92 results found
Clegg RG, Withall MS, Moore AW, et al., 2009, Challenges in the capture and dissemination of measurements from high-speed networks, IET COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 3, Pages: 957-966, ISSN: 1751-8628
Haddadi H, Guha S, Francis P, 2009, Not All Adware Is Badware: Towards Privacy-Aware Advertising, 9th IFIP International Conference on e-Business, e-Service and e-Society, Publisher: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, Pages: 161-172, ISSN: 1868-4238
Haddadi H, Fay D, Jamakovic A, et al., 2009, On the Importance of Local Connectivity for Internet Topology Models, 21st International Teletraffic Congress (ITC), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 177-184
Clegg RG, Landa R, Haddadi H, et al., 2009, Measuring the likelihood of models for network evolution, IEEE INFOCOM Conference 2009, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 272-+
Haddadi H, Fay D, Uhlig S, et al., 2008, Tuning topology generators using spectral distributions, SPEC International Performance Evaluation Workshop (SIPEW 2008), Publisher: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, Pages: 154-+, ISSN: 0302-9743
Haddadi H, Rio M, Iannaccone G, et al., 2008, NETWORK TOPOLOGIES: INFERENCE, MODELING, AND GENERATION, IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SURVEYS AND TUTORIALS, Vol: 10, Pages: 49-70, ISSN: 1553-877X
Haddadi H, Landa R, Moore AW, et al., 2008, Revisiting the Issues On Netflow Sample and Export Performance, 3rd International Conference on Communications and Networking in China, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 421-+
Britton M, Shum V, Sacks L, et al., 2005, A biologically-inspired approach to designing wireless sensor networks, 2nd European Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 256-266
Amar Y, Haddadi H, Mortier R, et al., An Analysis of Home IoT Network Traffic and Behaviour
Internet-connected devices are increasingly present in our homes, and privacybreaches, data thefts, and security threats are becoming commonplace. In orderto avoid these, we must first understand the behaviour of these devices. In this work, we analyse network traces from a testbed of common IoT devices,and describe general methods for fingerprinting their behavior. We then use theinformation and insights derived from this data to assess where privacy andsecurity risks manifest themselves, as well as how device behavior affectsbandwidth. We demonstrate simple measures that circumvent attempts at securingdevices and protecting privacy.
Mo F, Shamsabadi AS, Katevas K, et al., Towards Characterizing and Limiting Information Exposure in DNN Layers
Pre-trained Deep Neural Network (DNN) models are increasingly used insmartphones and other user devices to enable prediction services, leading topotential disclosures of (sensitive) information from training data capturedinside these models. Based on the concept of generalization error, we propose aframework to measure the amount of sensitive information memorized in eachlayer of a DNN. Our results show that, when considered individually, the lastlayers encode a larger amount of information from the training data compared tothe first layers. We find that, while the neuron of convolutional layers canexpose more (sensitive) information than that of fully connected layers, thesame DNN architecture trained with different datasets has similar exposure perlayer. We evaluate an architecture to protect the most sensitive layers withinthe memory limits of Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) against potentialwhite-box membership inference attacks without the significant computationaloverhead.
Malekzadeh M, Athanasakis D, Haddadi H, et al., Privacy-Preserving Bandits
Contextual bandit algorithms~(CBAs) often rely on personal data to providerecommendations. Centralized CBA agents utilize potentially sensitive data fromrecent interactions to provide personalization to end-users. Keeping thesensitive data locally, by running a local agent on the user's device, protectsthe user's privacy, however, the agent requires longer to produce usefulrecommendations, as it does not leverage feedback from other users. This paperproposes a technique we call Privacy-Preserving Bandits (P2B); a system thatupdates local agents by collecting feedback from other local agents in adifferentially-private manner. Comparisons of our proposed approach with anon-private, as well as a fully-private (local) system, show competitiveperformance on both synthetic benchmarks and real-world data. Specifically, weobserved only a decrease of 2.6% and 3.6% in multi-label classificationaccuracy, and a CTR increase of 0.0025 in online advertising for a privacybudget $\epsilon \approx 0.693$. These results suggest P2B is an effectiveapproach to challenges arising in on-device privacy-preserving personalization.
Katevas K, Bagdasaryan E, Waterman J, et al., Decentralized Policy-Based Private Analytics
We are increasingly surrounded by applications, connected devices, services,and smart environments which require fine-grained access to various personaldata. The inherent complexities of our personal and professional policies andpreferences in interactions with these analytics services raise importantchallenges in privacy. Moreover, due to sensitivity of the data and regulatoryand technical barriers, it is not always feasible to do these policynegotiations in a centralized manner. In this paper we present PoliBox, a decentralized, edge-based framework forpolicy-based personal data analytics. PoliBox brings together a number ofexisting established components to provide privacy-preserving analytics withina distributed setting. We evaluate our framework using a popular exemplar ofprivate analytics, Federated Learning, and demonstrate that for varying modelsizes and use cases, PoliBox is able to perform accurate model training and inference within veryreasonable resource and time budgets.
Osia SA, Shamsabadi AS, Taheri A, et al., Privacy-Preserving Deep Inference for Rich User Data on The Cloud
Deep neural networks are increasingly being used in a variety of machinelearning applications applied to rich user data on the cloud. However, thisapproach introduces a number of privacy and efficiency challenges, as the cloudoperator can perform secondary inferences on the available data. Recently,advances in edge processing have paved the way for more efficient, and private,data processing at the source for simple tasks and lighter models, though theyremain a challenge for larger, and more complicated models. In this paper, wepresent a hybrid approach for breaking down large, complex deep models forcooperative, privacy-preserving analytics. We do this by breaking down thepopular deep architectures and fine-tune them in a particular way. We thenevaluate the privacy benefits of this approach based on the information exposedto the cloud service. We also asses the local inference cost of differentlayers on a modern handset for mobile applications. Our evaluations show thatby using certain kind of fine-tuning and embedding techniques and at a smallprocessing costs, we can greatly reduce the level of information available tounintended tasks applied to the data feature on the cloud, and hence achievingthe desired tradeoff between privacy and performance.
Sajadmanesh S, Jafarzadeh S, Osia SA, et al., Kissing Cuisines: Exploring Worldwide Culinary Habits on the Web
Food and nutrition occupy an increasingly prevalent space on the web, anddishes and recipes shared online provide an invaluable mirror into culinarycultures and attitudes around the world. More specifically, ingredients,flavors, and nutrition information become strong signals of the tastepreferences of individuals and civilizations. However, there is littleunderstanding of these palate varieties. In this paper, we present alarge-scale study of recipes published on the web and their content, aiming tounderstand cuisines and culinary habits around the world. Using a database ofmore than 157K recipes from over 200 different cuisines, we analyzeingredients, flavors, and nutritional values which distinguish dishes fromdifferent regions, and use this knowledge to assess the predictability ofrecipes from different cuisines. We then use country health statistics tounderstand the relation between these factors and health indicators ofdifferent nations, such as obesity, diabetes, migration, and healthexpenditure. Our results confirm the strong effects of geographical andcultural similarities on recipes, health indicators, and culinary preferencesacross the globe.
Nithyanand R, Khattak S, Javed M, et al., Ad-Blocking and Counter Blocking: A Slice of the Arms Race
Adblocking tools like Adblock Plus continue to rise in popularity,potentially threatening the dynamics of advertising revenue streams. Inresponse, a number of publishers have ramped up efforts to develop and deploymechanisms for detecting and/or counter-blocking adblockers (which we refer toas anti-adblockers), effectively escalating the online advertising arms race.In this paper, we develop a scalable approach for identifying third-partyservices shared across multiple web-sites and use it to provide a firstcharacterization of anti-adblocking across the Alexa Top-5K websites. We mapwebsites that perform anti-adblocking as well as the entities that provideanti-adblocking scripts. We study the modus operandi of these scripts and theirimpact on popular adblockers. We find that at least 6.7% of websites in theAlexa Top-5K use anti-adblocking scripts, acquired from 12 distinct entities --some of which have a direct interest in nourishing the online advertisingindustry.
Haddadi H, Fay D, Jamakovic A, et al., Beyond Node Degree: Evaluating AS Topology Models
Many models have been proposed to generate Internet Autonomous System (AS)topologies, most of which make structural assumptions about the AS graph. Inthis paper we compare AS topology generation models with several observed AStopologies. In contrast to most previous works, we avoid making assumptionsabout which topological properties are important to characterize the AStopology. Our analysis shows that, although matching degree-based properties,the existing AS topology generation models fail to capture the complexity ofthe local interconnection structure between ASs. Furthermore, we use BGP datafrom multiple vantage points to show that additional measurement locationssignificantly affect local structure properties, such as clustering and nodecentrality. Degree-based properties, however, are not notably affected byadditional measurements locations. These observations are particularly valid inthe core. The shortcomings of AS topology generation models stems from anunderestimation of the complexity of the connectivity in the core caused byinappropriate use of BGP data.
Fay D, Haddadi H, Seto MC, et al., An exploration of fetish social networks and communities
Online Social Networks (OSNs) provide a venue for virtual interactions andrelationships between individuals. In some communities, OSNs also facilitatearranging online meetings and relationships. FetLife, the worlds largestanonymous social network for the BDSM, fetish and kink communities, provides aunique example of an OSN that serves as an interaction space, communityorganizing tool, and sexual market. In this paper, we present a first look atthe characteristics of European members of Fetlife, comprising 504,416individual nodes with 1,912,196 connections. We looked at user characteristicsin terms of gender, sexual orientation, and preferred role. We further examinedthe topological and structural properties of groups, as well as the type ofinteractions and relations between their members. Our results suggest there areimportant differences between the FetLife community and conventional OSNs. Thenetwork can be characterised by complex gender based interactions both from asexual market and platonic viewpoint which point to a truly fascinating socialnetwork.
Haddadi H, Howard H, Chaudhry A, et al., Personal Data: Thinking Inside the Box
We propose there is a need for a technical platform enabling people to engagewith the collection, management and consumption of personal data; and that thisplatform should itself be personal, under the direct control of the individualwhose data it holds. In what follows, we refer to this platform as the Databox,a personal, networked service that collates personal data and can be used tomake those data available. While your Databox is likely to be a virtualplatform, in that it will involve multiple devices and services, at least oneinstance of it will exist in physical form such as on a physical form-factorcomputing device with associated storage and networking, such as a home hub.
Mortier R, Haddadi H, Henderson T, et al., Human-Data Interaction: The Human Face of the Data-Driven Society
The increasing generation and collection of personal data has created acomplex ecosystem, often collaborative but sometimes combative, aroundcompanies and individuals engaging in the use of these data. We propose thatthe interactions between these agents warrants a new topic of study: Human-DataInteraction (HDI). In this paper we discuss how HDI sits at the intersection ofvarious disciplines, including computer science, statistics, sociology,psychology and behavioural economics. We expose the challenges that HDI raises,organised into three core themes of legibility, agency and negotiability, andwe present the HDI agenda to open up a dialogue amongst interested parties inthe personal and big data ecosystems.
Haddadi H, Ofli F, Mejova Y, et al., 360 Quantified Self
Wearable devices with a wide range of sensors have contributed to the rise ofthe Quantified Self movement, where individuals log everything ranging from thenumber of steps they have taken, to their heart rate, to their sleepingpatterns. Sensors do not, however, typically sense the social and ambientenvironment of the users, such as general life style attributes or informationabout their social network. This means that the users themselves, and themedical practitioners, privy to the wearable sensor data, only have a narrowview of the individual, limited mainly to certain aspects of their physicalcondition. In this paper we describe a number of use cases for how social media can beused to complement the check-up data and those from sensors to gain a moreholistic view on individuals' health, a perspective we call the 360 QuantifiedSelf. Health-related information can be obtained from sources as diverse asfood photo sharing, location check-ins, or profile pictures. Additionally,information from a person's ego network can shed light on the social dimensionof wellbeing which is widely acknowledged to be of utmost importance, eventhough they are currently rarely used for medical diagnosis. We articulate along-term vision describing the desirable list of technical advances andvariety of data to achieve an integrated system encompassing Electronic HealthRecords (EHR), data from wearable devices, alongside information derived fromsocial media data.
Clegg RG, Haddadi H, Landa R, et al., Towards Informative Statistical Flow Inversion
A problem which has recently attracted research attention is that ofestimating the distribution of flow sizes in internet traffic. On high trafficlinks it is sometimes impossible to record every packet. Researchers haveapproached the problem of estimating flow lengths from sampled packet data intwo separate ways. Firstly, different sampling methodologies can be tried tomore accurately measure the desired system parameters. One such method is thesample-and-hold method where, if a packet is sampled, all subsequent packets inthat flow are sampled. Secondly, statistical methods can be used to ``invert''the sampled data and produce an estimate of flow lengths from a sample. In this paper we propose, implement and test two variants on thesample-and-hold method. In addition we show how the sample-and-hold method canbe inverted to get an estimation of the genuine distribution of flow sizes.Experiments are carried out on real network traces to compare standard packetsampling with three variants of sample-and-hold. The methods are compared fortheir ability to reconstruct the genuine distribution of flow sizes in thetraffic.
Mejova Y, Abbar S, Haddadi H, Fetishizing Food in Digital Age: #foodporn Around the World
What food is so good as to be considered pornographic? Worldwide, the popular#foodporn hashtag has been used to share appetizing pictures of peoples'favorite culinary experiences. But social scientists ask whether #foodpornpromotes an unhealthy relationship with food, as pornography would contributeto an unrealistic view of sexuality. In this study, we examine nearly 10million Instagram posts by 1.7 million users worldwide. An overwhelming (anduniform across the nations) obsession with chocolate and cake shows thedomination of sugary dessert over local cuisines. Yet, we find encouragingtraits in the association of emotion and health-related topics with #foodporn,suggesting food can serve as motivation for a healthy lifestyle. Socialapproval also favors the healthy posts, with users posting with healthyhashtags having an average of 1,000 more followers than those with unhealthyones. Finally, we perform a demographic analysis which shows nation-wide trendsof behavior, such as a strong relationship (r=0.51) between the GDP per capitaand the attention to healthiness of their favorite food. Our results expose anew facet of food "pornography", revealing potential avenues for utilizing thisprecarious notion for promoting healthy lifestyles.
Hänsel K, Wilde N, Haddadi H, et al., Wearable Computing for Health and Fitness: Exploring the Relationship between Data and Human Behaviour
Health and fitness wearable technology has recently advanced, making iteasier for an individual to monitor their behaviours. Previously self generateddata interacts with the user to motivate positive behaviour change, but issuesarise when relating this to long term mention of wearable devices. Previousstudies within this area are discussed. We also consider a new approach wheredata is used to support instead of motivate, through monitoring and logging toencourage reflection. Based on issues highlighted, we then make recommendationson the direction in which future work could be most beneficial.
Falahrastegar M, Haddadi H, Uhlig S, et al., Anatomy of the Third-Party Web Tracking Ecosystem
The presence of third-party tracking on websites has become customary.However, our understanding of the third-party ecosystem is still veryrudimentary. We examine third-party trackers from a geographical perspective,observing the third-party tracking ecosystem from 29 countries across theglobe. When examining the data by region (North America, South America, Europe,East Asia, Middle East, and Oceania), we observe significant geographicalvariation between regions and countries within regions. We find trackers thatfocus on specific regions and countries, and some that are hosted in countriesoutside their expected target tracking domain. Given the differences inregulatory regimes between jurisdictions, we believe this analysis sheds lighton the geographical properties of this ecosystem and on the problems that thesemay pose to our ability to track and manage the different data silos that nowstore personal data about us all.
Mejova Y, Haddadi H, Noulas A, et al., #FoodPorn: Obesity Patterns in Culinary Interactions
We present a large-scale analysis of Instagram pictures taken at 164,753restaurants by millions of users. Motivated by the obesity epidemic in theUnited States, our aim is three-fold: (i) to assess the relationship betweenfast food and chain restaurants and obesity, (ii) to better understand people'sthoughts on and perceptions of their daily dining experiences, and (iii) toreveal the nature of social reinforcement and approval in the context ofdietary health on social media. When we correlate the prominence of fast foodrestaurants in US counties with obesity, we find the Foursquare data to show agreater correlation at 0.424 than official survey data from the County HealthRankings would show. Our analysis further reveals a relationship between smallbusinesses and local foods with better dietary health, with such restaurantsgetting more attention in areas of lower obesity. However, even in such areas,social approval favors the unhealthy foods high in sugar, with donut shopsproducing the most liked photos. Thus, the dietary landscape our study revealsis a complex ecosystem, with fast food playing a role alongside socialinteractions and personal perceptions, which often may be at odds.
Haris M, Haddadi H, Hui P, Privacy Leakage in Mobile Computing: Tools, Methods, and Characteristics
The number of smartphones, tablets, sensors, and connected wearable devicesare rapidly increasing. Today, in many parts of the globe, the penetration ofmobile computers has overtaken the number of traditional personal computers.This trend and the always-on nature of these devices have resulted inincreasing concerns over the intrusive nature of these devices and the privacyrisks that they impose on users or those associated with them. In this paper,we survey the current state of the art on mobile computing research, focusingon privacy risks and data leakage effects. We then discuss a number of methods,recommendations, and ongoing research in limiting the privacy leakages andassociated risks by mobile computing.
Haddadi H, Smaragdakis G, Ramakrishnan KK, Opportunities in a Federated Cloud Marketplace
Recent measurement studies show that there are massively distributed hostingand computing infrastructures deployed in the Internet. Such infrastructuresinclude large data centers and organizations' computing clusters. When idle,these resources can readily serve local users. Such users can be smartphone ortablet users wishing to access services such as remote desktop or CPU/bandwidthintensive activities. Particularly, when they are likely to have high latencyto access, or may have no access at all to, centralized cloud providers. Today,however, there is no global marketplace where sellers and buyers of availableresources can trade. The recently introduced marketplaces of Amazon and othercloud infrastructures are limited by the network footprint of their owninfrastructures and availability of such services in the target country andregion. In this article we discuss the potentials for a federated cloudmarketplace where sellers and buyers of a number of resources, includingstorage, computing, and network bandwidth, can freely trade. This ecosystem canbe regulated through brokers who act as service level monitors and auctioneers.We conclude by discussing the challenges and opportunities in this space.
Mandalari AM, Kolcun R, Haddadi H, et al., Towards Automatic Identification and Blocking of Non-Critical IoT Traffic Destinations
The consumer Internet of Things (IoT) space has experienced a significantrise in popularity in the recent years. From smart speakers, to baby monitors,and smart kettles and TVs, these devices are increasingly found in householdsaround the world while users may be unaware of the risks associated with owningthese devices. Previous work showed that these devices can threatenindividuals' privacy and security by exposing information online to a largenumber of service providers and third party analytics services. Our analysisshows that many of these Internet connections (and the information they expose)are neither critical, nor even essential to the operation of these devices.However, automatically separating out critical from non-critical networktraffic for an IoT device is nontrivial, and requires expert analysis based onmanual experimentation in a controlled setting. In this paper, we investigatewhether it is possible to automatically classify network traffic destinationsas either critical (essential for devices to function properly) or not, henceallowing the home gateway to act as a selective firewall to block undesired,non-critical destinations. Our initial results demonstrate that some IoTdevices contact destinations that are not critical to their operation, andthere is no impact on device functionality if these destinations are blocked.We take the first steps towards designing and evaluating IoTrimmer, a frameworkfor automated testing and analysis of various destinations contacted bydevices, and selectively blocking the ones that do not impact devicefunctionality.
Silina Y, Haddadi H, The Distant Heart: Mediating Long-Distance Relationships through Connected Computational Jewelry
In the world where increasingly mobility and long-distance relationships withfamily, friends and loved-ones became commonplace, there exists a gap inintimate interpersonal communication mediated by technology. Considering theadvances in the field of mediation of relationships through technology, as wellas prevalence of use of jewelry as love-tokens for expressing a wish to beremembered and to evoke the presence of the loved-one, developments in the newfield of computational jewelry offer some truly exciting possibilities. In thispaper we investigate the role that the jewelry-like form factor of prototypescan play in the context of studying effects of computational jewelry inmediating long-distance relationships.
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