Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDyson School of Design Engineering

Research Postgraduate







Observatory BuildingDyson BuildingSouth Kensington Campus





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Farajzadeh Khosroshahi S, Duckworth H, Galvanetto U, Ghajari Met al., The effects of topology and relative density of lattice liners on traumatic brain injury mitigation, Journal of Biomechanics, ISSN: 0021-9290

This paper evaluates the effects of topology and relative density of helmet lattice liners on mitigating Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Finite element (FE) models of new lattice liners with prismatic and tetrahedral topologies were developed. A typical frontal head impact in motorcycle accidents was simulated, and linear and rotational accelerations of the head were recorded. A high-fidelity FE model of TBI was loaded with the accelerations to predict the brain response during the accident. The results show that prismatic lattices have better performance in preventing TBI than tetrahedral lattices and EPS that is typically used in helmets. Moreover, varying the cell size through the thickness of the liner improves its performance, but this effect was marginal. The relative density also has a significant effect, with lattices with lower relative densities providing a better protection. Across different lattices studied here, the prismatic lattice with a relative density of 6% had the best performance and reduced the peak linear and rotational accelerations, Head Injury Criterion (HIC), brain strain and strain rate by 48%, 37%, 49%, 32% and 65% respectively, compared to the EPS liner. These results can be used to guide the design of lattice helmet liners for better mitigation of TBI.

Journal article

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