78 results found
Palermo F, Chen Y, Capstick A, et al., 2023, TIHM: an open dataset for remote healthcare monitoring in dementia, Scientific Data, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2052-4463
Dementia is a progressive condition that affects cognitive and functional abilities. There is a need for reliable and continuous health monitoring of People Living with Dementia (PLWD) to improve their quality of life and support their independent living. Healthcare services often focus on addressing and treating already established health conditions that affect PLWD. Managing these conditions continuously can inform better decision-making earlier for higher-quality care management for PLWD. The Technology Integrated Health Management (TIHM) project developed a new digital platform to routinely collect longitudinal, observational, and measurement data, within the home and apply machine learning and analytical models for the detection and prediction of adverse health events affecting the well-being of PLWD. This work describes the TIHM dataset collected during the second phase (i.e., feasibility study) of the TIHM project. The data was collected from homes of 56 PLWD and associated with events and clinical observations (daily activity, physiological monitoring, and labels for health-related conditions). The study recorded an average of 50 days of data per participant, totalling 2803 days.
Kurtin DL, Scott G, Hebron H, et al., 2023, Task-based differences in brain state dynamics and their relation to cognitive ability, NeuroImage, Vol: 271, ISSN: 1053-8119
Transient patterns of interregional connectivity form and dissipate in response to varying cognitive demands. Yet, it is not clear how different cognitive demands influence brain state dynamics, and whether these dynamics relate to general cognitive ability. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, we characterised shared, recurrent, global brain states in 187 participants across the working memory, emotion, language, and relation tasks from the Human Connectome Project. Brain states were determined using Leading Eigenvector Dynamics Analysis (LEiDA). In addition to the LEiDA-based metrics of brain state lifetimes and probabilities, we also computed information-theoretic measures of Block Decomposition Method of complexity, Lempel-Ziv complexity and transition entropy. Information theoretic metrics are notable in their ability to compute relationships amongst sequences of states over time, compared to lifetime and probability, which capture the behaviour of each state in isolation. We then related task-based brain state metrics to fluid intelligence. We observed that brain states exhibited stable topology across a range of numbers of clusters (K = 2:15). Most metrics of brain state dynamics, including state lifetime, probability, and all information theoretic metrics, reliably differed between tasks. However, relationships between state dynamic metrics and cognitive abilities varied according to the task, the metric, and the value of K, indicating that there are contextual relationships between task-dependant state dynamics and trait cognitive ability. This study provides evidence that the brain reconfigures across time in response to cognitive demands, and that there are contextual, rather than generalisable, relationships amongst task, state dynamics, and cognitive ability.
Loreto F, Gontsarova A, Scott G, et al., 2023, Visual atrophy rating scales and amyloid PET status in an Alzheimer's disease clinical cohort, Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology, Vol: 10, Pages: 619-631, ISSN: 2328-9503
Objectives:Visual rating scales (VRS) are the quantification method closest to the approach used in routine clinical practice to assess brain atrophy. Previous studies have suggested that the medial temporal atrophy (MTA) rating scale is a reliable diagnostic marker for AD, equivalent to volumetric quantification, while others propose a higher diagnostic utility for the Posterior Atrophy (PA) scale in early-onset AD.Methods:Here, we reviewed 14 studies that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of PA and MTA, we explored the issue of cut-off heterogeneity, and assessed 9 rating scales in a group of patients with biomarker-confirmed diagnosis. A neuroradiologist blinded to all clinical information rated the MR images of 39 amyloid-positive and 38 amyloid-negative patients using 9 validated VRS assessing multiple brain regions. Automated volumetric analyses were performed on a subset of patients (n = 48) and on a group of cognitively normal individuals (n = 28).Results:No single VRS could differentiate amyloid-positive from amyloid-negative patients with other neurodegenerative conditions. 44% of amyloid-positive patients were deemed to have age-appropriate levels of MTA. In the amyloid-positive group, 18% had no abnormal MTA or PA scores. These findings were substantially affected by cut-off selection. Amyloid-positive and amyloid-negative patients had comparable hippocampal and parietal volumes, and MTA but not PA scores correlated with the respective volumetric measures.Interpretation:Consensus guidelines are needed before VRS can be recommended for use in the diagnostic workup of AD. Our data are suggestive of high intragroup variability and non-superiority of volumetric quantification of atrophy over visual assessment.
Scott G, 2023, A transformational “weird feeling”: dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial, Practical Neurology, Vol: 23, Pages: 170-172, ISSN: 1474-7766
David MCB, Kolanko M, Del Giovane M, et al., 2023, Remote monitoring of physiology in people living with dementia: an observational cohort study, JMIR Aging, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2561-7605
BACKGROUND: Internet of Things (IoT) technology enables physiological measurements to be recorded at home from people living with dementia and monitored remotely. However, measurements from people with dementia in this context have not been previously studied. We report on the distribution of physiological measurements from 82 people with dementia over approximately 2 years. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to characterize the physiology of people with dementia when measured in the context of their own homes. We also wanted to explore the possible use of an alerts-based system for detecting health deterioration and discuss the potential applications and limitations of this kind of system. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal community-based cohort study of people with dementia using "Minder," our IoT remote monitoring platform. All people with dementia received a blood pressure machine for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, a pulse oximeter measuring oxygen saturation and heart rate, body weight scales, and a thermometer, and were asked to use each device once a day at any time. Timings, distributions, and abnormalities in measurements were examined, including the rate of significant abnormalities ("alerts") defined by various standardized criteria. We used our own study criteria for alerts and compared them with the National Early Warning Score 2 criteria. RESULTS: A total of 82 people with dementia, with a mean age of 80.4 (SD 7.8) years, recorded 147,203 measurements over 958,000 participant-hours. The median percentage of days when any participant took any measurements (ie, any device) was 56.2% (IQR 33.2%-83.7%, range 2.3%-100%). Reassuringly, engagement of people with dementia with the system did not wane with time, reflected in there being no change in the weekly number of measurements with respect to time (1-sample t-test on slopes of linear fit, P=.45). A total of 45% of people with dementia met criteria for hypertension. People with dem
Mallas E-J, Gorgoraptis N, Dautricourt S, et al., 2022, Pathological slow-wave activity and impaired working memory binding in post-traumatic amnesia, The Journal of Neuroscience, Vol: 42, Pages: 9193-9210, ISSN: 0270-6474
Associative binding is key to normal memory function and is transiently disrupted during periods of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Electrophysiological abnormalities including low-frequency activity are common following TBI. Here, we investigate associative memory binding during PTA and test the hypothesis that misbinding is caused by pathological slowing of brain activity disrupting cortical communication. Thirty acute moderate-severe TBI patients (25 males; 5 females) and 26 healthy controls (20 males; 6 females) were tested with a precision working memory paradigm requiring the association of object and location information. Electrophysiological effects of TBI were assessed using resting-state EEG in a subsample of 17 patients and 21 controls. PTA patients showed abnormalities in working memory function and made significantly more misbinding errors than patients who were not in PTA and controls. The distribution of localisation responses was abnormally biased by the locations of non-target items for patients in PTA suggesting a specific impairment of object and location binding. Slow wave activity was increased following TBI. Increases in the delta-alpha ratio indicative of an increase in low-frequency power specifically correlated with binding impairment in working memory. Connectivity changes in TBI did not correlate with binding impairment. Working memory and electrophysiological abnormalities normalised at six-month follow-up. These results show that patients in PTA show high rates of misbinding that are associated with a pathological shift towards lower frequency oscillations.
Mahmud M, Hadi Z, Prendergast M, et al., 2022, The effect of galvanic vestibular stimulation on postural balance in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Journal of the Neurological Sciences, Vol: 442, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 0022-510X
People with Parkinson's disease (PD) develop postural imbalance and falls. Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) may potentially improve postural balance in humans and hence reduce falls in PD. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigate the effects of GVS on postural balance in PD.Six separate databases and research registers were searched for cross-over design trials that evaluated the effects of GVS on postural balance in PD. We used standardized mean difference (Hedges' g) as a measure of effect size in all studies.We screened 223 studies, evaluated 14, of which five qualified for the meta-analysis. Among n = 40 patients in five studies (range n = 5 to 13), using a fixed effects model we found an effect size estimate of g = 0.43 (p < 0.001, 95% CI [0.29,0.57]). However, the test for residual heterogeneity was significant (p < 0.001), thus we used a random effects model and found a pooled effect size estimate of 0.62 (p > 0.05, 95% CI [− 0.17, 1.41], I2 = 96.21%). Egger's test was not significant and thus trim and funnel plot indicated no bias. To reduce heterogeneity, we performed sensitivity analysis and by removing one outlier study (n = 7 patients), we found an effect size estimate of 0.16 (p < 0.05, 95% CI [0.01, 0.31], I2 = 0%).Our meta-analysis found GVS has a favourable effect on postural balance in PD patients, but due to limited literature and inconsistent methodologies, this favourable effect must be interpreted with caution.
Waheed A, Presswood E, Scott G, 2022, Organisational values of National Health Service trusts in England: semantic analysis and relation to performance indicators, BMJ LEADER, Vol: 6, Pages: 192-198
Britton Z, Scott G, 2022, Ocular Ipsipulsion Caused by Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Stroke, STROKE, Vol: 53, Pages: E122-E125, ISSN: 0039-2499
Schubert JJ, Veronese M, Scott G, et al., 2021, Evidence of blood-to-cerebrospinal fluid alterations in traumatic brain injury, Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, Pages: 87-88, ISSN: 0271-678X
Scott G, Leech R, 2021, Identifying components that vary in space and time from resting-state functional MRI
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>A widespread assumption of fMRI-derived large-scale intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) is that they are spatially static over time. However, the assumption of spatial stationarity of ICNs has been challenged by a range of techniques that allow for time-varying connectivity between brain regions and demonstration that canonical networks like the default model network (DMN) can be fractionated according to time-varying connectivity relationships of their subcomponents. Previously, we developed a simple spatiotemporal ICA (stICA) technique to allow the discovery of patterns of spatiotemporal evolution in task fMRI data in a way that avoided the traditional constraint of spatial stationarity on brain networks, and we validated the approach in fMRI of task-to-rest transitions. Here, we apply our stICA technique to resting-state fMRI datasets to explore whether spatiotemporally evolving components of brain activity can be identified in the absence of an overt behavioural task. We found that stICA components could generally be described in terms of graded onsets and offsets of ICNs that had been calculated based on techniques that assumed spatial stationarity. Our results suggest that, to a reasonable approximation, stable ICNs can be taken to be building blocks of the spatiotemporal patterns measured with resting-state fMRI.</jats:p>
Sandrone S, Scott G, Anderson WJ, et al., 2021, Active learning-based STEM education for in-person and online learning, CELL, Vol: 184, Pages: 1409-1414, ISSN: 0092-8674
Beppi C, Violante IR, Scott G, et al., 2021, EEG, MEG and neuromodulatory approaches to explore cognition: Current status and future directions, BRAIN AND COGNITION, Vol: 148, ISSN: 0278-2626
Mallas E-J, De Simoni S, Scott G, et al., 2021, Abnormal dorsal attention network activation in memory impairment after traumatic brain injury, Brain: a journal of neurology, Vol: 144, Pages: 114-127, ISSN: 0006-8950
Memory impairment is a common, disabling effect of traumatic brain injury. In healthy individuals, successful memory encoding is associated with activation of the dorsal attention network as well as suppression of the default mode network. Here, in traumatic brain injurypatients we examined whether: i) impairments in memory encoding are associated with abnormal brain activation in these networks; ii) whether changes in this brain activity predict subsequent memory retrieval; and iii) whether abnormal white matter integrity underpinningfunctional networks is associated with impaired subsequent memory. 35 patients with moderate-severetraumatic brain injury aged 23-65 years (74% males) in the post-acute/chronic phase after injury and 16 healthy controls underwent functional MRI during performance of an abstract image memory encoding task. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to assess structural abnormalities across patient groups compared to 28 age-matched healthy controls. Successful memory encoding across all participants was associated with activation of the dorsal attention network, the ventral visual stream and medial temporal lobes. Decreased activation was seen in the default mode network. Patients with preserved episodic memory demonstrated increased activation in areas of the dorsal attention network.Patients with impaired memory showed increased left anterior prefrontal activity. White matter microstructure underpinning connectivity between core nodes of the encoding networks was significantly reduced in patients with memory impairment. Our results show for the first time that patients with impaired episodic memory show abnormal activation of key nodes within the dorsal attention network and regions regulating default mode network activity during encoding. Successful encoding was associated with an opposite direction of signal
Graham NSN, Jolly A, Zimmerman K, et al., 2020, Diffuse axonal injury predicts neurodegeneration after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury, Brain: a journal of neurology, Vol: 143, Pages: 3685-3698, ISSN: 0006-8950
Traumatic brain injury is associated with elevated rates of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. In experimental models, diffuse axonal injury triggers post-traumatic neurodegeneration, with axonal damage leading to Wallerian degeneration and toxic proteinopathies of amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau. However, in humans the link between diffuse axonal injury and subsequent neurodegeneration has yet to be established. Here we test the hypothesis that the severity and location of diffuse axonal injury predicts the degree of progressive post-traumatic neurodegeneration. We investigated longitudinal changes in 55 patients in the chronic phase after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury and 19 healthy control subjects. Fractional anisotropy was calculated from diffusion tensor imaging as a measure of diffuse axonal injury. Jacobian determinant atrophy rates were calculated from serial volumetric T1 scans as a measure of measure post-traumatic neurodegeneration. We explored a range of potential predictors of longitudinal post-traumatic neurodegeneration and compared the variance in brain atrophy that they explained. Patients showed widespread evidence of diffuse axonal injury, with reductions of fractional anisotropy at baseline and follow-up in large parts of the white matter. No significant changes in fractional anisotropy over time were observed. In contrast, abnormally high rates of brain atrophy were seen in both the grey and white matter. The location and extent of diffuse axonal injury predicted the degree of brain atrophy: fractional anisotropy predicted progressive atrophy in both whole-brain and voxelwise analyses. The strongest relationships were seen in central white matter tracts, including the body of the corpus callosum, which are most commonly affected by diffuse axonal injury. Diffuse axonal injury predicted substantially more variability in white matter atrophy than other putative clinical or ima
Jolly A, Scott G, Sharp D, et al., 2020, Distinct patterns of structural damage underlie working memory and reasoning deficits after traumatic brain injury, Brain: a journal of neurology, Vol: 143, Pages: 1158-1176, ISSN: 0006-8950
It is well established that chronic cognitive problems after traumatic brain injury (TBI) relate to diffuse axonal injury (DAI) and the consequent widespread disruption of brain connectivity. However, the pattern of DAI varies between patients and they have a correspondingly heterogeneous profile of cognitive deficits. This heterogeneity is poorly understood, presenting a non-trivial challenge for prognostication and treatment. Prominent amongst cognitive problems are deficits in working memory and reasoning. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in controls has associated these aspects of cognition with distinct, but partially overlapping, networks of brain regions. Based on this, a logical prediction is that differences in the integrity of the white matter tracts that connect these networks should predict variability in the type and severity of cognitive deficits after TBI.We use diffusion-weighted imaging, cognitive testing and network analyses to test this prediction. We define functionally distinct sub-networks of the structural connectome by intersecting previously published fMRI maps of the brain regions that are activated during our working memory and reasoning tasks, with a library of the white-matter tracts that connect them. We examine how graph theoretic measures within these sub-networks relate to the performance of the same tasks in a cohort of 92 moderate-severe TBI patients. Finally, we use machine learning to determine whether cognitive performance in patients can be predicted using graph theoretic measures from each sub-network.Principal component analysis of behavioural scores confirm that reasoning and working memory form distinct components of cognitive ability, both of which are vulnerable to TBI. Critically, impairments in these abilities after TBI correlate in a dissociable manner with the information-processing architecture of the sub-networks that they are associated with. This dissociation is confirmed when examining degree
Lim SY, Bodagh N, Scott G, et al., 2019, Hyponatraemia: the importance of obtaining a detailed history and corroborating point-of-care analysis with laboratory testing, BMJ Case Reports, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1757-790X
We describe a 67-year-old man admitted from a mental health unit with an incidental finding of hyponatraemia on routine blood tests. Laboratory investigations were in keeping with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). He had been recently commenced on mirtazapine. During his inpatient stay, he became increasingly confused. Review of a previous admission with hyponatraemia raised the possibility of voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-associated limbic encephalitis, although subsequent investigations deemed this unlikely as a cause of hyponatraemia. Although his sodium levels improved with fluid restriction, serial point-of-care testing proved misleading in monitoring the efficacy of treatment as inconsistencies were seen in comparison with laboratory testing. The cause of hyponatraemia may have been medication-induced SIADH and/or polydipsia. This case highlights the importance of collating detailed histories and laboratory blood testing to guide management in cases of hyponatraemia of unknown aetiology.
Jolly AE, Raymont V, Cole JH, et al., 2019, Dopamine D2/D3 receptor abnormalities after traumatic brain injury and their relationship to post-traumatic depression, NeuroImage: Clinical, Vol: 24, ISSN: 2213-1582
ObjectiveTo investigate dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their relationship to the presence of DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and patterns of axonal injury.MethodsTwelve moderate-severe TBI patients and 26 controls were imaged using [11C]PHNO positron emission tomography (PET) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). TBI patients and a second group of 32 controls also underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and neuropsychological assessment. Patients included six with post-injury MDD (TBI-MDD) and six without (TBI-NON). Non-displaceable binding potential (BPND) [11C]PHNO values were used to index D2/D3 receptor availability, and were calculated using a reference region procedure. Differences in BPND were examined using voxelwise and region-of-interest analyses. White matter microstructure integrity, quantified by fractional anisotropy (FA), was assessed and correlated with BPND.ResultsLower [11C]PHNO BPND was found in the caudate across all TBI patients when compared to controls. Lower [11C]PHNO BPND was observed in the caudate of TBI-MDD patients and increased [11C]PHNO BPND in the Amygdala of TBI-NON patients compared to controls. There were no significant differences in [11C]PHNO BPND between TBI-MDD and TBI-NON patients. Furthermore, DTI provided evidence of axonal injury following TBI. The uncinate fasciculus and cingulum had abnormally low FA, with the uncinate particularly affected in TBI-MDD patients. Caudate [11C]PHNO BPND correlated with FA within the nigro-caudate tract.Conclusions[11C]PHNO BPND is abnormal following TBI, which indicates post-traumatic changes in D2/D3 receptors. Patterns of [11C]PHNO BPND seen in patients with and without MDD suggest that further research would be beneficial to determine whether the use of dopaminergic treatment might be effective in the treatment of post-traumatic depression.
Jenkins PO, De Simoni S, Bourke NJ, et al., 2019, Stratifying drug treatment of cognitive impairments after traumatic brain injury using neuroimaging, Brain, Vol: 142, Pages: 2367-2379, ISSN: 1460-2156
Cognitive impairment is common following traumatic brain injury. Dopaminergic drugs can enhance cognition after traumatic brain injury, but individual responses are highly variable. This may be due to variability in dopaminergic damage between patients. We investigate whether measuring dopamine transporter levels using 123I-ioflupane single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) predicts response to methylphenidate, a stimulant with dopaminergic effects. Forty patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury and cognitive impairments completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. 123I-ioflupane SPECT, MRI and neuropsychological testing were performed. Patients received 0.3 mg/kg of methylphenidate or placebo twice a day in 2-week blocks. Subjects received neuropsychological assessment after each block and completed daily home cognitive testing during the trial. The primary outcome measure was change in choice reaction time produced by methylphenidate and its relationship to stratification of patients into groups with normal and low dopamine transporter binding in the caudate. Overall, traumatic brain injury patients showed slow information processing speed. Patients with low caudate dopamine transporter binding showed improvement in response times with methylphenidate compared to placebo [median change = -16 ms; 95% confidence interval (CI): -28 to -3 ms; P = 0.02]. This represents a 27% improvement in the slowing produced by traumatic brain injury. Patients with normal dopamine transporter binding did not improve. Daily home-based choice reaction time results supported this: the low dopamine transporter group improved (median change -19 ms; 95% CI: -23 to -7 ms; P = 0.002) with no change in the normal dopamine transporter group (P = 0.50). The low dopamine transporter group also improved on self-reported and caregiver apathy assessments (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively). Both groups reported improvements in fatigue (P = 0.03
Scott G, Carhart-Harris R, 2019, Psychedelics as a treatment for disorders of consciousness, Neuroscience of Consciousness, Vol: 2019, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 2057-2107
Based on its ability to increase brain complexity, a seemingly reliable index of conscious level, we proposetesting the capacity ofthe classic psychedelic, psilocybin,to increase conscious awarenessin patients with disorders of consciousness.We alsoconfrontthe considerable ethical and practical challengesthis proposal must address, if this hypothesis is to be directly assessed.
Jenkins PO, De Simoni S, Bourke N, et al., 2018, Dopaminergic abnormalities following traumatic brain injury, Brain, Vol: 141, Pages: 797-810, ISSN: 1460-2156
Traumatic brain injury can reduce striatal dopamine levels. The cause of this is uncertain, but is likely to be related to damage to the nigrostriatal system. We investigated the pattern of striatal dopamine abnormalities using 123I-Ioflupane single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans and their relationship to nigrostriatal damage and clinical features. We studied 42 moderate–severe traumatic brain injury patients with cognitive impairments but no motor parkinsonism signs and 20 healthy controls. 123I-Ioflupane scanning was used to assess dopamine transporter levels. Clinical scan reports were compared to quantitative dopamine transporter results. Advanced MRI methods were used to assess the nigrostriatal system, including the area through which the nigrostriatal projections pass as defined from high-resolution Human Connectome data. Detailed clinical and neuropsychological assessments were performed. Around 20% of our moderate–severe patients had clear evidence of reduced specific binding ratios for the dopamine transporter in the striatum measured using 123I-Ioflupane SPECT. The caudate was affected more consistently than other striatal regions. Dopamine transporter abnormalities were associated with reduced substantia nigra volume. In addition, diffusion MRI provided evidence of damage to the regions through which the nigrostriatal tract passes, particularly the area traversed by dopaminergic projections to the caudate. Only a small percentage of patients had evidence of macroscopic lesions in the striatum and there was no relationship between presence of lesions and dopamine transporter specific binding ratio abnormalities. There was also no relationship between reduced volume in the striatal subregions and reduced dopamine transporter specific binding ratios. Patients with low caudate dopamine transporter specific binding ratios show impaired processing speed and executive dysfunction compared to patients with normal levels. Taken toge
Cole JH, Jolly A, De Simoni S, et al., 2018, Spatial patterns of progressive brain volume loss after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury, Brain, Vol: 141, Pages: 822-836, ISSN: 1460-2156
Traumatic brain injury leads to significant loss of brain volume, which continues into the chronic stage. This can be sensitively measured using volumetric analysis of magnetic resonance imaging. Here we: (i) investigated longitudinal patterns of brain atrophy; (ii) tested whether atrophy is greatest in sulcal cortical regions, and (iii) showed how atrophy could be used to power intervention trials aimed at slowing neurodegeneration. In 61 moderate/severe traumatic brain injury patients (mean age = 41.55 years ± 12.77) and 32 healthy controls (mean age = 34.22 years ± 10.29), cross-sectional and longitudinal (one-year follow-up) brain structure was assessed using voxel-based morphometry on T1-weighted scans. Longitudinal brain volume changes were characterised using a novel neuroimaging analysis pipeline that generates a Jacobian determinant metric, reflecting spatial warping between baseline and follow-up scans. Jacobian determinant values were summarised regionally and compared with clinical and neuropsychological measures. Traumatic brain injury patients showed lower grey and white matter volume in multiple brain regions compared to controls at baseline. Atrophy over one year was pronounced following traumatic brain injury. Traumatic brain injury patients lost a mean (± standard deviation) of 1.55% ± 2.19 of grey matter volume per year, 1.49% ± 2.20 of white matter volume or 1.51% ± 1.60 of whole brain volume. Healthy controls lost 0.55% ± 1.13 of grey matter volume and gained 0.26% ± 1.11 of white matter volume; equating to a 0.22% ± 0.83 reduction in whole brain volume. Atrophy was greatest in white matter, where the majority (84%) of regions were affected. This effect was independent of and substantially greater than that of ageing. Increased atrophy was also seen in cortical sulci compared to gyri. There was no relationship between atrophy and time since injury or age at baseline. Atrophy rates we
Scott GPT, Zetterberg H, Jolly A, et al., 2017, Minocycline reduces chronic microglial activation after brain trauma but increases neurodegeneration, Brain, Vol: 141, Pages: 459-471, ISSN: 1460-2156
Survivors of a traumatic brain injury can deteriorate years later, developing brain atrophy and dementia. Traumatic brain injury triggers chronic microglial activation, but it is unclear whether this is harmful or beneficial. A successful chronic-phase treatment for traumatic brain injury might be to target microglia. In experimental models, the antibiotic minocycline inhibits microglial activation. We investigated the effect of minocycline on microglial activation and neurodegeneration using PET, MRI, and measurement of the axonal protein neurofilament light in plasma. Microglial activation was assessed using 11C-PBR28 PET. The relationships of microglial activation to measures of brain injury, and the effects of minocycline on disease progression, were assessed using structural and diffusion MRI, plasma neurofilament light, and cognitive assessment. Fifteen patients at least 6 months after a moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury received either minocycline 100 mg orally twice daily or no drug, for 12 weeks. At baseline, 11C-PBR28 binding in patients was increased compared to controls in cerebral white matter and thalamus, and plasma neurofilament light levels were elevated. MRI measures of white matter damage were highest in areas of greater 11C-PBR28 binding. Minocycline reduced 11C-PBR28 binding (mean Δwhite matter binding = −23.30%, 95% confidence interval −40.9 to −5.64%, P = 0.018), but increased plasma neurofilament light levels. Faster rates of brain atrophy were found in patients with higher baseline neurofilament light levels. In this experimental medicine study, minocycline after traumatic brain injury reduced chronic microglial activation while increasing a marker of neurodegeneration. These findings suggest that microglial activation has a reparative effect in the chronic phase of traumatic brain injury.
Datta G, Colasanti A, Kalk N, et al., 2017, [(11)C]PBR28 or [(18)F]PBR111 detect white matter inflammatory heterogeneity in multiple sclerosis, Journal of Nuclear Medicine, Vol: 58, Pages: 1477-1482, ISSN: 1535-5667
Objective: To assess microglial activation in lesions and in normal appearing white matter of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients using positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: 34 MS patients (7 with secondary progressive MS (SPMS), 27 with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS)) and 30 healthy volunteers, genetically stratified for translocator protein (TSPO), binding status underwent PET scanning with TSPO radioligands ((11)C-PBR28 or (18)F-PBR111). Regional TSPO availability was measured as a distribution volume ratio (DVR) relative to the caudate (a pseudo-reference region). White matter lesions (WML) were classified as "active" (DVR highest in the lesion), "peripherally active" (peri-lesional DVR highest), "inactive" (DVR highest in surrounding normal appearing white matter, NAWM) or "undifferentiated" (similar DVR across lesion, peri-lesional and NAWM volumes). Results: The mean DVR in NAWM of patients was greater than that of the healthy volunteer white matter for both radioligands. Uptake for individual WML in patients was heterogeneous, but the median WML DVR and NAWM DVR for individual patients were strongly correlated (ρ = 0.94, P = 4x10-11). A higher proportion of lesions were inactive in patients with SPMS (35 %) than RRMS (23 %), but active lesions were found in all patients, including those on highly efficacious treatments. Conclusion: TSPO radioligand uptake was increased in brains of MS patients relative to healthy controls with two TSPO radiotracers. WML showed heterogeneous patterns of uptake. Active lesions were found in patients with both RRMS and SPMS. Their independent prognostic significance needs further investigation.
Feeney C, Sharp DJ, Hellyer PJ, et al., 2017, Serum IGF-I levels are associated with improved white matter recovery after TBI., Annals of Neurology, Vol: 82, Pages: 30-43, ISSN: 0364-5134
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common disabling condition with limited treatment options. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures recovery of axonal injury in white matter (WM) tracts after TBI. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) after TBI may impair axonal and neuropsychological recovery, and serum IGF-I may mediate this effect. We conducted a longitudinal study to determine the effects of baseline serum IGF-I concentrations on WM tract and neuropsychological recovery after TBI. METHODS: Thirty-nine adults after TBI (84.6% male; age median 30.5y; 87.2% moderate-severe; time since TBI median 16.3 months, n=4 with GHD) were scanned twice, 13.3 months (12.1-14.9) apart, and 35 healthy controls scanned once. Symptom and quality of life questionnaires and cognitive assessments were completed at both visits (n=33). Our main outcome measure was fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of WM tract integrity, in a priori regions of interest: splenium of corpus callosum (SPCC), and posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC). RESULTS: At baseline, FA was reduced in many WM tracts including SPCC and PLIC following TBI compared to controls, indicating axonal injury, with longitudinal increases indicating axonal recovery. There was a significantly greater increase in SPCC FA over time in patients with serum IGF-I above vs. below the median-for-age. Only the higher IGF-I group had significant improvements in immediate verbal memory recall over time. INTERPRETATION: WM recovery and memory improvements after TBI were greater in patients with higher serum IGF-I at baseline. These findings suggest that GH/IGF-I system may be a potential therapeutic target following TBI. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Microglia have a variety of functions in the brain, including synaptic pruning, CNS repair and mediating the immune response against peripheral infection. Microglia rapidly become activated in response to CNS damage. Depending on the nature of the stimulus, microglia can take a number of activation states, which correspond to altered microglia morphology, gene expression and function. It has been reported that early microglia activation following traumatic brain injury (TBI) may contribute to the restoration of homeostasis in the brain. On the other hand, if they remain chronically activated, such cells display a classically activated phenotype, releasing pro-inflammatory molecules, resulting in further tissue damage and contributing potentially to neurodegeneration. However, new evidence suggests that this classification is over-simplistic and the balance of activation states can vary at different points. In this article, we review the role of microglia in TBI, analyzing their distribution, morphology and functional phenotype over time in animal models and in humans. Animal studies have allowed genetic and pharmacological manipulations of microglia activation, in order to define their role. In addition, we describe investigations on the in vivo imaging of microglia using translocator protein (TSPO) PET and autoradiography, showing that microglial activation can occur in regions far remote from sites of focal injuries, in humans and animal models of TBI. Finally, we outline some novel potential therapeutic approaches that prime microglia/macrophages toward the beneficial restorative microglial phenotype after TBI.
Datta G, Violante IR, Scott G, et al., 2016, Translocator positron-emission tomography and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of brain glial cell activation in multiple sclerosis., Multiple Sclerosis, Vol: 23, Pages: 1469-1478, ISSN: 1352-4585
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterised by a diffuse inflammatory response mediated by microglia and astrocytes. Brain translocator protein (TSPO) positron-emission tomography (PET) and [myo-inositol] magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) were used together to assess this. OBJECTIVE: To explore the in vivo relationships between MRS and PET [(11)C]PBR28 in MS over a range of brain inflammatory burden. METHODS: A total of 23 patients were studied. TSPO PET imaging with [(11)C]PBR28, single voxel MRS and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences were undertaken. Disability was assessed by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC). RESULTS: [(11)C]PBR28 uptake and [ myo-inositol] were not associated. When the whole cohort was stratified by higher [(11)C]PBR28 inflammatory burden, [ myo-inositol] was positively correlated to [(11)C]PBR28 uptake (Spearman's ρ = 0.685, p = 0.014). Moderate correlations were found between [(11)C]PBR28 uptake and both MRS creatine normalised N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) concentration and grey matter volume. MSFC was correlated with grey matter volume (ρ = 0.535, p = 0.009). There were no associations between other imaging or clinical measures. CONCLUSION: MRS [ myo-inositol] and PET [(11)C]PBR28 measure independent inflammatory processes which may be more commonly found together with more severe inflammatory disease. Microglial activation measured by [(11)C]PBR28 uptake was associated with loss of neuronal integrity and grey matter atrophy.
Scott G, Jolly A, Jenkins PO, et al., 2016, THE EFFECT OF MINOCYCLINE ON NEUROINFLAMMATION AFTER BRAIN TRAUMA, Annual Meeting of the Association-of-British-Neurologists (ABN), Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, ISSN: 0022-3050
Scott G, Mahmud M, Owen DR, et al., 2016, Microglial positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in epilepsy: applications, opportunities and pitfalls, Seizure-European Journal of Epilepsy, Vol: 44, Pages: 42-47, ISSN: 1059-1311
Neuroinflammation is increasingly implicated in epileptogenesis and epilepsy. Microglia are an important mediator of central nervous system inflammation, and the development of positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands which bind the Translocator Protein (TSPO), an outer mitochondrial membrane protein expressed by microglia, has enabled in vivo measurement of neuroinflammation. Here, we outline the principles and potential pitfalls of TSPO PET imaging in relation to epilepsy, and opportunities for using TSPO imaging as a biomarker for future anti-inflammatory based therapeutics in epilepsy.
De Simoni S, Grover PJ, Jenkins PO, et al., 2016, Disconnection between the default mode network and medial temporal lobes in post-traumatic amnesia, Brain, Vol: 139, Pages: 3137-3150, ISSN: 0006-8950
Post-traumatic amnesia is very common immediately after traumatic brain injury. It is characterised by a confused, agitated state and a pronounced inability to encode new memories and sustain attention. Clinically, post-traumatic amnesia is an important predictor of functional outcome. However, despite its prevalence and functional importance, the pathophysiology of post-traumatic amnesia is not understood. Memory processing relies on limbic structures such as the hippocampus, parahippocampus and parts of the cingulate cortex. These structures are connected within an intrinsic connectivity network, the Default Mode Network. Interactions within the Default Mode Network can be assessed using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging, which can be acquired in confused patients unable to perform tasks in the scanner. Here we used this approach to test the hypothesis that the mnemonic symptoms of post-traumatic amnesia are caused by functional disconnection within the Default Mode Network. We assessed whether the hippocampus and parahippocampus showed evidence of transient disconnection from cortical brain regions involved in memory processing. 19 traumatic brain injury patients were classified into post-traumatic amnesia and traumatic brain injury control groups, based on their performance on a paired associates learning task. Cognitive function was also assessed with a detailed neuropsychological test battery. Functional interactions between brain regions were investigated using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Together with impairments in associative memory patients in post-traumatic amnesia demonstrated impairments in information processing speed and spatial working memory. Patients in post-traumatic amnesia showed abnormal functional connectivity between the parahippocampal gyrus and posterior cingulate cortex. The strength of this functional connection correlated with both associative memory and information processing speed and normal
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