Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Infectious Disease

Research Associate







Lift bank D, room H.2.06Chelsea and Westminster HospitalChelsea and Westminster Campus





Gladys completed a BSc in Medical Laboratory Science at Kenyatta University in 2010, and from 2010 to 2015 worked as a Research Officer at the KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research program in Kenya. There she investigated the possible protective role of B cell responses in a cohort of HIV exposed but persistently HIV seronegative men who have sex with men (MSM). During this time Gladys successfully applied for a travel grant from the HIV Research Trust that facilitated training on assays related to antibody function at The Scripps Research Institute and was also awarded a 30 month MSc fellowship by the Wellcome Trust that saw her complete a MSc in immunology at Imperial College London under the supervision of Dr Nesrina Imami and Prof Jill Gilmour.

During her MSc, Gladys investigated the role of HIV viral replicative capacity on the early immune response and disease progression. Her PhD explored the role of transmitted/founder virus characteristics in driving HIV pathogenesis and was supported by the the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative and the Emory Vaccine Center.

Her current work now employs a range of cellular assays and bioinformatics tools to study the virological traits of HIV that influence disease pathogenesis and can inform HIV cure and vaccine strategies.


Hare, J., G. Macharia, L. Yue, C. L. Streatfield, E. Hunter, A. Purcell, N. Ternette, and J. Gilmour. 2021. 'Direct identification of HLA-presented CD8 T cell epitopes from transmitted founder HIV-1 variants', Proteomics, 21: e2100142.

Macharia, G. N., L. Yue, E. Staller, D. Dilernia, D. Wilkins, H. Song, E. McGowan, D. King, P. Fast, N. Imami, M. A. Price, E. J. Sanders, E. Hunter, and J. Gilmour. 2020. 'Infection with multiple HIV-1 founder variants is associated with lower viral replicative capacity, faster CD4 T cell decline and increased immune activation during acute infection', PLoS Pathog, 16: e1008853.

Makinde J., Nduati EW, Freni-Sterrantino A, Streatfield C, Kibirige C, Dalel J., Black LS, Hayes P., Macharia G, Hare J, King D, Joseph S, McGowan E, Abel B, The IAVI Protocol C investigators, Hunter E, Sanders EJ, Price M, Gilmour G. 2021. 'A novel sample selection approach to aid the identification of factors that correlate with the control of HIV-1 infection', Front Immunol. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.634832.

McGowan, E., R. Rosenthal, A. Fiore-Gartland, G. Macharia, S. Balinda, A. Kapaata, G. Umviligihozo, E. Muok, J. Dalel, C. L. Streatfield, H. Coutinho, D. Dilernia, D. C. Monaco, D. Morrison, L. Yue, E. Hunter, M. Nielsen, J. Gilmour, J. Hare. 2021. 'Utilizing computational machine learning tools to understand immunogenic breadth in the context of a CD8 T-cell mediated HIV-1 response', Front Immunol, 12: 609884.

El-Badry, E., G. Macharia, D. Claiborne, K. Brooks, D. A. Dilernia, P. Goepfert, W. Kilembe, S. Allen, J. Gilmour, and E. Hunter. 2020. 'Better Viral Control despite Higher CD4( ) T Cell Activation during Acute HIV-1 Infection in Zambian Women Is Linked to the Sex Hormone Estradiol', J Virol, 94.

Claiborne DT, Scully EP, Palmer CD, Prince JL, Macharia GN, Kopycinski J, Michelo CM, Wiener HW, Parker R, Nganou-Makamdop K, Douek D, Altfeld M, GilmourJ, Price MA, Tang J, Kilembe W, Allen SA, Hunter E. Protective HLA alleles are associated with reduced LPS levels in acute HIV infection with implications for immune activation and pathogenesis. PLoS Pathog. 2019 Aug 26;15(8):e1007981. PMCID: PMC6730937.

Muema, D. M., Macharia, G. N., Olusola, B. A., Hassan, A. S., Fegan, G. W., Berkley, J. A., Urban, B. C. & Nduati, E. W. (2017) Proportions of circulating follicular helper T cells are reduced and correlate with memory B cells in HIV-infected children. PLoS One, 12(4), e0175570

Claiborne, D. T., Prince, J. L., Scully, E., Macharia, G., Micci, L., Lawson, B., Kopycinski, J., Deymier, M. J., Vanderford, T. H., Nganou-Makamdop, K., Ende, Z., Brooks, K., Tang, J., Yu, T., Lakhi, S., Kilembe, W., Silvestri, G., Douek, D., Goepfert, P. A., Price, M. A., Allen, S. A., Paiardini, M., Altfeld, M., Gilmour, J. & Hunter, E. (2015) Replicative fitness of transmitted HIV-1 drives acute immune activation, proviral load in memory CD4 T cells, and disease progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 112(12), E1480-9.

Muema, D. M., Macharia, G. N., Hassan, A. S., Mwaringa, S. M., Fegan, G. W., Berkley, J. A., Nduati, E. W. & Urban, B. C. (2015) Control of Viremia Enables Acquisition of Resting Memory B Cells with Age and Normalization of Activated B Cell Phenotypes in HIV-Infected Children. J Immunol, 195(3), 1082-91.


Gladys Macharia, Ecco Staller, Ling Yue, Elina El-Badry, Dario Dilernia, Edward McGowan, Nesrina Imami, Eduard Sanders, Eric Hunter and Jill Gilmour. Infection With Multiple Transmitted/Founder (TF) HIV-1 Viruses impacts peak VL and HIV-1 pathogenesis. Research for Prevention 2018: AIDS Vaccine, Microbicide and ARV-based Prevention Science (HIV R4P). 21st - 26th October, Madrid, Spain.

Gladys Macharia, Ling Yue, Dario Dilernia, Elina El-Badry, Edward McGowan, Matt Price, Eduard Sanders, Jill Gilmour and Eric Hunter. Transmission of multiple HIV-1 founder viruses with high level of recombination in MSM in Kenya. Research for Prevention 2016: AIDS Vaccine, Microbicide and ARV-based Prevention Science (HIV R4P). 17th- 21st October, Chicago, USA.

Gladys Macharia, Ling Yue, Dario Dilernia, Ecco Staller, Daniel Wilkins, Elina El-Badry, Edward McGowan, Nesrina Imami, Eduard Sanders, Jill Gilmour and Eric Hunter. Transmission of multiple HIV-1 founder viruses with high level of recombination in Kenyan Men who have sex with men (MSM). HIV transmission meeting. 16th October 2016. Chicago, USA.

Elina El-Badry, Gladys Macharia, Daniel Claiborne, William Kilembe, Jill Gilmour, Susan Allen and Eric Hunter.  Zambian women exhibit an exacerbated inflammatory response to early HIV infection compared to men. Keystone Symposia: HIV & Co-Infections. British Columbia, Canada. April  15th-19th 2018.

Jill Gilmour, Anatoli Kamali, Etienne Karita, William Kilembe, Eduard J. Sanders, Omu Anzala, Susan Allen, Vinodh Edward, Fran Priddy, Matt A. Price, Gladys Macharia, Joshua Baalwa, Shane Crotty, Thomas Denny, Elise Landais, Persephone Borrow, Jianming Tang, Michael Busch, Jessica Prince, Dan Claiborne, Pascal Poignard, Pat Fast, Eric Hunter. African Early Infection Cohort as a Platform for Vaccine Discovery: The IAVI Protocol C Experience. Research for Prevention 2014: AIDS Vaccine, Microbicide and ARV-based Prevention Science (HIV R4P). 28th- 31st October, Cape Town, South Africa.

Daniel Claiborne, Jessica Prince, Eileen Scully, Gladys Macharia, Jakub Kopycinski, Krystelle Nganou-Makamdop, Jianming Tang, Paul Goepfert, Tianwei Yu, Shabir Lakhi, William Kilembe, Daniel Douek, Jill Gilmour, Matthew Price, Marcus Altfeld, Susan Allen, Eric Hunter. Protective HLA Alleles Reduce Markers of Gut Damage and Microbial Translocation and Preserve the Cellular Immune Response during Acute HIV-1 Infection. Research for Prevention 2014: AIDS Vaccine, Microbicide and ARV-based Prevention Science (HIV R4P). 28th- 31st October, Cape Town, South Africa.

Jessica L. Prince, Daniel T. Claiborne, Gladys Macharia, Luca Micci, Benton Lawson, Eileen Scully, Jakub Kopycinski, Thomas Vanderford, Jianming Tang, Tianwei Yu, Shabir Lakhi, William Kilembe, Guido Silvestri, Paul Goepfert, Matthew A. Price, Marcus Altfeld, Mirko Paiardini, Jill Gilmour, Susan Allen, Eric Hunter.  HIV Replicative Capacity of Transmitted Viruses Is Associated with Early Immune Activation, Exhaustion and Establishment of the Viral Reservoir. Research for Prevention 2014: AIDS Vaccine, Microbicide and ARV-based Prevention Science (HIV R4P). 28th- 31st October, Cape Town, South Africa.