Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Mechanical Engineering

RAEng Enterprise Fellow







410 CAGBCity and Guilds BuildingSouth Kensington Campus





Publication Type

3 results found

White G, Hales A, Patel Y, Offer Get al., 2022, Novel methods for measuring the thermal diffusivity and the thermal conductivity of a lithium-ion battery, APPLIED THERMAL ENGINEERING, Vol: 212, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 1359-4311

Thermal conductivity is a fundamental parameter in every battery pack model. It allows for the calculation of internal temperature gradients which affect cell safety and cell degradation. The accuracy of the measurement for thermal conductivity is directly proportional to the accuracy of any thermal calculation. Currently the battery industry uses archaic methods for measuring this property which have errors up to 50 %. This includes the constituent material approach, the Searle’s bar method, laser/Xeon flash and the transient plane source method. In this paper we detail three novel methods for measuring both the thermal conductivity and the thermal diffusivity to within 5.6 %. These have been specifically designed for bodies like lithium-ion batteries which are encased in a thermally conductive material. The novelty in these methods comes from maintaining a symmetrical thermal boundary condition about the middle of the cell. By using symmetric boundary conditions, the thermal pathway around the cell casing can be significantly reduced, leading to improved measurement accuracy. These novel methods represent the future for thermal characterisation of lithium-ion batteries. Continuing to use flawed measurement methods will only diminish the performance of battery packs and slow the rate of decarbonisation in the transport sector.

Journal article

Russell F, Hales A, White G, Patel Yet al., 2022, <p>A system for determining Li-ion cell cooling coefficients</p>, HARDWAREX, Vol: 11

Current battery data sheets focus on battery energy and power density, neglecting thermal performance. This leads to reduced system level efficiency since cells with poor thermal performance require larger, heavier cooling systems to maintain cell temperatures in a suitable range. To address this a new metric, the Cell Cooling Coefficient (CCC), has been developed and it’s use as a tool for appropriate cell selection has been demonstrated. It also allows the pack designer to calculate which cooling direction method is most suitable by comparing CCC values for tab and surface cooling.The metric is the ratio between the heat rejected from the cell and the temperature difference between the hottest and coolest point. It therefore has units WK−1 and allows a pack designer to easily calculate the required amount of cooling power for the cell given a maximum acceptable temperature rise. In this paper we describe a system and method for the accurate determination of the CCC with the aim of facilitating wider adoption of the metric. The system is able to reliably quantify the surface and tab cooling CCC of any pouch cell.

Journal article

Roe C, Feng X, White G, Li R, Wang H, Rui X, Li C, Zhang F, Null V, Parkes M, Patel Y, Wang Y, Wang H, Ouyang M, Offer G, Wu Bet al., 2022, Immersion cooling for lithium-ion batteries – a review, Journal of Power Sources, Vol: 525, Pages: 231094-231094, ISSN: 0378-7753

Battery thermal management systems are critical for high performance electric vehicles, where the ability to remove heat and homogenise temperature distributions in single cells and packs are key considerations. Immersion cooling, which submerges the battery in a dielectric fluid, has the potential of increasing the rate of heat transfer by 10,000 times relative to passive air cooling. In 2-phase systems, this performance increase is achieved through the latent heat of evaporation of the liquid-to-gas phase transition and the resulting turbulent 2-phase fluid flow. However, 2-phase systems require additional system complexity, and single-phase direct contact immersion cooling can still offer up to 1,000 times improvements in heat transfer over air cooled systems. Fluids which have been considered include: hydrofluoroethers, mineral oils, esters and water-glycol mixtures. This review therefore presents the current state-of-the-art in immersion cooling of lithium-ion batteries, discussing the performance implications of immersion cooling but also identifying gaps in the literature which include a lack of studies considering the lifetime, fluid stability, material compatibility, understanding around sustainability and use of immersion for battery safety. Insights from this review will therefore help researchers and developers, from academia and industry, towards creating higher power, safer and more durable electric vehicles.

Journal article

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