Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDyson School of Design Engineering

Research Postgraduate







Observatory BuildingDyson BuildingSouth Kensington Campus





Publication Type

2 results found

Duckworth H, Sharp DJ, Ghajari M, 2021, Smoothed particle hydrodynamic modelling of the cerebrospinal fluid for brain biomechanics: accuracy and stability, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering, Vol: 37, ISSN: 1069-8299

The Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) can undergo shear deformations under head motions. Finite Element (FE) models, which are commonly used to simulate biomechanics of the brain, including traumatic brain injury, employ solid elements to represent the CSF. However, the limited number of elements paired with shear deformations in CSF can decrease the accuracy of their predictions. Large deformation problems can be accurately modelled using the mesh-free Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method, but there is limited previous work on using this method for modelling the CSF. Here we explored the stability and accuracy of key modelling parameters of an SPH model of the CSF when predicting relative brain/skull displacements in a simulation of an in vivo mild head impact in human. The Moving Least Squares (MLS) SPH formulation and Ogden rubber material model were found to be the most accurate and stable. The strain and strain rate in the brain differed across the SPH and FE models of CSF. The FE mesh anchored the gyri, preventing them from experiencing the level of strains seen in the in vivo brain experiments and predicted by the SPH model. Additionally, SPH showed higher levels of strains in the sulci compared to the FE model. However, tensile instability was found to be a key challenge of the SPH method, which needs to be addressed in future. Our study provides a detailed investigation of the use of SPH and shows its potential for improving the accuracy of computational models of brain biomechanics.

Journal article

Farajzadeh Khosroshahi S, Duckworth H, Galvanetto U, Ghajari Met al., 2019, The effects of topology and relative density of lattice liners on traumatic brain injury mitigation, Journal of Biomechanics, Vol: 97, ISSN: 0021-9290

This paper evaluates the effects of topology and relative density of helmet lattice liners on mitigating Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Finite element (FE) models of new lattice liners with prismatic and tetrahedral topologies were developed. A typical frontal head impact in motorcycle accidents was simulated, and linear and rotational accelerations of the head were recorded. A high-fidelity FE model of TBI was loaded with the accelerations to predict the brain response during the accident. The results show that prismatic lattices have better performance in preventing TBI than tetrahedral lattices and EPS that is typically used in helmets. Moreover, varying the cell size through the thickness of the liner improves its performance, but this effect was marginal. The relative density also has a significant effect, with lattices with lower relative densities providing a better protection. Across different lattices studied here, the prismatic lattice with a relative density of 6% had the best performance and reduced the peak linear and rotational accelerations, Head Injury Criterion (HIC), brain strain and strain rate by 48%, 37%, 49%, 32% and 65% respectively, compared to the EPS liner. These results can be used to guide the design of lattice helmet liners for better mitigation of TBI.

Journal article

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