77 results found
LaMoury AT, Hietala H, Plaschke F, et al., 2021, Solar Wind Control of Magnetosheath Jet Formation and Propagation to the Magnetopause, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, ISSN: 2169-9380
Vuorinen L, Hietala H, Plaschke F, et al., 2021, Magnetic Field in Magnetosheath Jets: A Statistical Study of B Z Near the Magnetopause, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol: 126, ISSN: 2169-9380
Desai RT, Freeman M, Eastwood J, et al., 2021, Interplanetary shock-induced magnetopause motion: Comparison between theory and global magnetohydrodynamic simulations, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol: 48, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 0094-8276
The magnetopause marks the outer edge of the Earth’s magnetosphere and a distinct boundary between solar wind and magnetospheric plasma populations. In this letter, we use global magneto-hydrodynamic simulations to examine the response of the terrestrial magnetopause to fast-forward interplanetary shocks of various strengths and compare to theoretical predictions. The theory and simulations indicate the magnetopause response can be characterised by three distinct phases; an initial acceleration as inertial forces are overcome, a rapid compressive phase comprising the majority of the distance travelled, and large-scale damped oscillations with amplitudes of the order of an Earth radius. The two approaches agree in predicting subsolar magnetopause oscillations with frequencies2–13 mHz but the simulations notably predict larger amplitudes and weaker damping rates. This phenomenon is of high relevance to space weather forecasting and provides a possible explanation for magnetopause oscillations observed following the large interplanetary shocks of August 1972 and March 1991.
Runov A, Grandin M, Palmroth M, et al., 2021, Ion distribution functions in magnetotail reconnection: global hybrid-Vlasov simulation results, ANNALES GEOPHYSICAE, Vol: 39, Pages: 599-612, ISSN: 0992-7689
Woodham L, Horbury T, Matteini L, et al., 2021, Enhanced proton parallel temperature inside patches of switchbacks in the inner heliosphere, Astronomy and Astrophysics: a European journal, Vol: 650, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 0004-6361
Context. Switchbacks are discrete angular deflections in the solar wind magnetic field that have been observed throughout the helio-sphere. Recent observations by Parker Solar Probe(PSP) have revealed the presence of patches of switchbacks on the scale of hours to days, separated by ‘quieter’ radial fields. Aims. We aim to further diagnose the origin of these patches using measurements of proton temperature anisotropy that can illuminate possible links to formation processes in the solar corona. Methods. We fit 3D bi-Maxwellian functions to the core of proton velocity distributions measured by the SPAN-Ai instrument onboard PSP to obtain the proton parallel, Tp,‖, and perpendicular, Tp,⊥, temperature. Results. We show that the presence of patches is highlighted by a transverse deflection in the flow and magnetic field away from the radial direction. These deflections are correlated with enhancements in Tp,‖, while Tp,⊥remains relatively constant. Patches sometimes exhibit small proton and electron density enhancements. Conclusions. We interpret that patches are not simply a group of switchbacks, but rather switchbacks are embedded within a larger-scale structure identified by enhanced Tp,‖that is distinct from the surrounding solar wind. We suggest that these observations are consistent with formation by reconnection-associated mechanisms in the corona.
Omelchenko YA, Roytershteyn V, Chen L-J, et al., 2021, HYPERS simulations of solar wind interactions with the Earth's magnetosphere and the Moon, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar: Terrestrial Physics, Vol: 215, ISSN: 1364-6826
The hybrid simulations, where the ions are treated kinetically and the electrons as a fluid, seek to describe ion microphysics with maximum physical fidelity. The hybrid approach addresses the fundamental need for space plasma models to incorporate physics beyond magnetohydrodynamics. Global hybrid simulations must account for a wide range of both kinetic ion and whistler/Alfvén wave spatio-temporal scales in strongly inhomogeneous plasmas. We present results from two three-dimensional hybrid simulations performed with a novel asynchronous code, HYPERS designed to overcome computational bottlenecks that typically arise in such multiscale simulations. First, we demonstrate an excellent match between simulated lunar wake profiles and observations. We also compare our simulations with two other simulations performed with conventional (time-stepped) hybrid codes. Second, we investigate the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's dayside magnetosphere under conditions when the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field is quasi-radial. In this high-resolution simulation we highlight three-dimensional properties of foreshock perturbations formed by the backstreaming ions.
Turner DL, Wilson LB, Goodrich KA, et al., 2021, Direct multipoint observations capturing the reformation of a supercritical fast magnetosonic shock, The Astrophysical Journal Letters, Vol: 911, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 2041-8205
Using multipoint Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) observations in an unusual string-of-pearls configuration, we examine in detail observations of the reformation of a fast magnetosonic shock observed on the upstream edge of a foreshock transient structure upstream of Earth's bow shock. The four MMS spacecraft were separated by several hundred kilometers, comparable to suprathermal ion gyroradius scales or several ion inertial lengths. At least half of the shock reformation cycle was observed, with a new shock ramp rising up out of the "foot" region of the original shock ramp. Using the multipoint observations, we convert the observed time-series data into distance along the shock normal in the shock's rest frame. That conversion allows for a unique study of the relative spatial scales of the shock's various features, including the shock's growth rate, and how they evolve during the reformation cycle. Analysis indicates that the growth rate increases during reformation, electron-scale physics play an important role in the shock reformation, and energy conversion processes also undergo the same cyclical periodicity as reformation. Strong, thin electron-kinetic-scale current sheets and large-amplitude electrostatic and electromagnetic waves are reported. Results highlight the critical cross-scale coupling between electron-kinetic- and ion-kinetic-scale processes and details of the nature of nonstationarity, shock-front reformation at collisionless, fast magnetosonic shocks.
Robertson SL, Eastwood JP, Stawarz JE, et al., 2021, Electron trapping in magnetic mirror structures at the edge of magnetopause flux ropes, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol: 126, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 2169-9380
Flux ropes are a proposed site for particle energization during magnetic reconnection, with several mechanisms proposed. Here, Magnetospheric Multiscale mission observations of magnetic mirror structures on the edge of two ion‐scale magnetopause flux ropes are presented. Donut‐shaped features in the electron pitch angle distributions provide evidence for electron trapping in the structures. Furthermore, both events show trapping with extended 3D structure along the body of the flux rope. Potential formation mechanisms, such as the magnetic mirror instability, are examined and the evolutionary states of the structures are compared. Pressure and force analysis suggest that such structures could provide an important electron acceleration mechanism for magnetopause flux ropes, and for magnetic reconnection more generally.
Chen Y, Toth G, Hietala H, et al., 2020, Magnetohydrodynamic with embedded particle‐in‐cell simulation of the Geospace Environment Modeling dayside kinetic processes challenge event, Earth and Space Science, Vol: 7, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 2333-5084
We use the MHD with embedded particle‐in‐cell model (MHD‐EPIC) to study the Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) dayside kinetic processes challenge event at 01:50‐03:00 UT on 2015‐11‐18, when the magnetosphere was driven by a steady southward IMF. In the MHD‐EPIC simulation, the dayside magnetopause is covered by a PIC code so that the dayside reconnection is properly handled. We compare the magnetic fields and the plasma profiles of the magnetopause crossing with the MMS3 spacecraft observations. Most variables match the observations well in the magnetosphere, in the magnetosheath, and also during the current sheet crossing. The MHD‐EPIC simulation produces flux ropes, and we demonstrate that some magnetic field and plasma features observed by the MMS3 spacecraft can be reproduced by a flux rope crossing event. We use an algorithm to automatically identify the reconnection sites from the simulation results. It turns out that there are usually multiple X‐lines at the magnetopause. By tracing the locations of the X‐lines, we find the typical moving speed of the X‐line endpoints is about 70~km/s, which is higher than but still comparable with the ground‐based observations.
Plaschke F, Hietala H, Vörös Z, 2020, Scale sizes of magnetosheath jets, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol: 125, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 2169-9380
Magnetosheath jets are plasma entities that feature a significantly enhanced dynamic pressure with respect to the ambient plasma. They occur more often downstream of the quasi‐parallel bow shock. Jets can propagate through the entire magnetosheath and impact on the magnetopause. We reanalyze multi‐spacecraft data from the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) mission to obtain the first unbiased distributions of scale sizes of the jets, in the directions parallel and perpendicular to their propagation direction. These distributions are log‐normal; they fit well to the observations. We argue that jet scales should be log‐normally distributed as they should result from multiplicative processes in the foreshock and in the magnetosheath. We find that typical jet scales are on the order of 0.1 Earth radii (RE), one order of magnitude smaller than previously reported. Median scale sizes of 0.12 RE and 0.15 RE in the perpendicular and parallel directions are obtained. The small scales may be related to the substructure of Short Large Amplitude Magnetic Structures (SLAMS) in the foreshock, or to the break up of larger jets within the magnetosheath. Use of the log‐normal distributions also allows for an analysis of impact rates of small‐scale jets: While previous results on large jets hitting the magnetopause several times per hour remain largely unchanged, we now find that hundreds to thousands of mostly small‐scale jets could potentially impact the dayside magnetopause every hour.
Liu TZ, Hietala H, Angelopoulos V, et al., 2020, Electron acceleration by magnetosheath jet‐driven bow waves, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol: 125, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2169-9380
Magnetosheath jets are localized fast flows with enhanced dynamic pressure. When they supermagnetosonically compress the ambient magnetosheath plasma, a bow wave or shock can form ahead of them. Such a bow wave was recently observed to accelerate ions and possibly electrons. The ion acceleration process was previously analyzed, but the electron acceleration process remains largely unexplored. Here we use multi‐point observations by Time History of Events and Macroscale during Substorms from three events to determine whether and how magnetosheath jet‐driven bow waves can accelerate electrons. We show that when suprathermal electrons in the ambient magnetosheath convect towards a bow wave, some electrons are shock‐drift accelerated and reflected towards the ambient magnetosheath and others continue moving downstream of the bow wave resulting in bi‐directional motion. Our study indicates that magnetosheath jet‐driven bow waves can result in additional energization of suprathermal electrons in the magnetosheath. It implies that magnetosheath jets can increase the efficiency of electron acceleration at planetary bow shocks or other similar astrophysical environments.
Liu TZ, Hietala H, Angelopoulos V, et al., 2020, Statistical study of magnetosheath jet‐driven bow waves, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol: 125, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2169-9380
When a magnetosheath jet (localized dynamic pressure enhancements) compresses ambient magnetosheath at a (relative) speed faster than the local magnetosonic speed, a bow wave or shock can form ahead of the jet. Such bow waves or shocks were recently observed to accelerate particles, thus contributing to magnetosheath heating and particle acceleration in the extended environment of Earth’s bow shock. To further understand the characteristics of jet‐driven bow waves, we perform a statistical study to examine which solar wind conditions favor their formation and whether it is common for them to accelerate particles. We identified 364 out of 2859 (~13%) magnetosheath jets to have a bow wave or shock ahead of them with Mach number typically larger than 1.1. We show that large solar wind plasma beta, weak interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) strength, large solar wind Alfvén Mach number, and strong solar wind dynamic pressure present favorable conditions for their formation. We also show that magnetosheath jets with bow waves or shocks are more frequently associated with higher maximum ion and electron energies than those without them, confirming that it is common for these structures to accelerate particles. In particular, magnetosheath jets with bow waves have electron energy flux enhanced on average by a factor of 2 compared to both those without bow waves and the ambient magnetosheath. Our study implies that magnetosheath jets can contribute to shock acceleration of particles especially for high Mach number shocks. Therefore, shock models should be generalized to include magnetosheath jets and concomitant particle acceleration.
Oleynik P, Vainio R, Punkkinen A, et al., 2020, Calibration of RADMON radiation monitor onboard Aalto-1 CubeSat, Advances in Space Research, Vol: 66, Pages: 42-51, ISSN: 0273-1177
Gieseler J, Oleynik P, Hietala H, et al., 2020, Radiation monitor RADMON aboard Aalto-1 CubeSat: First results, Advances in Space Research, Vol: 66, Pages: 52-65, ISSN: 0273-1177
Dimmock AP, Hietala H, Zou Y, 2020, Compiling magnetosheath statistical data sets under specific solar wind conditions: lessons learnt from the dayside kinetic southward IMF GEM challenge, Earth and Space Science, Vol: 7, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2333-5084
The Geospace Environmental Modelling (GEM) community offers a framework for collaborations between modelers, observers, and theoreticians in the form of regular challenges. In many cases, these challenges involve model‐data comparisons to provide wider context to observations or validate model results. To perform meaningful comparisons, a statistical approach is often adopted, which requires the extraction of a large number of measurements from a specific region. However, in complex regions such as the magnetosheath, compiling these data can be difficult. Here, we provide the statistical context of compiling statistical data for the southward IMF GEM challenge initiated by the “Dayside Kinetic Processes in Global Solar Wind‐Magnetosphere Interaction” focus group. It is shown that matching very specific upstream conditions can severely impact the statistical data if limits are imposed on several solar wind parameters. We suggest that future studies that wish to compare simulations and/or single events to statistical data should carefully consider at an early stage the availability of data in context with the upstream criteria. We also demonstrate the importance of how specific IMF conditions are defined, the chosen spacecraft, the region of interest, and how regions are identified automatically. The lessons learnt in this study are of wide context to many future studies as well as GEM challenges. The results also highlight the issue where a global statistical perspective has to be balanced with its relevance to more‐extreme, less‐frequent individual events, which is typically the case in the field of space weather.
Plaschke F, Jernej M, Hietala H, et al., 2020, On the alignment of velocity and magnetic fields within magnetosheath jets, Annales Geophysicae: atmospheres, hydrospheres and space sciences, Vol: 38, Pages: 287-296, ISSN: 0992-7689
Jets in the subsolar magnetosheath are localized enhancements in dynamic pressure that are able to propagate all the way from the bow shock to the magnetopause. Due to their excess velocity with respect to their environment, they push slower ambient plasma out of their way, creating a vortical plasma motion in and around them. Simulations and case study results suggest that jets also modify the magnetic field in the magnetosheath on their passage, aligning it more with their velocity. Based on Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) jet observations and corresponding superposed epoch analyses of the angles ϕ between the velocity and magnetic fields, we can confirm that this suggestion is correct. However, while the alignment is more significant for faster than for slower jets, and for jets observed close to the bow shock, the overall effect is small: typically, reductions in ϕ of around 10∘ are observed at jet core regions, where the jets' velocities are largest. Furthermore, time series of ϕ pertaining to individual jets significantly deviate from the superposed epoch analysis results. They usually exhibit large variations over the entire range of ϕ: 0 to 90∘. This variability is commonly somewhat larger within jets than outside them, masking the systematic decrease in ϕ at core regions of individual jets.
Haaland S, Paschmann G, Øieroset M, et al., 2020, Characteristics of the flank magnetopause: MMS results, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol: 125, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2169-9380
We have used a large number of magnetopause crossings by the Magnetospheric Multi Spacecraft (MMS) mission to investigate macroscopic properties of this current sheet, with emphasis on the flanks of the magnetopause. Macroscopic features such as thickness, location and motion of the magnetopause were calculated as a function of local time sector. The results show that the flanks of the magnetopause are significantly thicker than the dayside magnetopause. Thicknesses vary from about 650 km near noon to over 1000 km near the terminator. Current densities varies in a similar manner, with average current densities around noon almost twice as high as near the terminator. We also find a dawn‐dusk asymmetry in many of the macroscopic parameters; The dawn magnetopause is thicker than at dusk, while the dusk flank is more dynamic, with a higher average normal velocity.
Hietala H, Dimmock AP, Zou Y, et al., 2020, The challenges and rewards of running a geospace environment modeling challenge, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol: 125, Pages: 1-5, ISSN: 2169-9380
Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) is a community‐driven, National Science Foundation‐sponsored research program investigating the physics of the Earth's magnetosphere and its coupling to the solar wind and the atmosphere. This commentary provides an introduction to a Special Issue collating recent studies related to a GEM Challenge on kinetic plasma processes in the dayside magnetosphere during southward interplanetary magnetic field conditions. We also recount our experiences of organizing such a collaborative activity, where modelers and observers compare their results, that is, of the human side of bringing researchers together. We give suggestions on planning, managing, funding, and documenting these activities, which provide valuable opportunities to advance the field.
Vuorinen L, Hietala H, Plaschke F, 2019, Jets in the magnetosheath: IMF control of where they occur, ANNALES GEOPHYSICAE, Vol: 37, Pages: 689-697, ISSN: 0992-7689
Liu TZ, Hietala H, Angelopoulos V, et al., 2019, THEMIS Observations of Particle Acceleration by a Magnetosheath Jet-Driven Bow Wave, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, Vol: 46, Pages: 7929-7936, ISSN: 0094-8276
Palmroth M, Praks J, Vainio R, et al., 2019, FORESAIL-1 CubeSat Mission to Measure Radiation Belt Losses and Demonstrate Deorbiting, JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS, Vol: 124, Pages: 5783-5799
Kilpua EKJ, Turner DL, Jaynes AN, et al., 2019, Outer Van Allen Radiation Belt Response to Interacting Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejectionsy, JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS, Vol: 124, Pages: 1927-1947, ISSN: 2169-9380
Archer MO, Hietala H, Hartinger MD, et al., 2019, Direct observations of a surface eigenmode of the dayside magnetopause, Nature Communications, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2041-1723
The abrupt boundary between a magnetosphere and the surrounding plasma, the magnetopause, has long been known to support surface waves. It was proposed that impulses acting on the boundary might lead to a trapping of these waves on the dayside by the ionosphere, resulting in a standing wave or eigenmode of the magnetopause surface. No direct observational evidence of this has been found to date and searches for indirect evidence have proved inconclusive, leading to speculation that this mechanism might not occur. By using fortuitous multipoint spacecraft observations during a rare isolated fast plasma jet impinging on the boundary, here we show that the resulting magnetopause motion and magnetospheric ultra-low frequency waves at well-defined frequencies are in agreement with and can only be explained by the magnetopause surface eigenmode. We therefore show through direct observations that this mechanism, which should impact upon the magnetospheric system globally, does in fact occur.
Turner DL, Kilpua EKJ, Hietala H, et al., 2019, The Response of Earth's Electron Radiation Belts to Geomagnetic Storms: Statistics From the Van Allen Probes Era Including Effects From Different Storm Drivers, JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS, Vol: 124, Pages: 1013-1034, ISSN: 2169-9380
Palmroth M, Hietala H, Plaschke F, et al., 2018, Magnetosheath jet properties and evolution as determined by a global hybrid-Vlasov simulation, Annales Geophysicae: atmospheres, hydrospheres and space sciences, Vol: 36, Pages: 1171-1182, ISSN: 0992-7689
Abstract. We use a global hybrid-Vlasov simulation for the magnetosphere, Vlasiator, to investigate magnetosheath high-speed jets. Unlike many other hybrid-kinetic simulations, Vlasiator includes an unscaled geomagnetic dipole, indicating that the simulation spatial and temporal dimensions can be given without scaling. Thus, for the first time, this allows investigating the magnetosheath jet properties and comparing them directly with the observed jets within the Earth's magnetosheath. In the run shown in this paper, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) cone angle is 30°, and a foreshock develops upstream of the quasi-parallel magnetosheath. We visually detect a structure with high dynamic pressure propagating from the bow shock towards the magnetopause. The structure is confirmed as a jet using three different criteria, which have been adopted in previous observational studies. We compare these criteria against the simulation results. We find that the magnetosheath jet is an elongated structure extending Earthward of the bow shock by ~ 2.3 RE, while its size perpendicular to the direction of propagation is ~ 0.5 RE. We also investigate the jet evolution, and find that the jet originates due to the interaction of the foreshock Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves with the bow shock surface. The simulation shows that magnetosheath jets can develop also under steady IMF, as inferred by observational studies.
Wang B, Nishimura Y, Hietala H, et al., 2018, Dayside Magnetospheric and Ionospheric Responses to a Foreshock Transient on 25 June 2008: 2. 2-D Evolution Based on Dayside Auroral Imaging, JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS, Vol: 123, Pages: 6347-6359, ISSN: 2169-9380
The magnetosheath flow may take the form of large amplitude, yet spatially localized, transient increases in dynamic pressure, known as “magnetosheath jets” or “plasmoids” among other denominations. Here, we describe the present state of knowledge with respect to such jets, which are a very common phenomenon downstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock. We discuss their properties as determined by satellite observations (based on both case and statistical studies), their occurrence, their relation to solar wind and foreshock conditions, and their interaction with and impact on the magnetosphere. As carriers of plasma and corresponding momentum, energy, and magnetic flux, jets bear some similarities to bursty bulk flows, which they are compared to. Based on our knowledge of jets in the near Earth environment, we discuss the expectations for jets occurring in other planetary and astrophysical environments. We conclude with an outlook, in which a number of open questions are posed and future challenges in jet research are discussed.
Wang B, Nishimura Y, Hietala H, et al., 2018, Impacts of Magnetosheath High-Speed Jets on the Magnetosphere and Ionosphere Measured by Optical Imaging and Satellite Observations, JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS, Vol: 123, Pages: 4879-4894, ISSN: 2169-9380
Plaschke F, Hietala H, 2018, Plasma flow patterns in and around magnetosheath jets, ANNALES GEOPHYSICAE, Vol: 36, Pages: 695-703, ISSN: 0992-7689
Karlsson T, Plaschke F, Hietala H, et al., 2018, Investigating the anatomy of magnetosheath jets - MMS observations, ANNALES GEOPHYSICAE, Vol: 36, Pages: 655-677, ISSN: 0992-7689
We use Magnetosphere Multiscale (MMS) mission data to investigate a small number of magnetosheath jets, which are localized and transient increases in dynamic pressure, typically due to a combined increase in plasma velocity and density. For two approximately hour-long intervals in November, 2015 we found six jets, which are of two distinct types. (a) Two of the jets are associated with the magnetic field discontinuities at the boundary between the quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular magnetosheath. Straddling the boundary, the leading part of these jets contains an ion population similar to the quasi-parallel magnetosheath, while the trailing part contains ion populations similar to the quasi-perpendicular magnetosheath. Both populations are, however, cooler than the surrounding ion populations. These two jets also have clear increases in plasma density and magnetic field strength, correlated with a velocity increase. (b) Three of the jets are found embedded within the quasi-parallel magnetosheath. They contain ion populations similar to the surrounding quasi-parallel magnetosheath, but with a lower temperature. Out of these three jets, two have a simple structure. For these two jets, the increases in density and magnetic field strength are correlated with the dynamic pressure increases. The other jet has a more complicated structure, and no clear correlations between density, magnetic field strength and dynamic pressure. This jet has likely interacted with the magnetosphere, and contains ions similar to the jets inside the quasi-parallel magnetosheath, but shows signs of adiabatic heating. All jets are associated with emissions of whistler, lower hybrid, and broadband electrostatic waves, as well as approximately 10 s period electromagnetic waves with a compressional component. The latter have a Poynting flux of up to 40 µW m−2 and may be energetically important for the evolution of the jets, depending on the wave excitation mechanism. Only one of th
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