallowing outcomes following airway reconstruction in adults: a systematic review, The Laryngoscope, Vol: 131, Pages: 146-157, ISSN: 0023-852X
Objectives: Laryngotracheal stenosis is a rare condition characterized by upper airway narrowing. Reconstructive surgical treatment aims to manage the area of stenosis to improve dyspnea and can impact on voice and swallowing function. This article critically evaluates the literature about voice and swallowing outcomes in adults with laryngotracheal stenosis who undergo reconstructive surgery.Study Design: Systematic review.Methods: Six databases were searched for articles referring to voice and swallowing outcome measures following reconstruction procedures in adults with laryngotracheal stenosis. Screening was completed using predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results: A total of 143 abstracts were reviewed, with 67 articles selected for full text review. 20 studies met the inclusion criteria. Data extraction was completed with The Strengthening Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist with Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Level of Evidence used to indicate quality. Risk of bias was assessed using the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Non-Randomized Studies. All studies scored a high risk of bias in at least one of the domains. Selection and timing of outcome measures was heterogenous and there was limited information provided about rationale or reliability.Conclusion: The literature acknowledges the importance of voice and swallowing outcomes following airway reconstruction. Studies show correlation between reconstructive surgery and deterioration in vocal function; there is no consistent data about swallowing outcomes. The lack of a core outcome measures set for adults with laryngotracheal stenosis limits the findings of this review. Further research is needed to establish clear criteria for robust and clinically relevant outcome measurement.
Allen JE, Clunie GM, Slinger C, et al., 2021, Utility of ultrasound in the assessment of swallowing and laryngeal function: a rapid review and critical appraisal of the literature, International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, Vol: 56, Pages: 174-204, ISSN: 1368-2822
BackgroundUltrasound (US) is not widely used as part of the speech and language therapy (SLT) clinical toolkit. The COVID‐19 pandemic has intensified interest in US as an alternative to SLT instrumental tools such as the videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS), fibreoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and endoscopic evaluation of the larynx (EEL) as a non‐invasive, non‐aerosol‐generating procedure that can be delivered at the bedside to assess swallowing and/or laryngeal function. To establish the appropriacy of routine US use, and in response to a national professional body request for a position statement, a group of expert SLTs conducted a rapid review of the literature.AimTo explore critically the clinical utility of US as an assessment tool for swallowing and laryngeal function in adults.Methods & ProceduresA rapid review of four databases was completed to identify articles using US to assess swallowing and/or laryngeal function in adults compared with reference tests (VFSS/FEES/EEL/validated outcome measure). Screening was completed according to predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria and 10% of abstracts were rescreened to assess reliability. Data were extracted from full texts using a predeveloped form. The QUADAS‐2 tool was used for quality ratings. Information from included studies was summarized using narrative synthesis and visual illustration.Outcomes & ResultsTen papers used US to assess swallowing, and 13 to assess laryngeal function. All were peer‐reviewed primary studies across a range of clinical populations and with a wide geographical spread. Four papers had an overall low risk of bias, but the remaining 19 had at least one domain where risk of bias was judged as high or unclear. Applicability concerns were identified in all papers. The papers that used US to assess swallowing varied widely in terms of the anatomical structures assessed and methodology employed. The papers assessing laryngeal function were more homogenous i
Patterson JM, Govender R, Roe J, et al., 2020, COVID-19 and ENT SLT services, workforce and research in the UK: A discussion paper, International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, Vol: 55, Pages: 806-817, ISSN: 1368-2822
BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and the UK government's subsequent coronavirus action plan have fundamentally impacted on every aspect of healthcare. One area that is severely affected is ear, nose and throat (ENT)/laryngology where speech and language therapists (SLTs) engage in a diverse range of practice with patients with a range of conditions, including voice disorders, airway problems, and head and neck cancers (HNCs). A large majority of these patients are in high-risk categories, and many specialized clinical practices are vulnerable. In addition, workforce and research issues are challenged in both the immediate context and the future. AIMS: To discuss the threats and opportunities from the COVID-19 pandemic for SLTs in ENT/laryngology with specific reference to clinical practice, workforce and research leadership. METHODS & PROCEDURES: The relevant sections of the World Health Organisation's (WHO) health systems building blocks framework (2007) were used to structure the study. Expert agreement was determined by an iterative process of multiple-group discussions, the use of all recent relevant policy documentation, and other literature and shared documentation/writing. The final paper was verified and agreed by all authors. MAIN CONTRIBUTION: The main threats to ENT/laryngology SLT clinical services include increased patient complexity related to COVID-19 voice and airway problems, delayed HNC diagnosis, reduced access to instrumental procedures and inequitable care provision. The main clinical opportunities include the potential for new modes of service delivery and collaborations, and harnessing SLT expertise in non-instrumental assessment. There are several workforce issues, including redeployment (and impact on current services), training implications and psychological impact on staff. Workforce opportunities exist for service innovation and potential extended ENT/SLT practice roles. Research is threatened by a reduction in immediate funding call
Clunie G, Belsi A, Roe J, et al., 2020, Not Just Dyspnoea – Swallowing as a Concern for Adults with Laryngotracheal Stenosis Who Undergo Reconstructive Surgery?, UK Swallowing Research Group 2020 Conference
Holman A, Clunie G, Roe J, et al., 2018, Management of swallowing in adults undergoing laryngotracheal resection and reconstruction, Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, Vol: 3, Pages: 113-123, ISSN: 2381-4764
Purpose: This article presents a detailed review of the etiology of laryngotracheal stenosis, common surgical procedures, and typical pathophysiological changes affecting swallowing function. We describe the redundancy in airway protection and the possibility of safe swallowing in suboptimal conditions.Conclusion: Comprehensive understanding of unique patient factors and swallowing physiology in this complex population facilitates targeted and patient-specific rehabilitation.
Clunie GM, Kinshuck AJ, Sandhu GS, et al., 2017, Voice and swallowing outcomes for adults undergoing reconstructive surgery for laryngotracheal stenosis, CURRENT OPINION IN OTOLARYNGOLOGY & HEAD AND NECK SURGERY, Vol: 25, Pages: 195-199, ISSN: 1068-9508
Purpose of review Adult laryngotracheal stenosis is a rare, multifactorial condition which carries a significant physical and psychosocial burden. Surgical approaches have developed in recent years, however, voice and swallowing function can be affected prior to treatment, in the immediate postoperative phase, and as an ongoing consequence of the condition and surgical intervention. In this study we discuss: the nature of the problem; surgical interventions to address airway disorders; optimal patterns of care to maximize voice and swallowing outcomes.Recent findings Studies in this field are limited and focused on surgical outcomes and airway status with voice and swallowing a secondary consideration. Retrospective studies of swallowing have focused on factors such as the duration of dysphagia symptoms following airway surgery and made comparisons between type of surgery, use of stent, and length of swallowing problems. The literature suggests that patients are likely to return to their preoperative diet. There has been a focus on voice outcomes following cricotracheal resection which results in a postoperative decrease in the fundamental frequency. However, study comparisons are limited by the use of inconsistent outcome measures (for both voice and swallowing) which are often not validated, with heterogeneous groups and varying surgical techniques.Summary The limited literature suggests that swallowing function is more likely to recover to presurgical status than voice function. Further prospective studies incorporating consistent instrumental, clinician, and patient-reported outcome measurement are required to understand the nature and extent of dysphagia and dysphonia resulting from this condition and its treatment.
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